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Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar, Rahmath Abdulla, Siti Azmah Jambo, Hartinie Marbawi, Jualang Azlan Gansau, Ainol Azifa Mohd Faik, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues
Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yuan Tian, Yan-Ling Li, Feng-Chun Zhao
Polar organisms have been found to develop unique defences against the extreme environment environment, leading to the biosynthesis of novel molecules with diverse bioactivities. This review covers the 219 novel natural products described since 2001, from the Arctic and the Antarctic microoganisms, lichen, moss and marine faunas. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, along with any relevant biological activities are presented. Where reported, synthetic and biosynthetic studies on the polar metabolites have also been included...
February 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
Cindy D Davis
The human body is host to a vast number of microbes, including bacterial, fungal and protozoal microoganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiome is intrinsically linked with overall health, including obesity risk. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by specific alterations in the composition and function of the human gut microbiome. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
Lorena Ruiz, Susana Delgado, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Abelardo Margolles, Borja Sánchez
Bifidobacteria are commensal microoganisms found in the gastrointestinal tract. Several strains have been attributed beneficial traits at local and systemic levels, through pathogen exclusion or immune modulation, among other benefits. This has promoted a growing industrial and scientific interest in bifidobacteria as probiotic supplements. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating this cross-talk with the human host remain unknown. High-throughput technologies, from functional genomics to transcriptomics, proteomics, and interactomics coupled to the development of both in vitro and in vivo models to study the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota and their effects on host cells, have eased the identification of key molecules in these interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martha E Trujillo, Raúl Riesco, Patricia Benito, Lorena Carro
For a long time, it was believed that a healthy plant did not harbor any microorganisms within its tissues, as these were often considered detrimental for the plant. In the last three decades, the numbers of studies on plant microbe-interactions has led to a change in our view and we now know that many of these invisible partners are essential for the overall welfare of the plant. The application of Next Generation Sequencing techniques is a powerful tool that has permitted the detection and identification of microbial communities in healthy plants...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Yang, Mei-Lan Chen, Ai-Juan Shao, Guang Yang
In recent years, the soil borne disease of medicinal plants becomes severely during the process of cultivation and directly endangered the production and quality of raw materials used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The chemical pesticides have been constantly used to prevent and control the soil borne disease, but only a few are effective. Meanwhile, the excessive uses of chemical pesticides also lead pesticide residues in TCM, which often exceed limit of the standard, and harm the human health and cause environmental pollution...
November 2012: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
(no author information available yet)
The biological method of clearing atmospheric condensate in pressurized habitats exploits filters with a heterogenic biocatalyst produced by way of immobilizing harmless for human, animal and plant microoganisms on water-insoluble solid carrier--foam polyvinyl-formal (FPVF), and a hydrogen peroxide biofilter containing triacetate cellulose-immobilized catalase. Experience of forming an immobilized bacterial association as a polyenzyme system is particularly promising for development of advanced biotechnologies...
July 2012: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
Jason K Sello
Antibiotic-producing microoganisms are a reservoir of drug resistance genes. Studies of the "antibiotic resistome" can inform antimicrobial drug discovery and explain the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Westman and colleagues take an alternative look at the resistome and identify genes that could be used to detoxify the anticancer compound, doxorubicin.
October 26, 2012: Chemistry & Biology
A P Newman, E O Nnadi, L J Duckers, A J Cobley
Geotextiles incorporating inorganic nutrients (particularly phosphorous) to enhance the growth of oil degrading microoganisms when geotextiles are used in pervious pavement applications have been shown to be effective in the past. However the cost and manufacturing difficulties have been a barrier to their use. A polypropylene random mat geotextile incorporating an alternative polymer additive as a source of phosphorus has been investigated as a potential self-fertilising geotextile. Experiments are reported which investigate nutrient leach rates, biofilm formation and biodegradation activity...
2011: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zeshi Zhang, Davide Alemani, Jacques Buffle, Raewyn M Town, Kevin J Wilkinson
In a mixture of metal ions and complexes, it is difficult to predict ecological risk without understanding the contribution of each metal species to biouptake. For microorganisms, the rate of uptake (internalization flux) has not only a major influence on the total metal flux but also on the bioavailability of the various metal species and their relative contributions to the total flux. In this paper, the microorganism is considered as a consuming interface, which interacts with the metal ion, M, via the Michaelis-Menten boundary conditions...
October 21, 2011: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Cecilia Socolsky, Mario E Arena, Yoshinori Asakawa, Alicia Bardón
Seven new prenylated acylphloroglucinols, yungensins A-G, were isolated from the diethyl ether extract of the scaly rhizomes and roots of an Argentine collection of the fern Elaphoglossum yungense. All the compounds contained a geranyl group attached to the filicinic acid-type residue. The diethyl ether extract and yungensins A-F displayed antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MICs ranging from 10 to 200 μg/mL. All tested acylphloroglucinols, except for yungensin D, caused bacteriolysis of S...
