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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319996/oral-direct-acting-agent-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#1
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, David R Nelson, Michael W Fried, Jodi B Segal, Mark S Sulkowski
Background: Rapid improvements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy have led to the approval of multiple oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Purpose: To summarize published literature on the efficacy and safety of oral DAAs for treatment of persons with chronic HCV infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through 1 November 2016. Study Selection: 42 English-language studies from controlled and single-group registered clinical trials of adults with HCV infection that evaluated at least 8 weeks of an FDA-approved interferon-free HCV regimen that included at least 2 DAAs...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318053/statins-decrease-the-risk-of-decompensation-in-hbv-and-hcv-related-cirrhosis-a-population-based-study
#2
Fu-Ming Chang, Yen-Po Wang, Hui-Chu Lang, Chia-Fen Tsai, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ching-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND & AIM: Statin decreased the risk of decompensation and mortality in veteran patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Whether this beneficial effect can be extended to cirrhosis in general population or cirrhosis with other causes, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol, remains unknown. Statin also decreased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection. It is unclear whether the effect can be observed in patients already with cirrhosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318046/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-ccl5-secretion-from-macrophages-activates-hepatic-stellate-cells
#3
Reina Sasaki, Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Ranjit Ray, Ratna B Ray
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediated chronic liver disease is a serious health problem around the world, and often causes fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of liver disease progression during HCV infection is still unclear, although inflammation is believed to be an important player in disease pathogenesis. We previously reported that macrophages including Kupffer cells exposed to HCV induce proinflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines may activate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) towards fibrosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317397/nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-preventing-hbv-reactivation-in-immunosuppressed-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Min-Yue Zhang, Gui-Qi Zhu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Sven Van Poucke, Ke-Qing Shi, Hong-Hui Huang, Fang-Yuan Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
Abstracts Background: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), including lamivudine, entecavir, adefovir, telbivudine and tenofovir, for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and HBV-related complications in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by network meta-analysis. METHODS: The search identified 28 articles involving 5 different prophylactic regimens covering 1478 participants...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317045/fibrolamellar-variant-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-presenting-during-pregnancy-management-dilemmas
#5
Nagalapuram Vishnu, Aditya V Kulkarni, Sreenivasan Vidhyalakshmi, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Venkatakrishnan LeelaKrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, T V Chitra, Biku Joseph John
The Fibrolamellar variant of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare form of liver cancer that presents in the 3(rd) decade of life, is rarely associated with cirrhosis or chronic Hepatitis B/C virus infection, and usually presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. FLHCC presenting during pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 4 cases reported. We present a case of FLHCC in pregnancy and discuss the dilemmas in management. A 26 year-old primigravida, 26 weeks of gestation presented with a month's history of obstructive jaundice secondary...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315398/hepatic-expressions-of-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-and-cb2-correlate-with-the-fibrogenesis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Erhei Dai, Lianshan Zhang, Lihong Ye, Shiqing Wan, Lulu Feng, Qi Qi, Fang Yao, Zhen Li
AIM: The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. However, most of the findings come from experiment researches on animal model or clinical trial on chronic hepatitis C. The roles of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in hepatofibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) have not been studied universally. This study aimed to explore the relationship between liver fibrosis and expressions of CB1 and CB2 on patients with CHB...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314596/on-treatment-hbv-dna-level-could-predict-hbeag-seroclearance-in-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-entecavir-therapy
#7
Yi-Jie Huang, Chi-Sen Chang, Yen-Chun Peng, Hong-Zen Yeh, Sheng-Shun Yang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status is associated with clinical outcomes, and seroconversion of HBeAg is one of the treatment goals. In this study, we determined the association of on-treatment serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients who were receiving entecavir (ETV) treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 135 (78 male and 57 female; mean age, 42.3 ± 13 years) patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#8
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304106/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-versus-double-plasma-molecular-absorption-system-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-treated-by-entercavir-a-prospective-study
#9
Yue-Meng Wan, Yu-Hua Li, Zhi-Yuan Xu, Jing Yang, Li-Hong Yang, Ying Xu, Jin-Hui Yang
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and double plasma molecular absorption system (DPMAS) were two extracorporeal liver support systems. Few studies compared their efficacy profile. OBJECTIVE: This study was to compare the efficacy of TPE and DPMAS on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV-ACLF). METHODS: 60 HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled and prospectively studied. All patients received entecavir therapy, and were assigned to TPE group (n = 33) and DPMAS group (n = 27)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303969/hbv-quasispecies-composition-in-lamivudine-failed-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-and-its-influence-on-virological-response-to-tenofovir-based-rescue-therapy
#10
Priyanka Banerjee, Abhijit Chakraborty, Rajiv Kumar Mondal, Mousumi Khatun, Somenath Datta, Kausik Das, Pratap Pandit, Souvik Mukherjee, Soma Banerjee, Saurabh Ghosh, Saikat Chakrabarti, Abhijit Chowdhury, Simanti Datta
The present study sought to evaluate the structure of HBV quasispecies in Lamivudine (LMV)-failed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and its impact in defining the subsequent virological responses to Tenofovir (TDF)-based rescue-therapy. By analyzing HBV clones encompassing reverse transcriptase (RT) and surface (S) region from LMV-failed and treatment-naïve CHB patients, we identified 5 classical and 12 novel substitutions in HBV/RT and 9 substitutions in immune-epitopes of HBV/S that were significantly associated with LMV failure...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303593/sb-9200-a-novel-agonist-of-innate-immunity-shows-potent-antiviral-activity-against-resistant-hcv-variants
