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Chronic hepatitis b

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045810/a-novel-next-generation-sequencing-assay-as-an-alternative-to-currently-available-methods-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping
#1
G Dirani, E Paesini, E Mascetra, P Farabegoli, B Dalmo, B Bartolini, A R Garbuglia, M R Capobianchi, V Samri
Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of liver-related death and in many countries it is a primary reason for having a liver transplant. HCV genotype identification has long been used in the clinical practice, since different genotypes have different response rates and required different doses and durations of IFN/RBV treatment; moreover both the frequency and the pattern of resistance to different Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) classes are subtype specific. Hence the necessity to make an accurate HCV subtyping becomes a fundamental tool to optimize current and future clinical management of HCV infected subjects...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#2
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045541/from-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-to-b-cell-lymphoma
#3
L Couronné, E Bachy, S Roulland, B Nadel, F Davi, M Armand, D Canioni, J M Michot, C Visco, L Arcaini, C Besson, O Hermine
In addition to liver disorders, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is also associated with extrahepatic immune manifestations and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), especially marginal zone lymphoma, de novo or transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and to a lesser extent, follicular lymphoma. Epidemiological data and clinical observations argue for an association between HCV and lymphoproliferative disorders. The causative role of HCV in NHL has been further supported by the response to anti-viral therapy. Pathophysiological processes at stake leading from HCV infection to overt lymphoma still need to be further elucidated...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044335/brazilian-chronic-dialysis-survey-2016
#4
Ricardo Cintra Sesso, Antonio Alberto Lopes, Fernando Saldanha Thomé, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon, Carmen Tzanno Martins
INTRODUCTION: National chronic dialysis data are important for the treatment planning. OBJECTIVE: To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2016. METHODS: A survey based on data of dialysis centers from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis centers. RESULTS: 309 (41%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043145/anca-associated-pauci-immune-glomerulonephritis-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-endocarditis-a-challenging-clinical-dilemma
#5
Andrea Cervi, Dylan Kelly, Iakovina Alexopoulou, Nader Khalidi
PURPOSE: We report the case of a 59-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and C infection presenting with acute kidney injury and enterococcus faecalis-infective endocarditis (IE). An elevated proteinase-3 (PR3)-ANCA and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) on renal biopsy were discovered, corresponding to ANCA-mediated GN. We conducted a literature review to assess the role of ANCA in IE and treatment implications. METHODS: On systematic review of the literature, we found five previous cases whereby IE caused by streptococcus and bartonella species were related to ANCA vasculitis-associated GN...
2017: Clin Nephrol Case Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043086/hepatitis-b-vaccination-coverage-and-the-determinants-of-vaccination-among-health-care-workers-in-selected-health-facilities-in-lusaka-district-zambia-an-exploratory-study
#6
Namwaka Mungandi, Mpundu Makasa, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043000/effect-of-entecavir-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-compensated-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#7
Xiao-Dong Gai, Wei-Feng Wu
Chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection is a burden on global healthcare and is associated with a higher risk of serious sequelae, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical application of entecavir as a treatment for CHB has produced positive outcomes, and so is an attractive form of pharmacological therapy. However, little data exists comparing the safety and efficacy of entecavir for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated, and decompensated cirrhosis, respectively...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038644/black-box-warning-for-possible-hbv-reactivation-during-daa-therapy-for-chronic-hcv-infection
#8
Paul J Pockros
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in some patients receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HBV reactivation can occur soon after the start of DAA therapy; thus, monitoring liver enzymes during DAA therapy is important in patients at risk. The clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation in this patient population may resemble the outcomes seen in immunosuppressed patients receiving chemotherapy...
September 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038503/gastric-acid-suppression-promotes-alcoholic-liver-disease-by-inducing-overgrowth-of-intestinal-enterococcus
#9
Cristina Llorente, Peter Jepsen, Tatsuo Inamine, Lirui Wang, Sena Bluemel, Hui J Wang, Rohit Loomba, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Mitchell L Schubert, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet, Jun Xu, Tatiana Kisseleva, Samuel B Ho, Jessica DePew, Xin Du, Henrik T Sørensen, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen E Nelson, David A Brenner, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease is rising in western countries and liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death worldwide. Simultaneously, use of gastric acid suppressive medications is increasing. Here, we show that proton pump inhibitors promote progression of alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by increasing numbers of intestinal Enterococcus spp. Translocating enterococci lead to hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte death. Expansion of intestinal Enterococcus faecalis is sufficient to exacerbate ethanol-induced liver disease in mice...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038020/the-ca-2-camkk2-axis-mediates-the-telbivudine-induces-upregulation-of-creatine-kinase-implications-for-mechanism-of-antiviral-nucleoside-analogs-side-effect
#10
Long Jianfei, Wang Min, Ma Chunlai, Chen Bicui, Zhang Jiming, Wang Bin
Telbivudine (LdT), a widely prescribed anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B (CHB), causes adverse reactions ranging from creatine kinase (CK) elevation to myopathy. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism(s) of LdT induced CK elevation. The effects of LdT on mitochondrial morphology and proteins (TK2 and β-actin), oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, Ca(2+)-related signaling pathway (CaMKK2/AMPK), and Ca(2+)-related biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs)...
