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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916530/elucidation-of-the-impact-of-p-glycoprotein-and-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-on-the-brain-distribution-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors
#1
Joana Bicker, Ana Fortuna, Gilberto Alves, Patricio Soares-da-Silva, Amilcar Falcao
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are clinically important efflux transporters that act cooperatively at the blood-brain barrier, limiting the entry of several drugs into the CNS and affecting their pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and safety. In the present study, the interactions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (BIA 9-1059, BIA 9-1079, entacapone, nebicapone, opicapone and tolcapone) with P-gp and BCRP were investigated in order to determine the contribution of these transporters in their access to the brain...
September 15, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913946/facial-emotion-recognition-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-on-the-role-of-comorbid-alcohol-and-substance-use-disorders-and-comt-val158met
#2
Giuseppe Carrà, Gabriella Nicolini, Annamaria Lax, Francesco Bartoli, Filippo Castellano, Alessia Chiorazzi, Giulia Gamba, Mattia Bava, Cristina Crocamo, Costanza Papagno
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether facial emotion recognition (FER), impaired in both schizophrenia and alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs), is additionally compromised among comorbid subjects, also considering the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly recruiting 67 subjects with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia, and rigorously assessing AUDs/SUDs and COMT Val158Met polymorphism...
September 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905511/talen-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-more-than-100-comt-copies-alleles-in-highly-polyploid-sugarcane-improves-saccharification-efficiency-without-compromising-biomass-yield
#3
Baskaran Kannan, Je Hyeong Jung, Geoffrey W Moxley, Sun-Mi Lee, Fredy Altpeter
Sugarcane is the world's most efficient feedstock for commercial production of bioethanol due to its superior biomass production and accumulation of sucrose in stems. Integrating first and second generation ethanol conversion processes will enhance the biofuel yield per unit area by utilizing both sucrose as well as cell wall bound sugars for fermentation. RNAi suppression of the lignin biosynthetic gene caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been demonstrated to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass...
September 14, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904061/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-and-mammographic-density-in-postmenopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#4
Hamed Samavat, Giske Ursin, Tim H Emory, Eunjung Lee, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Allison M Dostal, Karen Swenson, Chap T Le, Chung S Yang, Mimi C Yu, Douglas Yee, Anna H Wu, Jian-Min Yuan, Mindy S Kurzer
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest a protective role of green tea against breast cancer. However the underlying mechanism is not understood. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial to investigate whether supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) modifies mammographic density (MD), as a potential mechanism, involving 1,075 healthy postmenopausal women. Women assigned to the treatment arm consumed daily 4 decaffeinated GTE capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for 12 months...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902619/a-case-control-association-study-of-12-candidate-genes-and-attempted-suicide-in-french-adolescents
#5
Bojan Mirkovic, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent, Malaika Lasfar, Christophe Marguet, Prsicille Gerardin
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death for 10-19-year-olds. Evidence has shown that attempted suicide is a complex interplay of genes and environmental factors. In the adult population, possible associations between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal behaviors have been investigated for several genes, most often with inconsistent findings and poor replicability of significant associations. This study aimed to identify gene variants conferring risk for adolescent suicide attempt. Methods We selected the genes and variants after an analysis of the literature and a selection of the most significant associations identified...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900390/genetically-driven-enhancement-of-dopaminergic-transmission-affects-moral-acceptability-in-females-but-not-in-males-a-pilot-study
#6
Silvia Pellegrini, Sara Palumbo, Caterina Iofrida, Erika Melissari, Giuseppina Rota, Veronica Mariotti, Teresa Anastasio, Andrea Manfrinati, Rino Rumiati, Lorella Lotto, Michela Sarlo, Pietro Pietrini
Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887105/the-significance-of-polymorphism-and-expression-of-oestrogen-metabolism-related-genes-in-chinese-women-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#7
Chunrong Qin, Yong Chen, Qing Lin, Jilong Yao, Weiqing Wu, Jiansheng Xie
The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphism and expression of CYP17, CYP1A1, COMT and SULT1A1 affected the risk of idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in Chinese women. DNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to detect these genes in 132 cases of idiopathic POI and 132 normal women. A significant increase in the C allele of CYP17 (rs743572) polymorphism was observed in women with POI compared with controls (PFDR = 0.046). A significant decrease was observed in the C allele of CYP1A1 (rs4646903) in women with POI compared with controls (PFDR = 0...
