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Chronic hepatitis b

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689122/efficacy-and-safety-of-peginterferon-alfa-2a-40kd-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-peg-b-active-study
#1
Stefan Wirth, Hongfei Zhang, Winita Hardikar, Kathleen B Schwarz, Etienne Sokal, Weibo Yang, Huimin Fan, Vyacheslav Morozov, Qing Mao, Hong Deng, Yang Huang, Lei Yang, Nicolas Frey, Clare Nasmyth-Miller, Vedran Pavlovic, Cynthia Wat
Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) represent an area of unmet medical need, due to increased lifetime risk of CHB sequelae and limited therapeutic options compared with adult CHB patients. The PEG-B-ACTIVE (NCT01519960) phase III study evaluated peginterferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a treatment in children aged 3 to <18 years with CHB. A total of 161 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive immune-active patients without advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis were randomized (2:1) to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group A, n = 101) or no treatment (Group B, n = 50); patients with advanced fibrosis were assigned to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group C, n = 10)...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687070/erosive-oral-lichen-planus-after-pegylated-interferon-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#2
Ellie Choi, Pang Yin Huei, Sam Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: JAAD Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685552/coefficient-of-variation-on-gd-eob-mr-imaging-correlation-with-the-presence-of-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Jung Hun Lee, Youe Ree Kim, Guy Mok Lee, Jong Hyun Ryu, Eun Young Cho, Young Hwan Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
PURPOSE: To study whether the measurement of hepatic fibrosis on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the coefficient of variation (CV) might be correlated with the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 104 patients with and without CHB, who were divided into 4 groups: control group, CHB without liver cirrhosis (LC; Group I), CHB with LC (Group II), and CHB with LC and HCC (Group III)...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685146/pretreatment-microrna-levels-can-predict-hbsag-clearance-in-chb-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2a
#4
Yanlin Yang, Ming Liu, Ying Deng, Yan Guo, Xuqing Zhang, Dedong Xiang, Li Jiang, Zhonglan You, Yi Wu, Maoshi Li, Qing Mao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the predictive capability of microRNAs (miRNAs) prior treatment for HBsAg clearance in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFNα-2a). METHODS: The treatment effect was determined by HBsAg clearance and subjects were classified into HBsAg clearance group and non HBsAg clearance group. Differential miRNAs expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was screened using microarrays in an identification cohort (n = 20) and validated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a confirmation cohort (n = 47)...
April 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684791/the-role-of-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-in-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumors-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683980/evaluation-of-serum-procollagen-c-proteinase-enhancer-1-level-as-a-fibrosis-marker-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Onur Gokce, Seren Ozenirler, Aysegul Atak Yucel, Nihan Oruklu, Guldal Yilmaz Esendagli, Sevilay Karahan
AIM: Although liver biopsy has long been considered the gold standard for staging fibrosis, because of the disadvantages and risks of biopsy, several noninvasive processes such as serum biomarkers have been introduced for the assessment of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of serum procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1) as a noninvasive fibrosis marker in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 126 patients with biopsy-proven hepatitis B and 50 healthy controls...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683413/increased-circulating-follicular-regulatory-t-like-cells-may-play-a-critical-role-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-disease-progression
#7
Xiaojuan Wu, Zhenzhen Su, Bei Cai, Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Weihua Feng, Lanlan Wang
Follicular helper T cells (TFH) and follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), subsets of T cells, co-regulate the reactions of germinal center (GC) B cells. TFH provide help to the GC response, while the TFR suppress those processes. Nevertheless, the role of circulating TFR (cTFR) and circulating TFH (cTFH) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains limited. Twenty healthy controls (HCs), 24 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 23 with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 18 with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in our study between October 2015 and September 2016...
