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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801522/vascular-niche-contribution-to-age-associated-neural-stem-cell-dysfunction
#1
Deana Marie Apple, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in the dentate gyrus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), where they continuously provide new neurons and some glia. These cells are found in specialized niches that regulate quiescence, activation, differentiation, and cell fate choice. A key aspect of the regulatory niche is the vascular plexus, which modulates NSC behavior during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. During aging, NSCs become depleted and dysfunctional, resulting in reduced neurogenesis and poor brain repair...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728023/persistent-expression-of-vcam1-in-radial-glial-cells-is-required-for-the-embryonic-origin-of-postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#2
Xiao-Ling Hu, Guo Chen, Sanguo Zhang, Jiangli Zheng, Jun Wu, Qing-Ran Bai, Yue Wang, Ji Li, Huanhuan Wang, Han Feng, Jia Li, Xicai Sun, Qijun Xia, Fan Yang, Jing Hang, Chang Qi, Timothy N Phoenix, Sally Temple, Qin Shen
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648897/unique-organization-of-the-nuclear-envelope-in-the-post-natal-quiescent-neural-stem-cells
#3
Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Clara Alfaro-Cervelló, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Naoko Kaneko, Dae Hwi Park, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Daniel A Lim, José Manuel García-Verdugo
Neural stem cells (B1 astrocytes; NSCs) in the adult ventricular-subventricular-zone (V-SVZ) originate in the embryo. Surprisingly, recent work has shown that B1 cells remain largely quiescent. They are reactivated postnatally to function as primary progenitors for neurons destined for the olfactory bulb and some corpus callosum oligodendrocytes. The cellular and molecular properties of quiescent B1 cells remain unknown. Here we found that a subpopulation of B1 cells has a unique nuclear envelope invagination specialization similar to envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS), reported in certain lymphocytes and some cancer cells...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#4
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#5
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity and, depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here, we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367160/neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity-through-time-and-space-in-the-ventricular-subventricular-zone
#6
Gabrielle Rushing, Rebecca A Ihrie
BACKGROUND: The origin and classification of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been a subject of intense investigation for the past two decades. Efforts to categorize NSCs based on their location, function and expression have established that these cells are a heterogeneous pool in both the embryonic and adult brain. The discovery and additional characterization of adult NSCs has introduced the possibility of using these cells as a source for neuronal and glial replacement following injury or disease...
August 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251650/mechanisms-of-neuronal-migration-in-the-adult-brain
#7
REVIEW
Naoko Kaneko, Masato Sawada, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Adult neurogenesis was first observed nearly 60 years ago, and it has since grown into an important neurochemistry research field. Much recent research has focused on the treatment of brain diseases through neuronal regeneration with endogenously generated neurons. In the adult brain, immature neurons called neuroblasts are continuously generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). These neuroblasts migrate rapidly through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, where they mature and are integrated into the neuronal circuitry...
June 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168763/how-a-radial-glial-cell-decides-to-become-a-multiciliated-ependymal-cell
#8
REVIEW
Christina Kyrousi, Zoi Lygerou, Stavros Taraviras
The V-SVZ adult neurogenic niche is located in the wall of the lateral ventricles and contains neural stem cells, with self-renewing and differentiating ability and postmitotic multiciliated ependymal cells, an important structural and trophic component of the niche. The niche is established at postnatal stages from a subpopulation of radial glial cells, determined during embryogenesis. Radial glial cells constitute a heterogeneous population, which give rise, in addition to niche cellular components, to neurons and glial cells...
February 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867091/development-and-aging-of-a-brain-neural-stem-cell-niche
#9
Joanne C Conover, Krysti L Todd
In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear...