October 13, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037782/paeoniflorin-targets-apoptosis-and-ameliorates-fibrosis-in-murine-schistosomiasis-mansoni-a-novel-insight
#11
Naglaa Fathy Abd El-Aal, Rania Said Hamza, Ola Harb
Schistosomiasis is a chronic helminthic disease causing hepatic fibrosis. Some studies demonstrated direct effect of targeting apoptosis on fibrosis regression. This study is a novel trial of Paeoniflorin (PAE) on S. mansoni induced hepatic fibrosis in murine model compared to Praziquantel (PZQ) evaluating their anti-parasitic and anti-fibrotic properties aiming to discover a new therapy that decrease schistosomiasis morbidity. Thirty two laboratory bred Swiss albino male CD-1 mice were used in this study. The mice were classified into four groups (8 mice each), control healthy, control infected, PZQ treated (300 mg/kg/12 h), PAE treated (50 mg/kg/d) groups...
October 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037475/chronic-arsenicosis-and-cadmium-exposure-in-wild-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-breeding-near-yellowknife-northwest-territories-canada-part-1-evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-antioxidant-activities-and-hepatic-damage
#12
S Amuno, A Jamwal, B Grahn, S Niyogi
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036959/-the-study-of-liver-macrophages-polarization-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#13
L P Guo, L Zhou, H X Li, J Zhang, B M Wang
To explore the functional phenotype of liver macrophages in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Compared with patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the absolute CD(68)(+) cell count in patients with AIH was significantly higher (all P<0.05). It was positively correlated with ALT and IgG levels (the correlation coefficients 0.600 and 0.700, P=0.285 and 0.188 respectively). Additionally, compared with patients with NAFLD, the absolute iNOS positive cell count in patients with AIH and CHB were significantly higher (all P<0...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035249/chronic-hepatitis-b-and-leishmania-coinfection
#14
Tuna Demirdal, Ümmü Sena Sarı, Salih Atakan Nemli, Serap Ural, Sibel El
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of world, and if untreated, it is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease. It is similar to chronic liver disease because of signs and symptoms such as fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. In this study, we present a case of visceral leishmaniasis, which is known to be a chronic hepatitis B infection, that was coincidentally diagnosed with liver biopsy. Visceral leishmaniasis should be considered as an infectious disease in the differential diagnosis of chronic liver diseases...
September 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035130/patterns-of-serologic-markers-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-the-risk-of-transmission-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-nigeria
#15
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, F O C Faleye, A Akere, C E Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, C C Uttah, M A Oketade, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern in developing countries that has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child has been identified as a major factor leading to chronicity with attendant liver conditions, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serological HBV markers among pregnant women in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria and to determine the implications for perinatal HBV transmission. This study revealed the presence of varied HBV serological patterns of infection or immunity among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria, and thus the risk of mother to child transmission...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033929/immunity-and-fibrogenesis-the-role-of-th17-il-17-axis-in-hbv-and-hcv-induced-chronic-hepatitis-and-progression-to-cirrhosis
#19
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Cirrhosis is a common final pathway for most chronic liver diseases; representing an increasing burden worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current evidence has shown that, after an initial injury, the immune response has a significant participation in the ongoing damage, and progression from chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) to cirrhosis, driving the activation and maintenance of main fibrogenic pathways. Among immune deregulations, those related to the subtype 17 of T helper lymphocytes (Th17)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis have been recognized as key immunopathological and prognostic elements in patients with CVH...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033774/hemothorax-following-uncomplicated-endoscopic-variceal-sclerotherapy-and-ligation-for-esophageal-varices
#20
Tomoko Ochiai, Yukiomi Nakade, Rena Kitano, Shunsuke Kato, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Chihiro Furuta, Motoki Yano, Masashi Yoneda
Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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