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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333880/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-dose-and-dropout-rate
#1
Richard C Crist, James Li, Glenn A Doyle, Alex Gilbert, Bryan M Dechairo, Wade H Berrettini
BACKGROUND: Currently, no pharmacogenetic tests for selecting an opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effects of variants in 11 genes on dropout rate and dose in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315341). METHODS: Variants in six pharmacokinetic genes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) and five pharmacodynamic genes (HTR2A, OPRM1, ADRA2A, COMT, SLC6A4) were genotyped in samples from a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence (n = 764; 68...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331705/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-functional-haplotype-is-associated-with-recurrence-of-affective-symptoms-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#2
Shinsuke Koike, Darya Gaysina, Peter B Jones, Andrew Wong, Marcus Richards
BACKGROUND: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms play an essential role in dopamine availability in the brain. However, there has been no study investigating whether a functional four-SNP (rs6269-rs4633-rs4818-rs4680) haplotype is associated with affective symptoms over the life course. METHODS: We tested this using 2093 members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (MRC NSHD), who had been followed up since birth in 1946, and had data for COMT genotypes, adolescent emotional problems (age 13-15) and at least one measure of adult affective symptoms at ages 36, 43, 53, or 60-64 years...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330410/the-impact-of-comt-and-childhood-maltreatment-on-suicidal-behaviour-in-affective-disorders
#3
Alexandra Bernegger, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Birgit Ludwig, Romina Koller, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor Kapusta, Martin Aigner, Helmuth Haslacher, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
The inconsistent findings on the association between COMT (catecholamine-O-methyl-transferase) and suicidal behaviour gave reason to choose a clear phenotype description of suicidal behaviour and take childhood maltreatment as environmental factor into account. The aim of this candidate-gene-association study was to eliminate heterogeneity within the sample by only recruiting affective disorder patients and find associations between COMT polymorphisms and defined suicidal phenotypes. In a sample of 258 affective disorder patients a detailed clinical assessment (e...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325731/pharmacogenomic-testing-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-an-evidence-based-review
#4
Anna M Wehry, Laura Ramsey, Shane E Dulemba, Sarah A Mossman, Jeffrey R Strawn
Significant advances have been made in the application of pharmacogenomic testing for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, a number of studies have evaluated the utility of pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders. The evidence base for pharmacogenomic testing in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed in this article. General pharmacogenomic principles are summarized and functional polymorphisms in P450 enzymes (and associated metabolizer phenotypes), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms, serotonin 2 A receptor genes (e...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325450/symptom-science-omics-supports-common-biological-underpinnings-across-symptoms
#5
Maura K McCall, Ansley Grimes Stanfill, Elizabeth Skrovanek, Jessica Renee Pforr, Susan W Wesmiller, Yvette P Conley
For precision health care to be successful, an in-depth understanding of the biological mechanisms for symptom development and severity is essential. Omics-based research approaches facilitate identification of the biological underpinnings of symptoms. We reviewed literature for omics-based approaches and exemplar symptoms (sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, fatigue, gastrointestinal [GI] distress, and pain) to identify genes associated with the symptom or symptoms across disease processes. The review yielded 27 genes associated with more than one symptom...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325115/fast-sleep-spindle-density-is-associated-with-rs4680-val108-158met-genotype-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt
#6
Claudia Schilling, Lena Gappa, Michael Schredl, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Josef Frank, Michael Deuschle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt
Study Objectives: Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning, and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamo-cortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319456/comt-genotype-and-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-high-and-low-hypnotizable-subjects
#7
