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Substance abuse and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930768/a-6-month-prospective-trial-of-a-personalized-behavioral-intervention-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-at-risk-of-treatment-nonadherence-and-homelessness
#1
Martha Sajatovic, Luis F Ramirez, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Jamie Cage, Curtis Tatsuoka, Michelle E Aebi, Ashley Bukach, Kristin A Cassidy, Jennifer B Levin
PURPOSE: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) can optimize adherence for high-risk serious mental illness (SMI). This customized adherence-enhancement approach delivered by social worker interventionists was combined with LAI (CAE-L) of paliperidone palmitate for homeless, poorly adherent individuals with SMI. METHODS: This 6-month prospective, uncontrolled trial of CAE-L in 30 recently homeless individuals with SMI assessed adherence using the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, injection frequency, and SMI symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926353/randomized-double-blind-placebo-and-active-comparator-controlled-crossover-study-evaluating-the-abuse-potential-of-the-antiepileptic-drug-lacosamide-in-healthy-recreational-drug-users
#2
Kerri A Schoedel, Jens-Otto Andreas, Pamela Doty, Klaus Eckhardt, Edward M Sellers
PURPOSE: This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled crossover study assessed the abuse potential of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide. METHODS: After a qualification phase, 38 healthy, recreational central nervous system-depressant users were randomized to treatment sequences comprising single oral therapeutic (200 mg) and supratherapeutic (800 mg) doses of lacosamide, alprazolam (1.5 and 3 mg), and placebo. Subjective effects were assessed for 24 hours following each dose using a range of scales, with a 5- to 9-day washout between treatments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#3
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#4
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#5
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917196/possible-predictors-of-age-at-illness-onset-and-illness-duration-in-a-cohort-study-comparing-younger-adults-and-older-major-affective-patients
#6
Gianluca Serafini, Xenia Gonda, Fiammetta Monacelli, Matteo Pardini, Maurizio Pompili, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore
BACKGROUND: Major affective conditions are associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Whether specific socio-demographic and clinical characteristics may distinguish subgroups of patients in terms of prognosis and illness trajectories is a matter of debate. METHODS: The sample of this naturalistic cohort study included 675 currently euthymic patients with major affective disorders of which 428 (63.4%) were diagnosed with unipolar and 247 (36...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917081/evaluation-of-the-ecstasy-influence-on-tramadol-and-its-main-metabolite-plasma-concentration-in-rats
#7
Bardia Jamali, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Yalda Hosseinzadeh Ardakani, Hoda Lavasani, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is prone to be abused alone, or in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). It was reported that 95% of people with a history of substance abuse in the United States used tramadol in 2004. According to the WHO report in 2016, there was a growing number of tramadol abusers alone or in combination with psychoactive substances such as MDMA in particular in some Middle East countries. Higher concentrations of tramadol in plasma may lead to adverse drug reactions or lethal intoxication...
September 16, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916506/blending-face-to-face-and-internet-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-mental-disorders-in-adults-systematic-review
#8
Doris Erbe, Hans-Christoph Eichert, Heleen Riper, David Daniel Ebert
BACKGROUND: Many studies have provided evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based stand-alone interventions for mental disorders. A newer form of intervention combines the strengths of face-to-face (f2f) and Internet approaches (blended interventions). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of (1) the different formats of blended treatments for adults, (2) the stage of treatment in which these are applied, (3) their objective in combining face-to-face and Internet-based approaches, and (4) their effectiveness...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914563/patients-with-psychological-icpc-codes-in-primary-care-a-case-control-study-investigating-the-decade-before-presenting-with-problems
#9
Luc G Gidding, Mark G Spigt, Geert-Jan Dinant
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients with psychological problems can be difficult for general practitioners (GPs). Use of information collected in electronic medical records (EMR) could facilitate recognition. OBJECTIVES: To assess relevant EMR parameters in the decade before patients present with psychological problems. METHODS: Exploratory case-control study assessing EMR parameters of 58 228 patients recorded between 2013 and 2015 by 54 GPs...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910830/consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology-update-2017
#10
C Hiemke, N Bergemann, H W Clement, A Conca, J Deckert, K Domschke, G Eckermann, K Egberts, M Gerlach, C Greiner, G Gründer, E Haen, U Havemann-Reinecke, G Hefner, R Helmer, G Janssen, E Jaquenoud, G Laux, T Messer, R Mössner, M J Müller, M Paulzen, B Pfuhlmann, P Riederer, A Saria, B Schoppek, G Schoretsanitis, M Schwarz, M Silva Gracia, B Stegmann, W Steimer, J C Stingl, M Uhr, S Ulrich, S Unterecker, R Waschgler, G Zernig, G Zurek, P Baumann
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the quantification and interpretation of drug concentrations in blood to optimize pharmacotherapy. It considers the interindividual variability of pharmacokinetics and thus enables personalized pharmacotherapy. In psychiatry and neurology, patient populations that may particularly benefit from TDM are children and adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, individuals with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance abuse disorders, forensic psychiatric patients or patients with known or suspected pharmacokinetic abnormalities...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910174/family-and-peer-group-substance-abuse-as-a-risk-factor-for-opioid-misuse-behaviors-for-a-young-adult-with-cancer-related-pain-a-case-study
#11
Kelly R Peck, Jennifer L Harman, Doralina L Anghelescu
The purpose of this report is to illustrate the importance of assessing for family, peer, and personal substance abuse risk factors in the case of a young adult with cancer-related pain and behaviors potentially indicative of opioid misuse (OM). A thorough clinical interview and an OM screening measure revealed important information about the patient's family and social environment. Based on this information, the treatment team acted quickly to prevent additional aberrant opioid-associated behaviors (AOBs)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895809/sbirt-curriculum-integration-and-sustainability-social-work-and-nursing-faculty-perspectives
#12
M Nicole Belfiore, Marcela D Blinka, Karlynn BrintzenhofeSzoc, Joseph Shields
BACKGROUND: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has funded grants to universities to provide training and conduct research on the dissemination of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to health care professionals. However, when it comes to integrating SBIRT content into an existing curriculum, difficulties can arise. When there is so much content already in the curriculum, adding more can be challenging. Additionally, some faculty believe that course curricula should be driven by the expertise and knowledge of faculty, not by opportunities afforded because of grant funding...
