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Gabrielle Rushing, Rebecca A Ihrie
BACKGROUND: The origin and classification of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been a subject of intense investigation for the past two decades. Efforts to categorize NSCs based on their location, function and expression have established that these cells are a heterogeneous pool in both the embryonic and adult brain. The discovery and additional characterization of adult NSCs has introduced the possibility of using these cells as a source for neuronal and glial replacement following injury or disease...
August 2016: Frontiers in Biology
Naoko Kaneko, Masato Sawada, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Adult neurogenesis was first observed nearly 60 years ago, and it has since grown into an important neurochemistry research field. Much recent research has focused on the treatment of brain diseases through neuronal regeneration with endogenously generated neurons. In the adult brain, immature neurons called neuroblasts are continuously generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). These neuroblasts migrate rapidly through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, where they mature and are integrated into the neuronal circuitry...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Christina Kyrousi, Zoi Lygerou, Stavros Taraviras
The V-SVZ adult neurogenic niche is located in the wall of the lateral ventricles and contains neural stem cells, with self-renewing and differentiating ability and postmitotic multiciliated ependymal cells, an important structural and trophic component of the niche. The niche is established at postnatal stages from a subpopulation of radial glial cells, determined during embryogenesis. Radial glial cells constitute a heterogeneous population, which give rise, in addition to niche cellular components, to neurons and glial cells...
February 7, 2017: Glia
Joanne C Conover, Krysti L Todd
In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Mathieu Daynac, Linda Tirou, Hélène Faure, Marc-André Mouthon, Laurent R Gauthier, Heidi Hahn, François D Boussin, Martial Ruat
Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Akshitkumar M Mistry, Andrew T Hale, Lola B Chambless, Kyle D Weaver, Reid C Thompson, Rebecca A Ihrie
The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), which lies in the walls of the lateral ventricles (LV), is the largest neurogenic niche within the adult brain. Whether radiographic contact with the LV influences survival in glioblastoma (GBM) patients remains unclear. We assimilated and analyzed published data comparing survival in GBM patients with (LV+GBM) and without (LV-GBM) radiographic LV contact. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane electronic databases were searched. Fifteen studies with survival data on LV+GBM and LV-GBM patients were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ryan N Delgado, Changqing Lu, Daniel A Lim
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Zhenggang Zhang, Michael Chopp
Stroke activates neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, which increases neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Within the ischemic brain, neural stem cells, neuroblasts and OPCs appear to actively communicate with cerebral endothelial cells and other brain parenchymal cells to mediate ischemic brain repair; however, stroke-induced neurogenesis unlikely plays any significant roles in neuronal replacement. In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings how intercellular communications between stroke-induced neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis and brain parenchymal cells could potentially facilitate brain repair processes...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Violeta Silva-Vargas, Angel R Maldonado-Soto, Dogukan Mizrak, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Specialized niches support the lifelong maintenance and function of tissue-specific stem cells. Adult neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which flows through the lateral ventricles. A largely ignored component of the V-SVZ stem cell niche is the lateral ventricle choroid plexus (LVCP), a primary producer of CSF. Here we show that the LVCP, in addition to performing important homeostatic support functions, secretes factors that promote colony formation and proliferation of purified quiescent and activated V-SVZ stem cells and transit-amplifying cells...
July 19, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Davide Lecca, Marta Fumagalli, Stefania Ceruti, Maria P Abbracchio
In the central nervous system (CNS), during both brain and spinal cord development, purinergic and pyrimidinergic signalling molecules (ATP, UTP and adenosine) act synergistically with peptidic growth factors in regulating the synchronized proliferation and final specification of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) to neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Some NSCs still persist throughout adulthood in both specific 'neurogenic' areas and in brain and spinal cord parenchyma, retaining the potentiality to generate all the three main types of adult CNS cells...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Daniel A Lim, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration...