Zinaida I Storozheva, Anna V Kirenskaya, Mikhail N Gordeev, Maria E Kovaleva, Vladimir Yu Novototsky-Vlasov
We investigated the association between hypnotizability, COMT polymorphism, P50 suppression ratio, and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (ASR) in 21 high (HH) and 19 low (LH) hypnotizable subjects. The frequency of Met/Met carriers of COMT polymorphysm was higher in HH than in LH group (33.3% versus 10.6%, p = .049). Increased ASR amplitude and latency and decreased prepulse inhibition at 120 ms lead interval were found in the HH compared to the LH group. The effect of COMT genotype on prepulse inhibition was observed in LH group only...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317847/pharmacogenetic-guidance-individualized-medicine-promotes-enhanced-pain-outcomes
#8
Lisa Lynn Dragic, Erica L Wegrzyn, Michael E Schatman, Jeffrey Fudin
The use of pharmacogenomics has become more prevalent over the past several years in treating many disease states. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many pain medications including opioids and antidepressants. Noncytochrome P450 enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) also play a role in the explanation of opioid dosage requirements as well as in response to certain antidepressants. We present the case of a patient with reduced COMT and MTHFR expression treated with leucovorin 10 mg daily for the management of chronic pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314589/effect-of-the-comt-val158met-genotype-on-lateral-prefrontal-activations-in-young-children
#9
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara
Low executive function (EF) during early childhood is a major risk factor for developmental delay, academic failure, and social withdrawal. Susceptible genes may affect the molecular and biological mechanisms underpinning EF. More specifically, genes associated with the regulation of prefrontal dopamine may modulate the response of prefrontal neurons during executive control. Several studies with adults and older children have shown that variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with behavioral performance and prefrontal activations in EF tasks...
January 4, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313197/exploiting-rhizosphere-microbial-cooperation-for-developing-sustainable-agriculture-strategies
#10
Yoann Besset-Manzoni, Laura Rieusset, Pierre Joly, Gilles Comte, Claire Prigent-Combaret
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310047/differential-comt-expression-and-behavioral-effects-of-comt-inhibition-in-male-and-female-wistar-and-alcohol-preferring-rats
#11
Aqilah M McCane, Michael J DeLory, Maureen M Timm, Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Christopher C Lapish, Cristine L Czachowski
Polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene have been associated with alcoholism, suggesting that alterations in the metabolism of catecholamines may be a critical component of the neuropathology of alcoholism. In the current experiments, the COMT inhibitor tolcapone was utilized in an operant behavioral model of reinforcer-seeking and drinking to determine if this compound was capable of remediating the excessive seeking and drinking phenotype of the alcohol-preferring P rat. Tolcapone was administered to male and female alcohol-reinforced P and Wistar rats...
August 19, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309969/management-strategies-for-coral-reefs-and-people-under-global-environmental-change-25-years-of-scientific-research
#12
REVIEW
Adrien Comte, Linwood H Pendleton
Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307622/mvp-immunohistochemistry-is-a-useful-adjunct-in-distinguishing-leiomyosarcoma-from-leiomyoma-and-leiomyoma-with-bizarre-nuclei
#13
Nicholas J Lintel, Stephen A Luebker, Subodh M Lele, Scott A Koepsell
Morphologically, distinguishing between leiomyoma (LM) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is not always straightforward, especially with benign variants such as bizarre leiomyoma (BLM). To identify potential markers of malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors, proteomic studies were performed followed by assessment of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from tumors (n=23) diagnosed as LM, BLM and LMS (using published criteria) were selected for the study...
January 4, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305687/genetics-and-treatment-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-on-pharmacogenetic-studies
#14
REVIEW
Cristina Politi, Cinzia Ciccacci, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine neurons of the central nervous system. The disease determines a significant disability due to a combination of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor and non-motor symptoms such as sleep disorders, hallucinations, psychosis and compulsive behaviors. The current therapies consist in combination of drugs acting to control only the symptoms of the illness by the replacement of the dopamine lost...
