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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635556/executive-control-in-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study-on-the-moderating-role-of-comt-val158met-for-comorbid-alcohol-and-substance-use-disorders
#1
Giuseppe Carrà, Gabriella Nicolini, Cristina Crocamo, Annamaria Lax, Francesca Amidani, Francesco Bartoli, Filippo Castellano, Alessia Chiorazzi, Giulia Gamba, Costanza Papagno, Massimo Clerici
BACKGROUND: A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) appears to influence cognition in people with alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) and in those with psychosis. METHODS: To explore the potential moderating effect of these factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted, randomly recruiting subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. AUD/SUD was rigorously assessed, as well as COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Executive control functioning was measured using the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED)...
February 14, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630479/attention-cognitive-control-and-motivation-in-adhd-linking-event-related-brain-potentials-and-dna-methylation-patterns-in-boys-at-early-school-age
#2
Hartmut Heinrich, Juliane Grunitz, Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Simone Wahl, Björn Albrecht, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Peter A Fasching, Gunther H Moll, Anna Eichler
In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629779/are-dopaminergic-genotypes-risk-factors-for-eating-behavior-and-obesity-in-adults
#4
Orcun Avsar, Aysegul Kuskucu, Seda Sancak, Ece Genc
Dopamine (DA) is the main modulator of the brain reward system and significantly regulates food intake. The idea that obesity is a neurobiological disease rather than a metabolic disorder, is the basis of the study. Changes in dopamine neurotransmission affect the brain reward system in a direct way. Furthermore, changes in the reward system influence the eating behavior in human. The enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) terminate the DA function by metabolizing it. In our study, the control group which included 214 individuals and 234 subjects with obesity were investigated for MAOA-u VNTR and COMT (rs4680) polymorphisms...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627776/the-comt-val-108-158-met-genetic-polymorphism-can-not-be-recommended-as-a-biomarker-of-prediction-of-venlafaxine-efficacy-in-patients-treated-in-psychiatric-settings
#5
Adela Taranu, Khalil El Asmar, Romain Colle, Florian Ferreri, Mircea Polosan, Denis David, Laurent Becquemont, Emmanuelle Corruble, Céline Verstuyft
The antidepressant venlafaxine is known to increase the turn-over of cerebral monoamines, which are catabolized by the cathecol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The COMT (Val108/158Met, rs4680) genetic polymorphism affects the cerebral COMT activity. But whether this genetic polymorphism is associated with response to venlafaxine remains unclear. We assessed the impact of the COMT Val(108/158)Met, rs4680 genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of venlafaxine in depressed patients. This study was nested in the METADAP cohort, a real-world naturalistic treatment study in psychiatric settings...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625990/bioavailability-of-carbohydrate-content-in-natural-and-transgenic-switchgrasses-for-the-extreme-thermophile-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#6
Jeffrey V Zurawski, Piyum A Khatibi, Hannah O Akinosho, Christopher T Straub, Scott H Compton, Jonathan M Conway, Laura L Lee, Arthur J Ragauskas, Brian H Davison, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
Improving access to the carbohydrate content of lignocellulose is key to reducing recalcitrance for microbial deconstruction and conversion to fuels and chemicals. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii completely solubilizes naked microcrystalline cellulose, yet this transformation is impeded within the context of the plant cell wall by a network of lignin and hemicellulose. Here, the bioavailability of carbohydrates to C. bescii at 70°C was examined for reduced lignin transgenic switchgrass lines COMT3(+) and MYB Trans, their corresponding parental lines (cultivar Alamo) COMT3(-) and MYB WT, and natural variant cultivar Cave-in-Rock (CR)...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625321/catechol-o-methyltransferase-gene-polymorphism-val158met-and-development-of-pre-eclampsia
#7
Ali Taravati, Fatemeh Tohidi, Mehrnaz Moniri, Kasra Kamali
OBJECTIVES: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme in degradation pathways of estrogens and catecholamines. The present meta-analysis was done to elucidate the association of COMT Val158Met polymorphism with pre-eclampsia among pregnant women. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer and Google Scholar to find eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated under dominant, recessive, co-dominant, and allelic models...
February 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614354/maternal-prenatal-anxiety-and-child-comt-genotype-predict-working-memory-and-symptoms-of-adhd
#8
Kieran J O'Donnell, Vivette Glover, Jari Lahti, Marius Lahti, Rachel D Edgar, Katri Räikkönen, Thomas G O'Connor
Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611642/a-case-report-of-severe-delirium-after-amantadine-withdrawal
#9
Franz Marxreiter, Jürgen Winkler, Martin Uhl, Dominik Madžar
Amantadine is frequently used in addition to dopaminergic substances like dopamine agonists or L-Dopa in advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, adverse effects like hallucinations limit its use. PD patients developing severe psychotic symptoms upon treatment with either dopaminergic substances and/or amantadine need to stop intake of any psychotropic substance. Here, we report the case of a 71-year-old PD patient without previously known cognitive impairment. He presented with drug-induced psychotic symptoms due to changes in his therapeutic regimen (increase in COMT inhibitors, newly introduced MAO B inhibitors)...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610409/impact-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-val-158met-rs4680-polymorphism-on-breast-cancer-susceptibility-in-asian-population
#10
Vandana Rai, Upendra Yadav, Pradeep Kumar
Background: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important estrogen-metabolizing enzyme. Numerous case-control studies have evaluated the role COMT Val 158Met (rs4680;472G->A) polymorphism in the risk of breast cancer and provided inconclusive results, hence present meta-analysis was designed to get a more reliable assessment in Asian population. Methods: A total of 26 articles were identified through a search of four electronic databases- PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springer link, up to March, 2016...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608575/association-between-comt-val158met-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#11
Steven Taylor
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met is widely regarded as potentially important for understanding the genetic etiology of many different psychiatric disorders. The present study appears to be the first comprehensive meta-analysis of COMT genetic association studies to cover all psychiatric disorders for which there were available data, published in any language, and with an emphasis on investigating disorder subtypes (defined clinically or by demographic or other variables). Studies were included if they reported one or more datasets (i...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608189/effect-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-val158met-polymorphism-on-resting-state-brain-default-mode-network-after-acupuncture-stimulation
#12
Xuejuan Yang, Jie Gong, Lingmin Jin, Lin Liu, Jinbo Sun, Wei Qin
The effects of acupuncture can be characterized by clear individual differences. Several revealing studies suggest an underlying role of inherited genetic factor in interindividual variability in response to acupuncture treatment. It remains unclear, however, if the modulation of acupuncture on resting brain function is influenced by genetic factors. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been shown to regulate the resting brain network, especially in the default mode network (DMN), which is a target area that responds to acupuncture stimulation...