#11
Meleri Jones, Morven E Cunningham, Peter Wing, Sampath DeSilva, Rupa Challa, Anjaneyulu Sheri, Seetharamaiyer Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan P Iyer, Brent E Korba, Nezam Afdhal, Graham R Foster
SB 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the RIG-I and NOD2 pathways. SB 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In phase I clinical trials in chronically infected HCV patients, SB 9200 has been shown to reduce HCV RNA by up to 1.9 log10 . Here, we demonstrate the antiviral activity of SB 9200 against a HCV replicon system and patient derived virus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302560/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-induces-hepatic-stellate-cell-hsc-activation-and-liver-fibrosis-in-c57bl6-mouse-via-activating-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#12
Ming Han, Xipeng Liu, Suyi Liu, Guanglei Su, Xikang Fan, Jie Chen, Qianting Yuan, Guangfei Xu
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental pollutant that could induce serious toxic effects in both humans and rodents. Some studies suggested that TCDD exposure may facilitate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which environmental pollutants promote liver injury remains poorly understood. In the present study, we established an animal model of TCDD exposure by intraperitoneal injection of TCDD in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301738/active-immunization-against-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-prevents-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-disease
#13
Hong Ji, Gerald Y Minuk, Zhikang Peng, Yongping Chen, Chenwei Pan, Yuewen Gong
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. To document the effects of active immunization against TGF-β1 on hepatic fibrosis in an animal model of chronic liver disease. BALB/c mice were immunized against three different peptides of TGF-β1 ligated into hepatitis B virus core protein (HBVc). Titers of TGF-β1 antibodies were documented by enzyme linked immunoassays and antibody activity by cell membrane receptor binding and proliferation assays. The most immunogenic recombinant HBVc+TGF-β1 peptide (HBVc+C) then served as a vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300824/association-between-the-telomerase-rs2736098_tt-genotype-and-a-lower-risk-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis-in-chinese-males
#14
Guanghui Cheng, Xiaotian Yuan, Fang Wang, Qing Sun, Qian Xin, Kailin Li, Chao Sun, Zhaomin Lin, Yun Luan, Yiteng Xu, Ping Li, Feng Kong, Dawei Xu
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is caused by infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cirrhosis (LC) is its most common complication. The accumulated evidence indicates a genetic context of HBV infection phenotypes. Here we determine a potential association of CHB/LC with the genetic variant of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a key player in aging including immune-senescence. METHODS: The study included 227 Chinese CHB patients and 315 sex/age-matched healthy controls...
March 16, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300730/the-enrichment-of-hbv-immune-escape-mutations-during-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogue-therapy
#15
Menglin Shan, Zhen Shen, Hua Sun, Jianghua Zheng, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant HBV mutants frequently arise during nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy, while the resistance mutations on polymerase also have consequent changes in the S protein. Besides, the enrichment of immune-escape mutations was negatively correlated with HBsAg clearance under NAs therapy. This study aims to characterize the variability of hepatitis B virus polymerase and surface antigen in patients with virologic breakthrough under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300059/genetic-basis-for-variation-in-plasma-il-18-levels-in-persons-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infections
#16
C Vergara, C Thio, R Latanich, A L Cox, G D Kirk, S H Mehta, M Busch, E L Murphy, M C Villacres, M G Peters, A L French, E Golub, J Eron, C D Lahiri, S Shrestha, D Gustafson, M Young, K Anastos, B Aouizerat, A Y Kim, G Lauer, D L Thomas, P Duggal
Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes integrating pathogen-triggered signaling leading to the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-18 (IL-18). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are associated with elevated IL-18, suggesting inflammasome activation. However, there is marked person-to-person variation in the inflammasome response to HCV and HIV. We hypothesized that host genetics may explain this variation. To test this, we analyzed the associations of plasma IL-18 levels and polymorphisms in 10 genes in the inflammasome cascade...
March 16, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299157/low-coverage-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-and-determinants-among-health-professionals-working-in-amhara-regional-state-hospitals-ethiopia
#17
Berhanu Elfu Feleke
More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 360 million have chronic infection and 600,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. Each year more than 66,000 health professionals are infected by hepatitis b virus and vaccination against hepatitis B saves the life's of these health professionals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis B vaccine coverage in a resource limited settings. A cross sectional study design was conducted...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297804/-influencing-factors-for-liver-related-death-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
Q L Zeng, B Li, Y L Fu, X X Zhang, L Jin, J Y Zhang, B Yang, L F Wang, Z Zhang, F S Wang, Z J Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297803/-correlation-of-liver-stiffness-measured-by-fibrotouch-and-fibroscan-with-ishak-fibrosis-score-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
G F Chen, J Ping, H T Gu, Z M Zhao, Y Zhou, F Xing, Y Y Tao, Y P Mu, P Liu, C H Liu
Objective: To investigate the correlation of liver stiffness measured by FibroTouch (FT) and FibroScan (FS) with Ishak fibrosis score in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: A total of 313 patients with chronic hepatitis B who visited Department of Liver Cirrhosis in Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from November 2014 to May 2016 were enrolled. All the patients underwent liver biopsy, and FT and FS were used to determine liver stiffness measurement (LSM)...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297795/-the-potential-use-of-serum-hbv-rna-to-guide-the-functional-cure-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
F M Lu, J Wang, X M Chen, J N Jiang, W H Zhang, J M Zhao, H Ren, J L Hou, N S Xia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in infected hepatocytes is the main cause of off-therapy viral rebound. The half-life of cccDNA is only 33-50 days, so the conversion of newly synthesized rcDNA to cccDNA in the nucleus is essential for the maintenance of cccDNA pool in infected hepatocytes. Though not directly targeting the existing cccDNA, current nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) may exhaust the cccDNA reservoir by blocking the rcDNA formation. Indeed, a prolonged consolidation therapy post loss of serum HBV DNA can achieve sustained remission and thus safe drug discontinuation in a small proportion of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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