April 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682309/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines-update-april-2018
#8
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680842/one-or-two-ligatures-inducing-periodontitis-are-sufficient-to-cause-fatty-liver
#9
L-S Pessoa, F-R Pereira-da Silva, E-H-P Alves, L-F-C Franca, D di Lenardo, J-S Carvalho, V-B-D Martins, F-B-M Sousa, K-O Drumond, J-V-R Medeiros, J-S de Oliveira, D-F-P Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic disease that due to an intense inflammatory response triggers systemic changes such as hepatic alterations. This study aimed to compare hepatic damage in rats that received experimental periodontitis at one or two periodontal sites with ligatures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen rats were separated into three groups: control, without ligature; periodontitis 1, with one ligature; and periodontitis 2, with two ligatures. The following parameters were assessed: gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility, alveolar bone loss, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in periodontal tissue; histopathological evaluation of hepatic tissue (steatosis score); glutathione levels (GSH), MDA, MPO, cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver; and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
April 22, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679439/younger-age-and-language-barriers-are-associated-with-non-adherence-to-clinical-follow-up-in-hepatitis-b-treatment
#10
Heng Chi, Angie Japhary, Robert A de Man, Robert J de Knegt, Harry L A Janssen, Bettina E Hansen
We investigated the incidence and predictors of non-adherence towards clinic visits in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients on entecavir or tenofovir treatment. This was a retrospective study of CHB patients treated for at least 3 months in a tertiary referral hospital in The Netherlands. Lack of attendance in clinic visits was defined as a missed follow-up visit without notice. 338 patients (48% Caucasian, 37% Asian) were followed for a median of 3.5 years. During 1283 person-years, 183 scheduled follow-up visits were missed in 101 patients resulting in 0...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679386/hepatitis-b-virus-evasion-from-cgas-sensing-in-human-hepatocytes
#11
Eloi R Verrier, Seung-Ae Yim, Laura Heydmann, Houssein El Saghire, Charlotte Bach, Vincent Turon-Lagot, Laurent Mailly, Sarah C Durand, Julie Lucifora, David Durantel, Patrick Pessaux, Nicolas Manel, Ivan Hirsch, Mirjam B Zeisel, Nathalie Pochet, Catherine Schuster, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of cGAS in sensing of HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss- and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677098/update-treatment-for-hbv-infection-and-persistent-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prospect-for-an-hbv-cure
#12
REVIEW
Joseph Yoo, Hie-Won Hann, Robert Coben, Mitchell Conn, Anthony J DiMarino
Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, its genome, sequence, epidemiology, and hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated. Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still responsible for the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the sixth-most common cancer in the world and the second-most common cancer death. The ultimate goal of treating HBV infection is the prevention of HCC. Fortunately, anti-HBV treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), which began with lamivudine in 1998, has resulted in remarkable improvements in the survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B and a reduced incidence of HCC...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675993/effects-of-masp2-haplotypes-and-masp-2-levels-in-hepatitis-c-infected-patients
#13
Amanda A Silva, Sandra J Catarino, Angelica B W Boldt, Maria Lucia A Pedroso, Marcia H Beltrame, Iara J Messias-Reason
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) are components of the lectin pathway, which activate the complement system after binding to the HCV structural proteins E1 and E2. We haplotyped 11 MASP2 polymorphisms in 103 HCV patients and 205 controls and measured MASP-2 levels in 67 HCV patients and 77 controls to better understand the role of MASP-2 in hepatitis C susceptibility and disease severity according to viral genotype and fibrosis levels. The haplotype block MASP2*ARDP was associated with protection against HCV infection (OR = 0...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675604/long-term-natural-history-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-an-analysis-using-the-markov-chain-model
#14
Toshifumi Tada, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675010/an-overview-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen-secretion-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Alireza Mohebbi, Nazanin Lorestani, Alireza Tahamtan, Niki L Kargar, Alijan Tabarraei
