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Substance abuse and treatment

Matt Luther, Fergus Gardiner, Shane Lenson, David Caldicott, Ryan Harris, Ryan Sabet, Mark Malloy, Jo Perkins
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means. METHODS: Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Luk Van Baelen, Karin De Ridder, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux
Background: Although gabapentin has been licensed in the European Union only for neuropathic pain and epilepsy for patients who have partial seizures, it has also been prescribed in treatment for substance use disorders. Many studies report the potential risk of abuse of gabapentin by people with substance use disorders. The objective of this paper is to determine if people who have been in treatment for substance use disorders bought gabapentin in a time span that could indicate consumption at a dose that exceeded the maximum approved dose of 3600 mg/day...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Mekeila C Cook, Elizabeth Barnert, Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kayleen Ports, Eraka Bath
The study sought to: 1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); 2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and 3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184)...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Stanislav Lazarev, Vishal Gupta, Zahra Ghiassi-Nejad, Brett Miles, Bethann Scarborough, Krzysztof J Misiukiewicz, Batya Reckson, Ren-Dih Sheu, Richard L Bakst
Purpose: Factors related to premature discontinuation of curative radiation therapy (PDCRT) are understudied. This study aimed to examine causes and clinical outcomes of PDCRT at our institution by investigating the most common anatomical site associated with PDCRT. Methods and materials: Among the 161 patients with PDCRT of various anatomic sites at our institution between 2010 and 2017, 36% received radiation to the head and neck region. Pertinent demographic, clinical, and treatment-related data on these 58 patients were collected...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Cameron K Schmidt, Shehzad Khalid, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychological issues worldwide, displaying the youngest age of onset and greatest chronicity of any mood or substance abuse disorder. Given the high social and economic cost imposed by these disorders, developing effective treatments is of the utmost importance. Anxiety disorders manifest in a variety of symptomatic phenotypes and are highly comorbid with other psychological diseases such as depression. These facts have made unraveling the complex underlying neural circuity an ever-present challenge for researchers...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Mahmood Karimy, Ahmad Fakhri, Esmaeel Vali, Farzaneh Vali, Feliciano H Veiga, L A R Stein, Marzieh Araban
Background: Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
T S Sathyanarayana Rao, Shreemit Maheshwari, Manju George, Suhas Chandran, Shivanand Manohar, Suman S Rao
Substance abuse and addictive disorders are very common in the community. Patients with addictive disorders frequently experience sexual dysfunctions and chronic use of substances tends to adversely affect all stages of sexual response, in both male and female abusers. An important aspect in the management of sexual dysfunction is psychosocial intervention. In addictive disorders, sexual dysfunction is of high clinical relevance, as it often leads to treatment non adherence and sexual or marital disharmony...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Aditya Simha, Camille Maria Webb, Ramakrishna Prasad, N Randall Kolb, Peter J Veldkamp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family medicine program directors (PDs) experienced moral distress due to obstacles to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, and to explore whether they found those obstacles to be unethical. DESIGN: An omnibus survey by the Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance was administered to 452 and completed by 273 US-based PDs. The survey gauged attitudes and opinions regarding ethical dilemmas in patient access to HCV treatment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Eric D Claus, Brandi C Fink, Vikram Rao, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Successfully treating illicit drug use has become paramount, yet elusive. Devising specialized treatment interventions could increase positive outcomes, but it is necessary to identify risk factors of poor long-term outcomes to develop specialized, efficacious treatments. We investigated whether functional network connectivity (FNC) measures were predictive of substance abuse treatment completion using machine learning pattern classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
W Veling, I E C Sommer, R Bruggeman, L de Haan
Personalised medicine (pm) means treatment that specifically targets the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics.<br/> AIM: To update our knowledge about the current use of pm in the treatment of psychotic disorders.<br/> METHOD: Review of the literature on pm for psychoses.<br/> RESULTS: At the moment, genetic and other biological characteristics cannot be used for the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders because they are not sensitive enough and their specificity is too low...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Loretta P Finnegan
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Martin Mücke, Tudor Phillips, Lukas Radbruch, Frank Petzke, Winfried Häuser
BACKGROUND: This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Estimates of the population prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic components range between 6% and 10%. Current pharmacological treatment options for neuropathic pain afford substantial benefit for only a few people, often with adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. There is a need to explore other treatment options, with different mechanisms of action for treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain...
March 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Jennifer Martin, Nicholas Collins
INTRODUCTION: While pulmonary arterial hypertension remains an uncommon diagnosis, various therapeutic agents are recognized as important associations. These agents are typically categorized into "definite", "likely", "possible", or "unlikely" to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, based on the strength of evidence. OBJECTIVE: This review will focus on those therapeutic agents where there is sufficient literature to adequately comment on the role of the agent in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
David E Moorman
The hypocretin/orexin (ORX) system has been repeatedly demonstrated to regulate motivation for drugs of abuse, including alcohol. In particular, ORX seems to be critically involved in highly motivated behaviors, as is observed in high-seeking individuals in a population, in the seeking of highly palatable substances, and in models of dependence. It seems logical that this system could be considered as a potential target for treatment for addiction, particularly alcohol addiction, as ORX pharmacological manipulations significantly reduce drinking...
March 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Larissa M Hoogsteder, Geert-Jan J M Stams, Eveline E Schippers, Daphne Bonnes
This article describes a quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) in terms of recidivism for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles with aggression problems and high risk of recidivism. In a Dutch juvenile justice institution, an experimental group received Re-ART ( n = 63, Re-ART group) and a waitlist control group received Treatment as Usual ( n = 28, TAU group). Results indicated that Re-ART is significantly more effective than TAU in reducing the juveniles' recidivism risk for violent offending...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Michelle M Mello, Julia Adler-Milstein, Karen L Ding, Lucia Savage
Policy Points: Historically, in addition to economic and technical hurdles, state and federal health information privacy laws have been cited as a significant obstacle to expanding electronic health information exchange (HIE) in the United States. Our review finds that over the past decade, several helpful developments have ameliorated the legal barriers to HIE, although variation in states' patient consent requirements remains a challenge. Today, health care providers' complaints about legal obstacles to HIE may be better understood as reflecting concerns about the economic and competitive risks of information sharing...
March 2018: Milbank Quarterly
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