July 18, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884721/-a-search-of-target-regions-for-association-studies-between-dna-methylation-and-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia
#8
N V Kondratiev, M V Alfimova, V E Golimbet
AIM: To develop a strategy for the search for candidate genes and targets for epigenetic studies of cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search for literature on epigenetics of schizophrenia and cognitive functions was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can create or abolish a site for DNA methylation or transcription factor sites were determined using a custom script. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eight candidate genes, including BDNF, COMT, RELN, SNRPN, PSMA4, FAM63B, IL-1RAP, MAD1L1, as well as 750 targets in CpG islands in the linkage regions identified in GWAS of schizophrenia and 406 targets in SNV located within transcription factor binding sites were selected...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883716/spontaneous-cervical-artery-dissection-in-patients-aged-over-70-years-two-cases-and-systematic-literature-review
#9
Nolwenn Riou-Comte, Gioia Mione, Lisa Humbertjean, Marie-Alexia Ottenin, Jean-Christophe Lacour, Sébastien Richard
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a cerebrovascular disease typically considered to affect the young population. Literature reports cases in the elderly only as incidental findings, making the diagnosis unlikely in older patients. Incidence and pathogeny in this specific population remain to be assessed. METHODS: We reviewed patients aged over 70 years admitted for spontaneous CAD in the Stroke Unit of the University Hospital of Nancy (northeastern France) over a period of 12 years as well as all reported cases in literature...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#10
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879499/impaired-dopamine-dependent-locomotory-behavior-of-c-elegans-neuroligin-mutants-depends-on-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-4
#11
Ángel Rodríguez-Ramos, M Mar Gámez-Del-Estal, Montserrat Porta-de-la-Riva, Julián Cerón, Manuel Ruiz-Rubio
Neurexins and neuroligins are neuronal membrane adhesion molecules that have been involved in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The nrx-1 and nlg-1 genes of Caenorhabditis elegans encode NRX-1 and NLG-1, orthologue proteins of human neurexins and neuroligins, respectively. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling control the locomotory rate of the nematode. When well-fed animals are transferred to a plate with food (bacterial lawn), they reduce the locomotory rate. This behavior, which depends on dopamine, is known as basal slowing response (BSR)...
September 6, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879171/the-genomics-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
F Sessions Cole, Daniel J Wegner, Jonathan M Davis
Significant variability has been observed in the development and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) among neonates exposed to prenatal opioids. Since maternal opioid dose does not appear to correlate directly with neonatal outcome, maternal, placental, and fetal genomic variants may play important roles in NAS. Previous studies in small cohorts have demonstrated associations of variants in maternal and infant genes that encode the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and prepronociceptin (PNOC) with a shorter length of hospital stay and less need for treatment in neonates exposed to opioids in utero...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869277/polymorphisms-in-dopamine-associated-genes-and-cognitive-decline-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
D Bäckström, M Eriksson Domellöf, G Granåsen, J Linder, S Mayans, E Elgh, H Zetterberg, K Blennow, L Forsgren
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanisms for this complication are incompletely understood. Genotypes affecting dopamine transmission may be of importance. This study investigates whether genotypes associated with reduced prefrontal dopaminergic tone and/or reduced dopamine D2-receptor availability (Catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] Val(158) Met genotype and DRD2 C(957) T genotype) affect the development of cognitive deficits in PD...
