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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#1
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#3
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596978/multiple-roles-of-ulk4-in-neurogenesis-and-brain-function
#4
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Neurogenesis is essential for proper brain formation and function, and abnormal neural proliferation is an underlying neuropathology of many brain disorders. Recent advances on adult neurogenesis demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) at the subventricular zone (SVZ) are largely derived during mid-embryonic neurogenesis from a subset of cells, which slow down in their pace of cell division,(1) become quiescent cells and can be reactivated in need.(2) The NSCs at birth constitute the stem cell pool for both postnatal oligodendrogenesis(3) and adult neurogenesis...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596977/different-forms-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-adult-olfactory-bulb
#5
REVIEW
Delphine Hardy, Armen Saghatelyan
The adult olfactory bulb (OB) continuously receives new interneurons that integrate into the functional neuronal network and that play an important role in odor information processing and olfactory behavior. Adult neuronal progenitors are derived from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricle. They migrate long distances along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the OB where they differentiate into interneurons, mature, and establish synapses with tufted or mitral cells (MC), the principal neurons in the OB...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592981/acupuncture-stimulation-at-gb34-restores-mptp-induced-neurogenesis-impairment-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-mice
#6
Hyongjun Jeon, Sun Ryu, Dongsoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Ki-Tae Ha, Seungtae Kim
Adult neurogenesis has recently been considered a new therapeutic paradigm of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture restores 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-) induced impaired neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Male C57BL/6 mice were given 30 mg/kg of MPTP intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and given acupuncture stimulation at HT7 or GB34 for 12 consecutive days...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567003/evidence-of-a-cell-surface-role-for-hsp90-complex-proteins-mediating-neuroblast-migration-in-the-subventricular-zone
#7
Leo M Miyakoshi, Diego Marques-Coelho, Luiz E R De Souza, Flavia R S Lima, Vilma R Martins, Silvio M Zanata, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira
In most mammalian brains, the subventricular zone (SVZ) is a germinative layer that maintains neurogenic activity throughout adulthood. Neuronal precursors arising from this region migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and reach the olfactory bulbs where they differentiate and integrate into the local circuitry. Recently, studies have shown that heat shock proteins have an important role in cancer cell migration and blocking Hsp90 function was shown to hinder cell migration in the developing cerebellum...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551702/alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-signaling-pathway-participates-in-the-neurogenesis-induced-by-chat-positive-neurons-in-the-subventricular-zone
#8
Jianping Wang, Zhengfang Lu, Xiaojie Fu, Di Zhang, Lie Yu, Nan Li, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Chunmao Yin, Junji Ke, Liyuan Li, Mengmeng Zhai, Shiwen Wu, Jiahong Fan, Liang Lv, Junchao Liu, Xuemei Chen, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
Choline acetyltransferase-positive (ChAT(+)) neurons within the subventricular zone (SVZ) have been shown to promote neurogenesis after stroke in mice by secreting acetylcholine (ACh); however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Receptors known to bind ACh include the nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), which are present in the SVZ and have been shown to be important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, we investigated the neurogenic role of the alpha-7 nAChR (α7 nAChR) in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by using α7 nAChR inhibitor methyllycaconitine...
May 27, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547077/effects-of-the-combined-treatment-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-with-mild-exercise-and-thyroid-hormone-on-brain-damage-and-apoptosis-in-a-mouse-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#9
Kobar Akhoundzadeh, Abedin Vakili, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Manouchehr Safari, Razieh Mohammadkhani
This study examined whether post-stroke bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) therapy combined with exercise (EX) and/or thyroid hormone (TH) could reduce brain damage in an experimental ischemic stroke in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced under Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) guide by 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 7 days of reperfusion in albino mice. BMSCs were injected into the right cerebral ventricle 24 h after MCAO, followed by daily injection of T3 (20 μg/100 g weight S...
