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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#1
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#2
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721538/-methamphetamine-epidemiology-clinical-importance-and-sequelae-of-abuse
#3
N Arnaud, T Thomasius
Methamphetamine (also known as meth and crystal meth) is a highly psychoactive synthetic amphetamine type stimulant, which falls under the German Federal Narcotics Law. The substance is similar to other stimulants but has distinct features with respect to psychoactive effects, clinical symptoms, user characteristics and short and long-term consequences including substance-induced problems and comorbidities. The consumption and misuse of crystal meth is still limited to certain regions in Germany; however, the substance causes significant clinical and public health concerns in the affected regions and beyond due to the associated high potential for misuse and dependence, neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects as well as many other severe health risks...
July 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718998/disconnected-lives-women-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-conflict-with-the-law
#4
Kathryn Ann Levine, Jocelyn Proulx, Karen Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Women with intellectual/developmental disabilities in conflict with the law experience childhood trauma, substance abuse and intimate partner violence but continue to have difficulty accessing appropriate therapeutic services, both within correctional settings and upon discharge. The aim of this study is to explore women's service needs and to critically assess whether the available services are meeting their identified needs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women with intellectual/developmental disabilities who were in the Special Needs Unit of a women's correctional centre from December 2014 to March 2015...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718707/child-sexual-abuse-and-adult-mental-health-sexual-risk-behaviors-and-drinking-patterns-among-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Ethan Czuy Levine, Omar Martinez, Brian Mattera, Elwin Wu, Sonya Arreola, Scott Edward Rutledge, Bernie Newman, Larry Icard, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Carolina Hausmann-Stabile, Seth Welles, Scott D Rhodes, Brian M Dodge, Sarah Alfonso, M Isabel Fernandez, Alex Carballo-Diéguez
One in five Latino men who have sex with men has experienced child sexual abuse. Although concerning in itself, child sexual abuse may increase an individuals' likelihood of depression and risk-taking in adult life, including engagement in HIV risk behaviors and alcohol and substance use. It is therefore urgent that researchers and practitioners better understand the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. We utilized logistic and linear regression to assess associations between child sexual abuse (operationalized as forced or coerced sexual activity before age 17) and depression, sexual behaviors, and drinking patterns in a sample of 176 adult Latino men who have sex with men from New York City...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715621/electroconvulsive-therapy-during-pregnancy
#6
Aubrey Thyen, Puneet Narang, Simrat Sarai, Gulay Tegin, Steven Lippmann
Women often experience worsening mood disorder symptoms during pregnancy. Women with mood disorders have an increased risk for suboptimal prenatal care, inadequate weight gain, and more substance abuse during pregnancy. It is often difficult to balance pharmacotherapy risks to a developing fetus versus not medicinally treating maternal mental health conditions. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment option that can be an appropriate intervention in some women during pregnancy. This report presents an overview of ECT in pregnancy and the case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman with bipolar mania who responded well to ECT...
July 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714722/pilot-testing-the-daily-activities-list-for-inmates-dali-item-evaluation-and-content-validity
#7
Philip R Magaletta, Rokas Perskaudas, Christina J Connors, Marc W Patry, Jarrod Reisweber, Alix McLearen
Scheduling enjoyable daily activities is a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy intervention used in the treatment of depression and substance abuse disorders that are prevalent disorders among inmates. To effectively use this intervention with inmates, an activities list with items ecologically sensitive to the correctional setting needs to be created. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate items; thus, establishing a content valid Daily Activities List for Inmates (DALI). Fifteen corrections professionals representing a wide range of disciplines and managerial backgrounds served as subject matter experts (SMEs)...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713277/does-the-strategy-of-risk-group-testing-for-hepatitis-c-hit-the-target
#8
Mirjana R Jovanovic, Aleksandar Miljatovic, Laslo Puskas, Slobodan Kapor, Dijana L Puskas
In the European Union, it is estimated that there are 5.5 million individuals with chronic infection of hepatitis C. Intravenous drug abuse is undoubtedly the key source of the hepatitis C epidemic in Europe and the most efficient mode of transmission of HCV infections (primarily due to short incubation time, but also because the virus is introduced directly into the blood stream with the infected needle). Potentially high-risk and vulnerable populations in Europe (and the world) include immigrants, prisoners, sex workers, men having sex with men, individuals infected with HIV, psychoactive substance users etc...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712352/national-overview-of-medication-assisted-treatment-for-american-indians-and-alaska-natives-with-substance-use-disorders
#9
Traci Rieckmann, Laurie Moore, Calvin Croy, Gregory A Aarons, Douglas K Novins
OBJECTIVE: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience higher rates of substance use disorders and less access to high-quality care compared with other racial-ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to better understand the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of substance use disorders for AI/ANs and barriers to broader implementation. METHODS: Representatives of 192 substance abuse treatment programs completed a survey about their use of MAT...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709081/experiences-with-scramx-alcohol-monitoring-technology-in-100-alcohol-treatment-outpatients
#10
Sheila M Alessi, Nancy P Barnett, Nancy M Petry