August 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666792/hedgehog-controls-quiescence-and-activation-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-adult-ventricular-subventricular-zone
#10
Mathieu Daynac, Linda Tirou, Hélène Faure, Marc-André Mouthon, Laurent R Gauthier, Heidi Hahn, François D Boussin, Martial Ruat
Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647730/a-mosaic-world-puzzles-revealed-by-adult-neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#11
REVIEW
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644688/influence-of-glioblastoma-contact-with-the-lateral-ventricle-on-survival-a-meta-analysis
#12
Akshitkumar M Mistry, Andrew T Hale, Lola B Chambless, Kyle D Weaver, Reid C Thompson, Rebecca A Ihrie
The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), which lies in the walls of the lateral ventricles (LV), is the largest neurogenic niche within the adult brain. Whether radiographic contact with the LV influences survival in glioblastoma (GBM) patients remains unclear. We assimilated and analyzed published data comparing survival in GBM patients with (LV+GBM) and without (LV-GBM) radiographic LV contact. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane electronic databases were searched. Fifteen studies with survival data on LV+GBM and LV-GBM patients were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606338/maintenance-of-neural-stem-cell-regional-identity-in-culture
#13
Ryan N Delgado, Changqing Lu, Daniel A Lim
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488979/neural-stem-cells-and-ischemic-brain
#14
REVIEW
Zhenggang Zhang, Michael Chopp
Stroke activates neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, which increases neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Within the ischemic brain, neural stem cells, neuroblasts and OPCs appear to actively communicate with cerebral endothelial cells and other brain parenchymal cells to mediate ischemic brain repair; however, stroke-induced neurogenesis unlikely plays any significant roles in neuronal replacement. In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings how intercellular communications between stroke-induced neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis and brain parenchymal cells could potentially facilitate brain repair processes...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452173/age-dependent-niche-signals-from-the-choroid-plexus-regulate-adult-neural-stem-cells
#15
Violeta Silva-Vargas, Angel R Maldonado-Soto, Dogukan Mizrak, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Specialized niches support the lifelong maintenance and function of tissue-specific stem cells. Adult neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which flows through the lateral ventricles. A largely ignored component of the V-SVZ stem cell niche is the lateral ventricle choroid plexus (LVCP), a primary producer of CSF. Here we show that the LVCP, in addition to performing important homeostatic support functions, secretes factors that promote colony formation and proliferation of purified quiescent and activated V-SVZ stem cells and transit-amplifying cells...
November 3, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377726/intertwining-extracellular-nucleotides-and-their-receptors-with-ca2-in-determining-adult-neural-stem-cell-survival-proliferation-and-final-fate
#16
REVIEW
Davide Lecca, Marta Fumagalli, Stefania Ceruti, Maria P Abbracchio
In the central nervous system (CNS), during both brain and spinal cord development, purinergic and pyrimidinergic signalling molecules (ATP, UTP and adenosine) act synergistically with peptidic growth factors in regulating the synchronized proliferation and final specification of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) to neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Some NSCs still persist throughout adulthood in both specific 'neurogenic' areas and in brain and spinal cord parenchyma, retaining the potentiality to generate all the three main types of adult CNS cells...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048191/the-adult-ventricular-subventricular-zone-v-svz-and-olfactory-bulb-ob-neurogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Daniel A Lim, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration...
May 2, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991819/characterization-of-multiciliated-ependymal-cells-that-emerge-in-the-neurogenic-niche-of-the-aged-zebrafish-brain
#18
Takashi Ogino, Masato Sawada, Hiroshi Takase, Chiemi Nakai, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Naoko Kaneko, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In mammals, ventricular walls of the developing brain maintain a neurogenic niche, in which radial glial cells act as neural stem cells (NSCs) and generate new neurons in the embryo. In the adult brain, the neurogenic niche is maintained in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral wall of lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the neonatal V-SVZ, radial glial cells transform into astrocytic postnatal NSCs and multiciliated ependymal cells. On the other hand, in zebrafish, radial glial cells continue to cover the surface of the adult telencephalic ventricle and maintain a higher neurogenic potential in the adult brain...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967974/stable-and-efficient-genetic-modification-of-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-v-svz-for-the-analysis-of-neural-stem-cell-autonomous-and-non-autonomous-effects
#19
Eva Porlan, Beatriz Martí-Prado, Antonella Consiglio, Isabel Fariñas
Relatively quiescent somatic stem cells support life-long cell renewal in most adult tissues. Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain are restricted to two specific neurogenic niches: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ; also called subependymal zone or SEZ) in the walls of the lateral ventricles. The development of in vivo gene transfer strategies for adult stem cell populations (i.e. those of the mammalian brain) resulting in long-term expression of desired transgenes in the stem cells and their derived progeny is a crucial tool in current biomedical and biotechnological research...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857912/neurogenic-niche-microglia-undergo-positional-remodeling-and-progressive-activation-contributing-to-age-associated-reductions-in-neurogenesis
#20
Rene Solano Fonseca, Swetha Mahesula, Deana M Apple, Rekha Raghunathan, Allison Dugan, Astrid Cardona, Jason O'Connor, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the mammalian forebrain. During aging NSC function is diminished through an unclear mechanism. In this study, we establish microglia, the immune cells of the brain, as integral niche cells within the V-SVZ that undergo age-associated repositioning in the V-SVZ. Microglia become activated early before NSC deficits during aging resulting in an antineurogenic microenvironment due to increased inflammatory cytokine secretion...
April 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
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