May 25, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546341/intra-generational-protein-malnutrition-impairs-temporal-astrogenesis-in-rat-brain
#10
Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Nisha Patro, Pankaj Seth, Ishan K Patro
The scanty information on astrogenesis following stressor effect, albeit imperative roles of astroglia in normal physiology and pathophysiology, incited us to assess temporal astrogenesis and astrocyte density in an intra-generational protein malnutrition (PMN) rat model. Standard immunohistochemical procedures for glial lineage markers and their intensity measurements and qRT-PCR studies were performed to reveal the spatio-temporal origin and density of astrocytes. Reduced A2B5+ glia restricted precursor population in ventricles and poor dissemination to cortex at embryonic days (E)11-14, low BLBP+ secondary radial glia in SVZ of E16 LP brains reflect compromised progenitor pooling...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534273/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-enhances-mitochondrial-biogenesis-neural-stem-cell-pool-and-early-neurogenesis-in-adult-rats
#11
Rita Soares, Filipa F Ribeiro, Sara Xapelli, Tânia Genebra, Maria F Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião, Cecília M P Rodrigues, Susana Solá
Although neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), using rat postnatal neurospheres and adult rats exposed to the bile acid...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521038/ventricular-zone-disruption-in-human-neonates-with-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#12
James P McAllister, Maria Montserrat Guerra, Leandro Castaneyra Ruiz, Antonio J Jimenez, Dolores Dominguez-Pinos, Deborah Sival, Wilfred den Dunnen, Diego M Morales, Robert E Schmidt, Esteban M Rodriguez, David D Limbrick
To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls without hemorrhages or ventriculomegaly. Birth and expiration estimated gestational ages were 23.0-39.1 and 23.7-44.1 weeks, respectively; survival ranges were 0-42 days (median, 2.0 days). Routine histology and immunohistochemistry for neural stem cells (NSCs), neural progenitors (NPs), multiciliated ependymal cells (ECs), astrocytes (AS), and cell adhesion molecules were performed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#13
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493916/vesicular-glutamate-transporters-play-a-role-in-neuronal-differentiation-of-cultured-svz-derived-neural-precursor-cells
#14
Eduardo H Sánchez-Mendoza, Victor Bellver-Landete, Carmen Arce, Thorsten R Doeppner, Dirk M Hermann, María Jesús Oset-Gasque
The role of glutamate in the regulation of neurogenesis is well-established, but the role of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) and excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in controlling adult neurogenesis is unknown. Here we investigated the implication of VGLUTs in the differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs). Our results show that NPCs express VGLUT1-3 and EAAT1-3 both at the mRNA and protein level. Their expression increases during differentiation closely associated with the expression of marker genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489848/a-coordinated-dna-damage-response-promotes-adult-quiescent-neural-stem-cell-activation
#15
Lara Barazzuol, Limei Ju, Penny A Jeggo
Stem and differentiated cells frequently differ in their response to DNA damage, which can determine tissue sensitivity. By exploiting insight into the spatial arrangement of subdomains within the adult neural subventricular zone (SVZ) in vivo, we show distinct responses to ionising radiation (IR) between neural stem and progenitor cells. Further, we reveal different DNA damage responses between neonatal and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Neural progenitors (transit amplifying cells and neuroblasts) but not NSCs (quiescent and activated) undergo apoptosis after 2 Gy IR...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487967/comparative-analysis-of-the-beneficial-effects-of-treadmill-training-and-electroacupuncture-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#16
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill training and electroacupuncture (EA) have autonomous or synergistic beneficial effects on deficits caused by neonatal hypoxia‑ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this purpose, rats subjected to hypoxia-ischemia underwent treadmill training and EA stimulation from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Conventional EA (CEA) and scalp EA (SEA) were delivered by electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA) at traditional acupoints and at the scalp to the primary motor area, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480563/cell-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-host-brain-repair-machinery-gets-a-boost-from-stem-cell-grafts
#17
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
This commentary highlights the major findings and future research directions arising from the recent publication by Zuo and colleagues in Stem Cells 2017 (in press). Here, we discuss the novel observations that transplanted human neural stem cells can induce endogenous brain repair by specifically stimulating a host of regenerative processes in the neurogenic niche (i.e., subventricular zone [SVZ]) in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. That the identified therapeutic proteomes, neurotrophic factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the SVZ may facilitate brain regeneration and behavioral recovery open a new venue of research for our understanding of the pathology and treatment of Parkinson's disease...
June 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469129/subventricular-zone-involvement-in-glioblastoma-a-proteomic-evaluation-and-clinicoradiological-correlation
#18
Kishore Gollapalli, Saicharan Ghantasala, Sachendra Kumar, Rajneesh Srivastava, Srikanth Rapole, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Sridhar Epari, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant of all gliomas is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and poor response to treatment. The sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) is the major site of neurogenesis in the brain and is rich in neural stem cells. Based on the proximity of the GBM tumors to the SVZ, the tumors can be further classified into SVZ+ and SVZ-. The tumors located in close contact with the SVZ are classified as SVZ+, while the tumors located distantly from the SVZ are classified as SVZ-...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467985/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-treatment-on-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-an-ovine-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#19
Margie Castillo-Melendez, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465137/hippocampal-neurogenesis-of-wistar-kyoto-rats-is-congenitally-impaired-and-correlated-with-stress-resistance
#20
Kyohei Kin, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Michiari Umakoshi, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Naoki Tajiri, Isao Date
The hippocampus is thought to be an important region for depression. However, the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and depression is still controversial. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are frequently used as a depression model. WKY rats are known to show physiologically abnormal features, and these features resemble abnormalities seen in depressed patients. However, the neurogenesis of WKY rats is still unknown. In this study, we first evaluated the neurogenesis of WKY rats and compared it to that of Wistar (WIS) rats...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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