November 29, 2010: Journal of Natural Products
Martin Baurmann, Wolfgang Ebenhoh, Ulrike Feudel
In general, the distributions of nutrients and microorganisms in sediments show complex spatio-temporal patterns, which often cannot be explained asresulting exclusively from the temporal fluctuations of environmental conditions and the inhomogeneity of the studied sediment's material. We studied the dynamics of one population of microorganisms feeding on a nutrient in a simple model, taking into account that the considered bacteria can be in an active or in a dormant state. Using this model, we shoew that the formation of spatio-temporal patterns can be the consequence of the interaction between predation and transport processes...
June 2004: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
U Lodes, F Meyer, B König, H Lippert
INTRODUCTION: An adequate approach to surgically induced sepsis needs an early and targeted antibiotic therapy in addition to focus sanitation. The PCR-based LightCycler Septifast test can detect 90 % of the sepsis-associated microoganisms (e. g., Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi) within only a few hours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic microbiological screening was performed using conventional cultures from blood, urine, drain material and tracheal secretions as well as with the culture-independent Septifast test (blood supplemented with EDTA) as a comparison in consecutive surgical patients on the intensive care unit within a defined time period...
June 2009: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
J Mohanakrishnan, O Gutierrez, R L Meyer, Z Yuan
The production and emission of hydrogen sulfide and methane by anaerobic microoganisms in sewer systems is a well-documented problem. The effectiveness of nitrite in controlling sulfide and methane production was tested in a laboratory scale sewer reactor. Nitrite was continuously dosed in the reactor for 25 days at concentrations of 20-140mgN/L. No sulfide and methane accumulation was observed in the reactor in the presence of nitrite. A significant reduction was observed in the sulfate reduction and methane production capabilities of the biofilm...
August 2008: Water Research
Cornelia Piper, Dieter Horstkotte
In patients suffering from infective endocarditis (IE), initial symptoms and clinical findings are unspecific. Physicians primarily involved should always consider IE a potential diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and thus in an adequate antimicrobial therapy has a significant negative prognostic influence. Any subject suspected to have IE should immediately have a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) by an experienced examiner. If the TTE results are inconclusive, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has to be performed without delay...
April 15, 2008: Medizinische Klinik
S S Witkin, J Jeremias, A M Bongiovanni, M G Munoz
Spermatozoa are not produced until puberty, long after the establishment of tolerance to self-antigens. Therefore, sperm-specific antigens are immunogenic in men. Most men, however, do not produce antibodies to their own gametes. Development of mechanisms to prevent or limit autoimmune responses to spermatozoa were essential for preservation of reproductive capacity. Tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells, as part of the blood-testis barrier, prevent sperm-immune cell contact. In some portions of the genital tract this barrier is thin or incomplete...
1996: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jin-Yong Lee, Sang-Jun Eun, Ki-Dong Park, Jong-Kyun Kim, Jeong-Soo Im, Yoo-Sung Hwang, Yong-Ik Kim
OBJECTIVES: The biosafety level (BSL) practiced in microbiology laboratories in Korea according to the laboratory biosafety manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated using the data obtained by a survey. METHODS: Under the advise of Clinical Laboratory Physicians, 144 types of microorganisms were screened based on the guidelines of biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories published by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention and classified into 1-4 risk groups...
November 2005: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Pinar Calik, Nazar Ileri, Burak I Erdinç, Nihal Aydogan, Muharrem Argun
As foaming appears as a problem in chemical and fermentation processes that inhibits reactor performance, the eminence of a novel fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon unsymmetrical bolaform (FHUB: OH(CH2)11N+(C2H4)2(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3 I-) surfactant as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent was investigated and compared with other surfactants and a commercial antifoaming agent. The surface elasticity of FHUB was determined as 4 mN/m, indicating its high potential on thinning of the foam film. The interactions between FHUB and the microoganism were investigated in a model fermentation process related with an enzyme production by recombinant Escherichia coli, in V = 3...
September 13, 2005: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yong-Hui Li, Yun Liu, Shi-Chun Wang, Zhao-Yang Tong, Qi-Shou Xu
Metabolic engineering is the analysis of metabolic pathway and designing rational genetic modification to optimize cellular properties by using principle of molecular biology. Aromatic metabolites such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine are essential amino acids for human and animals. In addition, phenylalanine is used in aspartame production. Escherichia coli and many other microoganism synthesize aromatic amino acids through the condensation reaction between phospho-enolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate(E4P) to form 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate(DAHP)...
May 2003: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Wyatt Byrd, Arthur de Lorimier, Zi-Rong Zheng, Frederick J Cassels
Infections of the intestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts are serious health problems worldwide from both a morbidity and mortality perspective. Mucosal pathogens attach to surfaces of mucosa as a prerequisite for colonization and subsequent pathogenesis. By expressing various surface adhesins (colonization factors, CF) they are able to bind to specific mucosal receptors. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can express numerous CF that allow them to attach to a variety of hosts. Mucosal immunity directed against pathogenic microorganisms is critical in host protection with secretory IgA being particularly important in preventing microoganisms from colonizing host cells...
June 17, 2005: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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