Current anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) regimen do not meet ideal result due to emerging resistance strains, cytotoxicity, and unfavorable adverse effects. In chronic HBV infection, high rates of sub-viral particles (SVPs) bearing HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) is a major obstacle regarding to raise effective immune responses and subsequently virus clearance. Development of potent HBsAg secretion inhibitors would provide a better insight into HBV immunopathogenesis and therapy. Investigating new non-toxic HBsAg secretion inhibitors targeting either viral or cellular factors could restore the immune response to remove virally infected hepatocytes after inhibiting SVPs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673190/the-role-of-mirnas-in-virus-mediated-oncogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Zuzana Vojtechova, Ruth Tachezy
To date, viruses are reported to be responsible for more than 15% of all tumors worldwide. The oncogenesis could be influenced directly by the activity of viral oncoproteins or by the chronic infection or inflammation. The group of human oncoviruses includes Epstein&ndash;Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) or polyomaviruses, and transregulating retroviruses such as HIV or HTLV-1. Most of these viruses express short noncoding RNAs called miRNAs to regulate their own gene expression or to influence host gene expression and thus contribute to the carcinogenic processes...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673161/biflavonoids-isolated-from-selaginella-tamariscina-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activities-via-erk-1-2-signaling
#17
Sun-Yup Shim, Seul-Gi Lee, Mina Lee
Selaginella tamariscina ( S. tamariscina ) (Beauv.) Spring (Selaginellaceae) has been used in oriental medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, chronic hepatitis, hyperglycemia, amenorrhea, hematuria, prolapse of the anus and metrorrhagia. In the present study, we isolated two strong anti-inflammatory compounds, the biflavonoids hinokiflavone (H) and 7&prime;- O -methyl hinokiflavone (mH), from S. tamariscina and examined their anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated murine macrophages (RAW 264...
April 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672891/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-treatment-in-liver-or-kidney-transplant-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Nancy Reau, Paul Y Kwo, Susan Rhee, Robert S Brown, Kosh Agarwal, Peter Angus, Edward Gane, Jia-Horng Kao, Parvez S Mantry, David Mutimer, K Rajender Reddy, Tram T Tran, Yiran B Hu, Abhishek Gulati, Preethi Krishnan, Emily O Dumas, Ariel Porcalla, Nancy S Shulman, Wei Liu, Suvajit Samanta, Roger Trinh, Xavier Forns
Well-tolerated, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments for transplant recipients remain a high priority. Once-daily glecaprevir/pibrentasvir demonstrates high rates of sustained virologic response for 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) across all major HCV genotypes (GT). This trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for patients with chronic HCV GT1-6 infection who had received a liver or kidney transplant. MAGELLAN-2 was a phase 3, open-label trial conducted in patients who were ≥3 months post-transplant...
April 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672883/assessment-of-advanced-liver-fibrosis-and-the-risk-for-hepatic-decompensation-in-patients-with-congestive-hepatopathy
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Lemmer, Lisa B Van-Wagner, Daniel Ganger
Congestive hepatopathy (CH) arises from chronically elevated right sided heart pressures transmitted to the liver by passive venous congestion. Over time CH can lead to hepatic bridging fibrosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently there are no evidence-based guidelines to direct appropriate screening or management of patients with CH partly because of the inability of current clinical tools (serum tests, imaging studies, liver stiffness measurements, and liver biopsy) to accurately estimate hepatic fibrosis or the risk for hepatic decompensation...
April 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672637/optimisation-of-quantitative-mirna-panels-to-consolidate-the-diagnostic-surveillance-of-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Ngo Tat Trung, Dang Chieu Duong, Hoang Van Tong, Tran Thi Thu Hien, Phan Quoc Hoan, Mai Hong Bang, Mai Thanh Binh, Thai Doan Ky, Nguyen Lam Tung, Nguyen Tien Thinh, Vu Viet Sang, Le Thi Phuong Thao, C-Thomas Bock, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Christian G Meyer, Le Huu Song, Nguyen Linh Toan
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are biomarkers for several neoplastic diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a literature search, followed by experimental screening and validation in order to establish a miRNA panel in combination with the assessment of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and to evaluate its performance in HCC diagnostics. METHODS: Expression of miRNAs was quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 406 serum samples from 118 Vietnamese patients with hepatitis B (HBV)-related HCC, 69 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), 100 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 119 healthy controls (HC)...
2018: PloS One
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