September 4, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867940/genetics-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-related-traits
#14
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
This review serves as a systematic guide to the genetics of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and further focuses on anxiety-relevant endophenotypes, such as pathological worry fear of uncertainty, and neuroticism. We inspect clinical genetic evidence for the familialityl heritability of GAD and cross-disorder phenotypes based on family and twin studies. Recent advances of linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, and candidate gene studies (eg, 5-HTT, 5-HT1A, MAOA, BDNF) are outlined. Functional and structural neuroimaging and neurophysiological readouts relating to peripheral stress markers and psychophysiology are further integrated, building a multilevel disease framework...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865405/the-role-of-stress-regulation-genes-in-moderating-the-association-of-stress-and-daily-life-psychotic-experiences
#15
P Cristóbal-Narváez, T Sheinbaum, I Myin-Germeys, T R Kwapil, M de Castro-Catala, T Domínguez-Martínez, A Racioppi, M Monsonet, L Hinojosa-Marqués, R van Winkel, A Rosa, N Barrantes-Vidal
OBJECTIVE: The interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms with both distal and proximal environmental factors across the extended psychosis phenotype is understudied. This study examined (i) the interaction of relevant SNPs with both early-life adversity and proximal (momentary) stress on psychotic experiences (PEs) in an extended psychosis sample; and (ii) differences between early-psychosis and non-clinical groups for these interactions. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-two non-clinical and 96 early-psychosis participants were prompted randomly eight times daily for 1 week to complete assessments of current experiences, including PEs and stress...
September 2, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862601/-comparative-analysis-of-expression-of-genes-encoding-enzymes-of-catecholamine-catabolism-and-renalase-in-tissues-of-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#16
V I Fedchenko, A E Medvedev
Comparative analysis of expression of genes encoding enzymes of catecholamine catabolism (monoaminbe oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)) and renalase has been carried out in tissues of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Among investigated tissues the highest level of mRNA of genes encoding key enzymes of catecholamine catabolism (MAO A, MAO B, COMT) was found in the heart of WKY rats. In SHR the mRNA levels of these genes were lower (p<0...
July 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860780/association-between-comt-val158met-and-dat1-polymorphisms-and-depressive-symptoms-in-the-obese-population
#17
Maciej Bieliński, Marcin Jaracz, Natalia Lesiewska, Marta Tomaszewska, Marcin Sikora, Roman Junik, Anna Kamińska, Andrzej Tretyn, Alina Borkowska
OBJECTIVES: Depressive symptoms are common among patients with obesity. Abnormalities in dopamine signaling involved in the reward circuit may ensue excessive consumption of food, resulting in obesity and leading to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. This study sought to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the genes encoding DAT1/SLC6A3 and COMT with the intensity of depressive symptoms in obese subjects. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms were assessed in a group of 364 obese patients using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859863/catechol-o-methyltransferase-gene-val158met-polymorphisms-and-anxious-symptoms-in-early-childhood-the-roles-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-and-life-stress
#18
Haroon I Sheikh, Katie R Kryski, Yuliya Kotelnikova, Elizabeth P Hayden, Shiva M Singh
Individual differences in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress (measured via salivary cortisol) have been widely implicated in the etiology of internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. Literature suggests that stress during early childhood is an important source of contextual risk although its effects may be moderated by polymorphisms of neurotransmitter genes. The COMT val158met is one such polymorphism, and literature documents its link to internalizing problems. To extend these findings, and to better understand the role of this polymorphism in developmental risk, we investigated links between the val158met polymorphism and early-age cortisol response...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856668/interaction-between-val158met-catechol-o-methyltransferase-polymorphism-and-social-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-pilot-study
#19
Aneta Tylec, Witold Jeleniewicz, Ann Mortimer, Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Katarzyna Kucharska
The Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism may influence social cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Aspects of social cognition were evaluated with the Facial Expression Recognition Test, the Voice Emotion Recognition Test, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. The Short Recognition Memory Test for Faces was used as a control measure. The Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Schedule for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and Beck Depression Inventory were used to rate of patient symptoms...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855580/attentional-control-in-adolescent-mice-assessed-with-a-modified-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#20
Mariasole Ciampoli, Gabriella Contarini, Maddalena Mereu, Francesco Papaleo
Adolescence is a critical period for the development of higher-order cognitive functions. Unlike in humans, very limited tools are available to assess such cognitive abilities in adolescent rodents. We implemented a modified 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5CSRTT) to selectively measure attentiveness, impulsivity, broad monitoring, processing speed and distractibility in adolescent mice. 21-day old C57BL/6J mice reliably acquired this task with no sex-dependent differences in 10-12 days. A protocol previously used in adults was less effective to assess impulsiveness in adolescents, but revealed increased vulnerability in females...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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