May 2, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Takashi Ogino, Masato Sawada, Hiroshi Takase, Chiemi Nakai, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Naoko Kaneko, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In mammals, ventricular walls of the developing brain maintain a neurogenic niche, in which radial glial cells act as neural stem cells (NSCs) and generate new neurons in the embryo. In the adult brain, the neurogenic niche is maintained in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral wall of lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the neonatal V-SVZ, radial glial cells transform into astrocytic postnatal NSCs and multiciliated ependymal cells. On the other hand, in zebrafish, radial glial cells continue to cover the surface of the adult telencephalic ventricle and maintain a higher neurogenic potential in the adult brain...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Eva Porlan, Beatriz Martí-Prado, Antonella Consiglio, Isabel Fariñas
Relatively quiescent somatic stem cells support life-long cell renewal in most adult tissues. Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain are restricted to two specific neurogenic niches: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ; also called subependymal zone or SEZ) in the walls of the lateral ventricles. The development of in vivo gene transfer strategies for adult stem cell populations (i.e. those of the mammalian brain) resulting in long-term expression of desired transgenes in the stem cells and their derived progeny is a crucial tool in current biomedical and biotechnological research...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rene Solano Fonseca, Swetha Mahesula, Deana M Apple, Rekha Raghunathan, Allison Dugan, Astrid Cardona, Jason O'Connor, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the mammalian forebrain. During aging NSC function is diminished through an unclear mechanism. In this study, we establish microglia, the immune cells of the brain, as integral niche cells within the V-SVZ that undergo age-associated repositioning in the V-SVZ. Microglia become activated early before NSC deficits during aging resulting in an antineurogenic microenvironment due to increased inflammatory cytokine secretion...
April 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neurogenesis in mammals occurs throughout life in two brain regions: the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Development and regulation of the V-SVZ and SGZ is unique to each brain region, but with several similar characteristics. Alterations to the production of new neurons in neurogenic regions have been linked to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Decline in neurogenesis in the SGZ correlates with affective and psychiatric disorders, and can be reversed by antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
Alexander D Ramos, Frank J Attenello, Daniel A Lim
In the past decade, thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified, and emerging data indicate that lncRNAs can have important biological functions and roles in human diseases including cancer. Many lncRNAs appear to be expressed specifically in the brain, and the roles of lncRNAs in neural stem cells (NSCs) and brain development are now beginning to be discovered. Here we review recent advances in understanding the diversity of lncRNA structure and functions in NSCs and brain development. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) generate new neurons throughout life, and we discuss how key elements of this adult neurogenic system have facilitated the discovery and functional characterization of known and novel lncRNAs...
June 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yuki Hirota, Masato Sawada, Shih-Hui Huang, Takashi Ogino, Shinya Ohata, Akiharu Kubo, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In many animal species, the production of new neurons (neurogenesis) occurs throughout life, in a specialized germinal region called the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In this region, neural stem cells undergo self-renewal and generate neural progenitor cells and new neurons. In the olfactory system, the new neurons migrate rostrally toward the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into mature interneurons. V-SVZ-derived new neurons can also migrate toward sites of brain injury, where they contribute to neural regeneration...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
J C Platel, A Bordey
A few decades ago it was discovered that two regions of the adult brain retain the ability to generate new neurons. These regions include the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located at the border of the lateral ventricle. In the V-SVZ, it was discovered that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) share many features of mature astrocytes and are often referred as V-SVZ astrocytes. We will first describe the markers, the morphology, and the neurophysiological characteristics of the mouse V-SVZ astrocytes...
May 26, 2016: Neuroscience
Ryan N Delgado, Daniel A Lim
The adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle produces several subtypes of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons throughout life. Neural stem cells (NSCs) within this zone are heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the lateral ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. The regional expression of specific transcription factors appears to correspond to such geographical differences in the developmental potential of V-SVZ NSCs. However, the transcriptional definition and developmental origin of V-SVZ NSC regional identity are not well understood...
November 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
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