January 5, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296078/anxiety-and-depression-among-dairy-farmers-the-impact-of-copd
#15
Alicia Guillien, Lucie Laurent, Thibaud Soumagne, Marc Puyraveau, Jean-Jacques Laplante, Pascal Andujar, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Nicolas Roche, Bruno Degano, Jean-Charles Dalphin
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and farming are two conditions that have been associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression. Dairy farming is an independent risk factor for COPD. Objective: To test the hypotheses that the prevalence of anxiety and/or depression is higher in dairy farmers with COPD than in farmers without COPD, and higher in dairy farmers with COPD than in non-farmers with COPD. Methods: Anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 100 dairy farmers with COPD (DF-COPD), 98 dairy farmers without COPD (DF-controls), 85 non-farming patients with COPD (NF-COPD) and 89 non-farming subjects without COPD (NF-controls), all identified by screening in the Franche-Comté region of France...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291526/assessment-of-lung-cell-toxicity-of-various-gasoline-engine-exhausts-using-a-versatile-in%C3%A2-vitro-exposure-system
#16
Christoph Bisig, Pierre Comte, Martin Güdel, Jan Czerwinski, Andreas Mayer, Loretta Müller, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Adverse effect studies of gasoline exhaust are scarce, even though gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles can emit a high number of particles. The aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro hazard assessment of different GDI exhausts using two different cell culture models mimicking the human airway. In addition to gasoline particle filters (GPF), the effects of two lubrication oils with low and high ash content were assessed, since it is known that oils are important contributors to exhaust emissions...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289372/childhood-abuse-experiences-and-the-comt-and-mthfr-genetic-variants-associated-with-male-sexual-orientation-in-the-han-chinese-populations-a-case-control-study
#17
Jia-Bi Qin, Guang-Lu Zhao, Feng Wang, Yu-Mao Cai, Li-Na Lan, Lin Yang, Tie-Jian Feng
BACKGROUND: Although it is widely acknowledged that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of male homosexuality, the causes are not fully understood. AIM: To explore the association and interaction of childhood abuse experiences and genetic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes with the development of male homosexuality. METHODS: A case-control study of 537 exclusively homosexual men and 583 exclusively heterosexual men was conducted, with data collected from March 2013 to August 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287625/meta-analysis-on-the-association-between-genetic-polymorphisms-and-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-response
#18
Boris B Quednow, Kenechi Ejebe, Michael Wagner, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Bitsios, Veena Kumari, Panos Roussos
Sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR) has been proposed as one of the most promising electrophysiological endophenotypes of schizophrenia. During the past decade, a number of publications have reported significant associations between genetic polymorphisms and PPI in samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy volunteers. However, an overall evaluation of the robustness of these results has not been published so far. Therefore, we performed the first meta-analysis of published and unpublished associations between gene polymorphisms and PPI of ASR...
December 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281938/pharmacophore-based-virtual-screening-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-inhibitors-to-combat-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Chirag N Patel, John J Georrge, Krunal M Modi, Moksha B Narechania, Daxesh P Patel, Frank J Gonzalez, Himanshu A Pandya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most significant neurodegenerative disorders and its symptoms mostly appear in aged people. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the known target enzymes responsible for AD. With the use of 23 known inhibitors of COMT, a query has been generated and validated by screening against the database of 1500 decoys to obtain the GH score and enrichment value. The crucial features of the known inhibitors were evaluated by the online ZINC Pharmer to identify new leads from a ZINC database...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259946/genetic-analysis-of-mu-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-and-comt-enzyme-in-cancer-pain-tunisian-patients-under-opioid-treatment
#20
Imen Chatti, Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Amira Mili, Isabelle Creveaux, Ilhem Ben Charfeddine, Jihène Feki, Sarah Langlais, Leila Ben Fatma, Ali Saad, Moez Gribaa, Frédéric Libert
Background: Pain and its opioid treatments are complex measurable traits. Responses to morphine in terms of pain control is likely to be determined by many factors, including the underlying pain sensitivity of the patient, along with nature and extent of the painful process, concomitant medications, genetic and other clinical and environmental factors. This study investigated genetic polymorphisms implicated in the inter-individual pain response variability to opioid treatment in the Tunisian population...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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