BACKGROUND: Transdermal alcohol monitoring technology allows for new research on alcohol use disorders. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and adherence with this technology in the context of two clinical research trials. METHODS: Participants were the first 100 community-based alcohol treatment outpatients enrolled in randomized studies that monitored drinking with the secure continuous remote alcohol monitor (SCRAMx(®)) for 12 weeks. Study 1 participants were randomized to usual care (n=36) or usual care with contingency management incentives for treatment attendance (CM-Att; n=30)...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705298/methamphetamine-related-disorders
#11
Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Roland Härtel-Petri, Willem Hamdorf, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Stephan Mühlig, Norbert Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is considered more dangerous than other stimulants because of its acute complications, long-term neurotoxicity, and potential for drug dependence. Until now, there have been no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders, either in Germany or abroad. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders. Based on this literature review, a multidisciplinary expert panel developed recommendations using the nominal group technique...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704115/trends-of-youth-marijuana-treatment-admissions-increasing-admissions-contrasted-with-decreasing-drug-involvement
#12
Miesha Marzell, Ethan Sahker, Stephan Arndt
BACKGROUND: Recent changes in marijuana policies and their potential negative effects on youth development are a public health concern. Identifying the most appropriate treatment approaches for problematic marijuana use is important. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to track marijuana use among young people by examining national changes from 1995 to 2012 in the demographics, referral sources, and the substance use patterns related to youth admissions to substance abuse treatment programs...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700478/impact-of-nonsteroidal-aromatase-inhibitors-on-steroid-profile-in-a-chinese-population
#13
Yanyi Xing, Xin Liu, Mengmeng Yan, Tianqi Chen, Fei Lu, Bing Xu, Yan Gong, Fuhao Chu, Haimin Lei
Steroid profiling was introduced to determine the endogenous steroid misuse in sports. Thus, screening for the exogenous use of these prohibited substances can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference values. The steroid profiling is currently based on population statistics. As large interindividual variations exist, athlete biological passport (ABP) analysis is ongoing. This study aimed to identify new biomarker(s) for aromatase inhibitor detection in sports using statistical analysis and adapt the model into ABP analysis...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700360/stigma-and-substance-use-disorders-an-international-phenomenon
#14
Lawrence H Yang, Liang Y Wong, Margaux M Grivel, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694708/spiritual-care-may-impact-mental-health-and-medication-adherence-in-hiv-populations
#15
Valerie U Oji, Leslie C Hung, Reza Abbasgholizadeh, Flora Terrell Hamilton, E James Essien, Evaristus Nwulia
OBJECTIVE: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS), major depressive disorder (MDD) incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694090/milnacipran-affects-mouse-impulsive-aggressive-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-distinct-dose-dependent-manner
#16
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used for the treatment for major depressive disorder, but these drugs induce several side effects including increased aggression and impulsivity, which are risk factors for substance abuse, criminal involvement, and suicide. To address this issue, milnacipran (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), an SNRI and antidepressant, was intraperitoneally administered to mice prior to the 3-choice serial reaction time task, resident-intruder test, and forced swimming test to measure impulsive, aggressive, and depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693879/profiles-of-the-patient-who-had-compulsory-hospitalization-in-a-district-psychiatric-hospital
#17
Nalan Gördeles Beşer, Leyla Baysan Arabaci, Satı Bozkurt, Gülçin Uzunoğlu, Gülsenay Taş
OBJECTIVE: It aims to examine the profiles of patients who were treated with compulsory hospitalization between 2011 and 2015 in a district psychiatric hospital. METHOD: In this retrospective and cohort study, hospital records gathered from 202 adult patients who were treated with compulsory hospitalization in units with a bed between 2011 and 2015 in a district psychiatric hospital were examined. In this study, profiles and socio-demographic features of the patients with compulsory hospitalization were evaluated by 23 closed-end and open-ended questions prepared by researchers...
August 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692905/prediction-of-outcome-of-bright-light-treatment-in-patients-with-seasonal-affective-disorder-discarding-the-early-response-confirming-a-higher-atypical-balance-and-uncovering-a-higher-body-mass-index-at-baseline-as-predictors-of-endpoint-outcome
#18
Tzvetelina D Dimitrova, Gloria M Reeves, Soren Snitker, Manana Lapidus, Aamar R Sleemi, Theodora G Balis, Partam Manalai, Muhammad M Tariq, Johanna A Cabassa, Naila N Karim, Mary A Johnson, Patricia Langenberg, Kelly J Rohan, Michael Miller, John W Stiller, Teodor T Postolache
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. METHODS: Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689089/a-qualitative-study-of-barriers-and-facilitators-in-treating-drug-use-among-israeli-mothers-an-intersectional-perspective
#19
Keren Gueta
RATIONALE: Despite the benefits and availability of drug treatment in Western countries, research has shown low utilisation rates, especially by mothers. Studies have indicated internal barriers (e.g., shame) and external/structural barriers (e.g., poverty) to women's utilisation of drug treatment, but little is known about the interrelated axes of marginalization that create such barriers and, even less, facilitators of treatment. A promising avenue for examining this path may be the theoretical perspective of intersectionality, which has often been used to illustrate how women's experiences are shaped by gender in conjunction with other factors, including class, age, and race...
June 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686545/the-concurrent-validity-of-the-problem-oriented-screening-instrument-for-teenagers-posit-substance-use-abuse-subscale-in-adolescent-patients-in-an-urban-federally-qualified-health-center
#20
Sharon M Kelly, Kevin E O'Grady, Jan Gryczynski, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Arethusa Kirk, Robert P Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT)'s substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 Substance Use Disorder diagnoses...
July 7, 2017: Substance Abuse
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