June 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604963/-phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-a-fetus-carrying-an-intermediate-22q11-2-deletion-encompassing-the-crkl-gene
#13
Shaobin Lin, Xiaohe Zheng, Heng Gu, Mingzhen Li
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the phenotypic characteristics of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and the role of CRKL gene in the pathogenesis of cardiac abnormalities. METHODS: G-banded karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on a fetus with tetralogy of Fallot detected by ultrasound. Correlation between the genotype and phenotype was explored after precise mapping of the breakpoints on chromosome 22q11...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594846/sbcomt-bmr12-is-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-tricin-lignin-in-sorghum
#14
Aymerick Eudes, Tanmoy Dutta, Kai Deng, Nicolas Jacquet, Anagh Sinha, Veronica T Benites, Edward E K Baidoo, Aurore Richel, Scott E Sattler, Trent R Northen, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Dominique Loqué
Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590587/genetic-variants-in-5-httlpr-bdnf-htr1a-comt-and-fkbp5-and-risk-for-treated-depression-after-cancer-diagnosis
#15
Nis P Suppli, Jens D Bukh, Terrie E Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Christoffer Johansen, Anne Tjønneland, Lars V Kessing, Susanne O Dalton
BACKGROUND: The role of gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of depression is unclear. Previous studies addressed vulnerability for depression after childhood adversity and stressful life events among carriers of numerous specific genetic variants; however, the importance of individual genetic variants, the environmental exposures with which they interact, and the magnitude of the risk conveyed by these interactions remain elusive. METHODS: We included 7,320 people with a first primary cancer identified in the prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study in an exposed-only cohort study...
June 7, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586214/establishing-an-artificial-pathway-for-de-novo-biosynthesis-of-vanillyl-alcohol-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Zhenya Chen, Xiaolin Shen, Jian Wang, Jia Wang, Ruihua Zhang, Justin Forrest Rey, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
Vanillyl alcohol is a phenolic alcohol and is used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. In this paper, we propose a novel artificial pathway for microbial production of vanillyl alcohol from simple carbon sources. The pathway extends from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), and needs only three heterologous enzymes, p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA), carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) and caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT). First, we examined the promiscuous activity of COMT towards 3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol and found a kcat value of 0...
June 6, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582665/the-influence-of-chrna4-comt-and-maternal-sensitivity-on-orienting-and-executive-attention-in-6-month-old-infants
#17
Jeffry Quan, Mei-Lyn Ong, Jean-Francois Bureau, Lit Wee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Adam B Abdul Malik, Eric Wong, Johnny Wong, Yap-Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Anqi Qiu, Joanna D Holbrook, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds' (n=217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants' visual attention...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580819/opicapone-for-the-management-of-end-of-dose-motor-fluctuations-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-treated-with-l-dopa
#18
Andrew J Lees, Joaquim Ferreira, Olivier Rascol, Heinz Reichmann, Fabrizio Stocchi, Eduardo Tolosa, Werner Poewe
Opicapone is a third generation, highly potent and effective catechol O‑methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor that optimizes the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of L-DOPA therapy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the preclinical and clinical development of opicapone. In PD patients with motor fluctuations, once daily opicapone administration was well-tolerated and consistently reduced OFF-time and increased ON-time without increasing the frequency of troublesome dyskinesia, and these benefits were maintained over at least a year of continued open-label therapy...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579309/genetic-variation-in-the-first-pass-metabolism-of-ethinylestradiol-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-and-venous-thrombosis-risk
#19
Bernardine H Stegeman, Hans L Vos, Frans M Helmerhorst, Frits R Rosendaal, Pieter H Reitsma, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg
BACKGROUND: Use of ethinylestradiol, one of the active ingredients in combined oral contraceptives, affects the incidence of venous thrombosis. To explain why some women develop thrombosis when using oral contraceptives and others do not, we hypothesized a role for the first-pass metabolism of ethinylestradiol in the liver. We set out to determine the association between genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of ethinylestradiol, venous thrombosis risk and the effect on Sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) levels...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562378/lack-of-association-between-comt-val158met-and-zdhhc8-rs175174-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-schizophrenia-in-a-brazilian-population
#20
Leopoldo S Moraes, Augusto C C Santos, Hygor Ferreira-Fernandes, France K N Yoshioka, Silmar S Teixeira, Adriana C Guimarães, Carlos A M da Rocha, Juan A Rey, Giovanny R Pinto, Rommel R Burbano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
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