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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471494/morphological-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-tea-cultivars-to-empoasca-onukii-hemiptera-cicadellidae-infestation
#1
Yueyue Tian, Yunhe Zhao, Lixia Zhang, Wei Mu, Zhengqun Zhang
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an economically important pest of tea crops, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Ericales: Theaceae), in China. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes of two tea cultivars, the normal green tea cultivar 'Fudingdabai' and the novel chlorophyll-deficient albino cultivar 'Huangjinya', infested by E. onukii were investigated to determine the tolerance of different tea cultivars to E. onukii attack. E.onukii infestation affected the growth of tea plants, and decreased the shoot length, leaf area, leaf thickness, and stem diameter...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471145/establishment-of-an-evaluation-method-to-detect-drug-distribution-in-hair-follicles
#2
Akinari Abe, Miyuki Saito, Wesam R Kadhum, Hiroaki Todo, Kenji Sugibayashi
Development of an appropriate method to evaluate drug disposition or targeting ability in hair follicles (HFs) is urgently needed in order to develop useful pharmaceutical products with pharmacological effects in HFs. In the present study, a cyanoacrylate biopsy (CB) method was used to measure drug disposition in HFs using a model hydrophilic drug, caffeine (CAF), and a lipophilic drug, 4-butylresorcinol (BR), in excised porcine skin. As a result, the height of HF replicas and the recovery ratio decreased with an increase in the application times of the CB method...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470151/caffeine-increases-both-total-work-performed-above-critical-power-and-peripheral-fatigue-during-a-4-km-cycling-time-trial
#3
Leandro Camati Felippe, Guilherme Assuncao Ferreira, Sara Kely Learsi, Daniel Boari, Rômulo Bertuzzi, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva
The link between total work performed above critical power (CP) and peripheral muscle fatigue during self-paced exercise is unknown. We investigated the influence of caffeine on the total work done above CP during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT), and the subsequent consequence on the development of central and peripheral fatigue. Nine cyclists performed three constant-load exercise trials to determine CP and two 4-km TT ~75 min after oral caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 ) or cellulose (placebo) ingestion. Neuromuscular functions were assessed before and 50 min after supplementation, and 1 min after TT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469617/are-energy-drinks-scapegoats-decomposing-teenagers-caffeine-intake-from-energy-drinks-and-soda-beverages
#4
Ofir Turel
BACKGROUND: Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. METHODS: Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day...
February 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468414/-severe-caffeine-poisoning-with-rhabdomyolysis
#5
J Wolter, D Grün, S Otto
We report the case of a young man who took a large amount of caffeine powder dissolved in water in a suicide attempt. He was found comatose. The initial diagnosis was difficult. In hospital he suffered from rhabdomyolysis with renal failure and sepsis rapidly developed. After renal replacement treatment with hemodialysis, long-term artificial ventilation with tracheotomy and a 3‑week stay in the intensive care unit, the patient could be discharged to a rehabilitation center.
February 21, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465269/evidence-based-supplements-for-the-enhancement-of-athletic-performance
#6
Peter Peeling, Martyn J Binnie, Paul S R Goods, Marc Sim, Louise M Burke
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463286/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-clinical-aspects-and-preventive-and-therapeutic-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Giada Maria Di Pietro, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the result of a complex process in which several prenatal and/or postnatal factors interfere with lower respiratory tract development, leading to a severe, lifelong disease. In this review, what is presently known regarding BPD pathogenesis, its impact on long-term pulmonary morbidity and mortality and the available preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed. MAIN BODY: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with persistent lung impairment later in life, significantly impacting health services because subjects with BPD have, in most cases, frequent respiratory diseases and reductions in quality of life and life expectancy...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462632/water-activity-and-its-significance-in-topical-dosage-forms
#8
Muralikrishnan Angamuthu, Vijay Kumar Shankar, S Narasimha Murthy
Unique properties of thermodynamic activity of solvents in topical semisolids and its effects on in vitro product performance has not been fully understood. Mechanistic investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the significance of thermodynamic potential of solvents [water activity (aw ) or solvent activity (as )] on in vitro performance of model topical formulations. Drug transport across synthetic membranes was found to decrease with decreasing water activity of formulations. Similarly, in vitro permeation of model permeant (caffeine) across porcine epidermis was found to decrease with decreasing water activity of formulations...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462204/microbial-diversity-and-component-variation-in-xiaguan-tuo-tea-during-pile-fermentation
#9
Haizhou Li, Min Li, Xinrui Yang, Xin Gui, Guofeng Chen, Jiuyun Chu, Xingwang He, Weitao Wang, Feng Han, Ping Li
Xiaguan Tuo Tea is largely consumed by the Chinese, but there is little research into the microbial diversity and component changes during the fermentation of this tea. In this study, we first used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS) and chemical analysis methods to determine the microbial abundance and diversity and the chemical composition during fermentation. The FISH results showed that the total number of microorganisms ranges from 2.3×102 to 4.0×108 cells per gram of sample during fermentation and is mainly dominated by fungi...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459327/changes-in-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-versus-non-psychiatric-controls-during-28-days-of-cannabis-abstinence
#10
Rachel A Rabin, Sarah S Dermody, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and cannabis are highly co-morbid in the general population and in patients with schizophrenia. Given the putative causal mechanisms facilitating co-use, it is important to determine how cannabis cessation may influence concurrent tobacco use. Using a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm, we prospectively examined changes in tobacco consumption in patients with schizophrenia and controls with cannabis dependence and daily cigarette use. METHODS: Cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and controls (n = 20) completed the study with abstinence rates of 42% and 55%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457627/combination-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Joelle Thorpe, Bonnie Shum, R Andrew Moore, Philip J Wiffen, Ian Gilron
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Current pharmacotherapies are often ineffective and poorly tolerated. Combining different agents could provide superior pain relief and possibly also fewer side effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared to monotherapy or placebo, or both, for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to September 2017...