September 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895757/intoxications-in-the-strida-project-involving-a-panorama-of-psychostimulant-pyrovalerone-derivatives-mdpv-copycats
#13
Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in intoxications involving 11 stimulant pyrovalerone NPS derivatives over a 5-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to Swedish hospitals for emergency treatment from January 2011 to March 2016...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894842/retroperitoneal-actinomycosis-a-rare-sequela-of-an-infected-obstructing-ureteral-stone
#14
Elizabeth Bearrick, Colby A Dixon, Joshua Rhein, Michael S Borofsky
Background: Actinomycosis is a condition in which Actinomyces, a normal component of the oral and gastrointenstial flora, becomes pathogenic in the setting of damaged tissue, leading to widespread tissue destruction across fascial planes. Prior literature describing this condition is rare, particularly cases involving the retroperitoneum. In this study, we report a case of retroperitoneal actinomycosis caused by an infected, obstructing ureteral stone. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old woman with a history of substance abuse, malnutrition, and gastric bypass presented to the emergency room with a 3-week history of abdominal pain and fevers...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894547/a-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-dependence-during-abstinence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Bijan Pirnia, Ali Reza Moradi, Kambiz Pirnia, Parisa Kolahi, Rasool Roshan
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug and an ideal candidate for reducing the craving in people relying on cocaine. Contingency management is one of the common therapies in the domain of addiction. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare three medication methods of Topiramate (TPM), Contingency Management (CM) and the combined TPM treatment and cash intervention on craving during abstinence. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at Bijan Center for Substance Abuse Treatment in Tehran, Iran, from December 15, 2014 to November 20, 2015...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894540/change-processes-questionnaire-for-treatment-of-drug-dependents-based-on-transtheoretical-model-psychometric-properties-in-iran-2016
#16
Reza Shahrabadi, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Davod Shojaeizadeh, Mehdi Yaseri
BACKGROUND: Drug abuse is a serious subject that can lead to social, economic, cultural and health problems. The routine approaches in treatment of drug abuse are either medication or non-medication methods. Non-medication approach is focused on mental and social health. Non-drug treatment requires appropriate tools. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity, reliability, and structure of the Processes of Change Questionnaire. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, which was conducted in 2016, three hundred sixty-two drug dependents in Sabzevar Substance Abuse Treatment Centers (Iran) were enrolled in the study...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893747/the-health-and-well-being-of-australia-s-future-medical-doctors-protocol-for-a-5-year-observational-cohort-study-of-medical-trainees
#17
Erin Cvejic, Gordon Parker, Samuel B Harvey, Zachery Steel, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Claire L Macnamara, Uté Vollmer-Conna
INTRODUCTION: Clinical training in the undergraduate medical course places multiple stressors on trainees, which have been held to lead to heightened distress, depression, suicide, substance misuse/abuse and poor mental health outcomes. To date, evidence for morbidity in trainees is largely derived from cross-sectional survey-based research. This limits the accuracy of estimates and the extent to which predispositional vulnerabilities (biological and/or psychological), contextual triggers and longer-term consequences can be validly identified...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888151/evaluation-of-the-ac-ok-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-screening-measure-in-an-international-sample-of-latino-immigrants
#19
Ligia M Chavez, Patrick E Shrout, Ye Wang, Francisco Collazos, Rodrigo Carmona, Margarita Alegría
BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention in primary care is integral to behavioral health. Valid, practical screening assessments are scarce, particularly for non-English speaking populations. We address this need by evaluating the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the AC-OK Screen for Co-occurring Disorders for first and second generation immigrant Latinos in Massachusetts, USA, and Madrid and Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: 567 Latino participants were recruited in waiting areas of clinics or by referral from Primary Care, Mental Health, Substance Use, and HIV Treatment Clinics, as well as Community Agencies...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884614/characteristics-of-inmates-who-misuse-prescription-medication
#20
Anthony C Tamburello, Archana Kathpal, Rusty Reeves
Substance use disorders are common among incarcerated individuals, and prescribed medications have been reported as abused, diverted, or otherwise misused in correctional settings. We conducted a retrospective chart review of electronic medical records and reports on institutional charges for misuse of authorized medication by inmates in the New Jersey Department of Corrections between 2003 and 2013. The most frequently cited medications for misuse were gabapentin, diphenhydramine, clonidine, and ibuprofen...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
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