February 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456505/deletion-of-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-attenuates-behavioral-responses-to-caffeine
#12
Michael D Schwartz, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Diana L Lee, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amines (TAs), endogenous amino acid metabolites that are structurally similar to the biogenic amines, are endogenous ligands for trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a GPCR that modulates dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic activity. Selective TAAR1 full and partial agonists exhibit similar pro-cognitive, antidepressant- and antipsychotic-like properties in rodents and non-human primates, suggesting TAAR1 as a novel target for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that TAAR1 partial agonists are wake-promoting in rats and mice, and that TAAR1 knockout (KO) and overexpressing mice exhibit altered sleep-wake and EEG spectral composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456376/academic-stress-and-prevalence-of-stress-related-self-medication-among-undergraduate-female-students-of-health-and-non-health-cluster-colleges-of-a-public-sector-university-in-dammam-saudi-arabia
#13
Fatima Al Rasheed, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
Objective: The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454178/caffeine-use-disorder-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-proposed-dsm-5-criteria
#14
Csilla Ágoston, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology...
February 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451332/characterizing-the-effects-of-a-switchable-water-additive-on-the-aqueous-solubility-of-small-molecules
#15
Jesse R Vanderveen, Sarika Burra, Jialing Geng, Alexandre Goyon, Alexander Jardine, Hyejin E Shin, Tamer Andrea, Paul J Dyson, Philip G Jessop
"Switchable water" is an aqueous solution containing a water-soluble amine additive that exhibits CO 2 -switchable properties, such as large changes in ionic strength, by forming an ammonium bicarbonate salt. Switchable water has been used to reversibly "salt-out" organic compounds from water. This study explores the salting out of several compounds in switchable water when CO 2 is present and also explores the solubility of small molecules in switchable water, compared to pure water, when CO 2 is absent...
January 25, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449791/influence-of-acute-consumption-of-caffeine-vs-placebo-over-bia-derived-measurements-of-body-composition-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-design
#16
Cassie M Williamson, Brett S Nickerson, Emily E Bechke, Cherilyn N McLester, Brian M Kliszczewicz
Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447580/hplc-pda-determination-of-carminic-acid-and-4-aminocarminic-acid-using-relative-molar-sensitivities-with-respect-to-caffeine
#17
Yuzo Nishizaki, Naoko Sato-Masumoto, Aki Yokota, Tsuyoshi Mikawa, Koichi Nakashima, Taichi Yamazaki, Miho Kuroe, Masahiko Numata, Toshihide Ihara, Yusai Ito, Naoki Sugimoto, Kyoko Sato
To accurately determine carminic acid (CA) and its derivative 4-aminocarminic acid (4-ACA), a novel, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) method using relative molar sensitivity (RMS) was developed. The method requires no analytical standards of CA and 4-ACA; instead it uses the RMS values with respect to caffeine (CAF), which is used as an internal standard. An off-line combination of 1 H-quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-qNMR) and HPLC/PDA was able to precisely determine the RMSs of CA 274nm /CAF 274nm and 4-ACA 274nm /CAF 274nm ...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447158/interaction-between-nitric-oxide-and-renal-%C3%AE-1-adrenoreceptors-mediated-vasoconstriction-in-rats-with-left-ventricular-hypertrophyin-wistar-kyoto-rats
#18
Ashfaq Ahmad, Munavvar A Sattar, Maleeha Azam, Safia A Khan, Owais Bhatt, Edward J Johns
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with decreased responsiveness of renal α1-adrenoreceptors subtypes to adrenergic agonists. Nitric oxide donors are known to have antihypertrophic effects however their impact on responsiveness of renal α1-adrenoreceptors subtypes is unknown. This study investigated the impact of nitric oxide (NO) and its potential interaction with the responsiveness of renal α1-adrenoreceptors subtypes to adrenergic stimulation in rats with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444414/no-individual-or-combined-effects-of-caffeine-and-beetroot-juice-supplementation-during-submaximal-or-maximal-running
#19
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443598/evaluation-of-natural-product-compositions-for-appetite-suppression
#20
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
A change in homeostasis between food intake and energy expenditure is the hallmark of obesity. Many plant-based weight-management products are available in dietary supplement markets with no direct efficacy comparison. In this in vivo acute feed intake study in rats, the appetite suppression efficacy of well-known natural ingredients in the weight-loss market were evaluated. We tested pure caffeine, potato skin extract, Cissus quadrangularis extract, Garcinia cambogia extract, Crocus sativus extract, raspberry ketone isolated from Rubus idaeus, one commercial product (Appetrex), and one novel composition (UP601)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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