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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154990/exosomes-derived-from-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-promote-neural-stem-cell-expansion-while-maintain-their-stemness-in-culture
#1
Yi-Zhe Zhang, Fan Liu, Chang-Geng Song, Xiu-Li Cao, Yu-Fei Zhang, Hai-Ning Wu, Chen-Jun Guo, Yong-Qiang Li, Qi-Jun Zheng, Min-Hua Zheng, Hua Han
The neural stem cell (NSC) niche in subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mammalian brain contains dense vascular plexus, where endothelial cells (ECs) regulate NSCs by releasing plenty of angiocrine factors. However, the role of ECs-derived exosomes, a novel type of mediators of intercellular communications, in the regulation of NSCs remains unclear. In the current study, primary NSCs isolated from embryonic mouse brains form more neurospheres when cultured in the presence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153395/ultrasound-mediated-kallidinogenase-loaded-microbubble-targeted-therapy-for-acute-cerebral-infarction
#2
Yanling Liang, Jia Chen, Xuan Zheng, Zhiyi Chen, Yuming Liu, Siying Li, Xiaobo Fang
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective effects of kallidinogenase against acute cerebral infarction have been demonstrated, and the use of microbubbles has been suggested as a therapeutic mechanism for drug delivery. This study was designed to investigate the optimal parameters for preparing kallidinogenase-loaded microbubbles (KLMs) and to evaluate the effects of KLM-targeted therapy on neurogenesis and angiogenesis following experimental acute cerebral infarction in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KLMs were prepared by mechanical shaking...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#3
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129683/non-monotonic-changes-in-progenitor-cell-behavior-and-gene-expression-during-aging-of-the-adult-v-svz-neural-stem-cell-niche
#5
Maria Apostolopoulou, Thomas R Kiehl, Mark Winter, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Nathan C Boles, Christopher S Bjornsson, Kristen L Zuloaga, Susan K Goderie, Yue Wang, Andrew R Cohen, Sally Temple
Neural stem cell activity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) decreases with aging, thought to occur by a unidirectional decline. However, by analyzing the V-SVZ transcriptome of male mice at 2, 6, 18, and 22 months, we found that most of the genes that change significantly over time show a reversal of trend, with a maximum or minimum expression at 18 months. In vivo, MASH1(+) progenitor cells decreased in number and proliferation between 2 and 18 months but increased between 18 and 22 months...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126954/quantitative-analysis-of-kynurenine-aminotransferase-ii-in-the-adult-rat-brain-reveals-high-expression-in-proliferative-zones-and-corpus-callosum
#6
Chang Song, Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, James D Nicholson, Kelley J Murphy, Ta-Chung M Mou, Robert Schwarcz, Gloria E Hoffman, Leonardo H Tonelli
Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110250/treatment-with-the-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-in-the-early-post-ischemia-phase-inhibits-pro-inflammatory-responses-and-promotes-neurogenesis-via-the-activation-of-innate-and-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-in-rats
#7
Tomoya Kinouchi, Kenji Shimada, Kenji Yagi, Yoshiteru Tada, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Yoshitaka Kurashiki, Junichiro Satomi, Masataka Sata, Shinji Nagahiro
Neurogenesis is essential for a good post-stroke outcome. Exogenous stem cells are currently being tested to promote neurogenesis after stroke. Elsewhere, we demonstrated that treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PGZ) before cerebral ischemia induction reduced brain damage and activated survival-related genes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here, we tested our hypothesis that post-ischemia treatment with PGZ inhibits brain damage and contributes to neurogenesis via activated stem cells. Bone marrow (BM) cells of 7-week-old Wistar female rats were replaced with BM cells from green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP(+BM)) rats...
November 6, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108047/imposed-running-exercise-does-not-alter-cell-proliferation-in-the-neurogenic-niches-of-young-lambs
#8
M E V Swanson, H C Murray, M H Oliver, H J Waldvogel, E C Firth, M A Curtis
Neurogenesis, the process by which neurons are generated in the brain from progenitor cells, occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the adult human brain. Recently, rodent studies have demonstrated that exercise can increase neurogenesis in the SGZ; however, it is unclear if exercise also has this effect in more complex mammalian brains. The overarching aim of this study was to explore whether exercised-induced neurogenesis occurs in larger mammalian brains more representative of human brains and to explore the use of a model for exercising large animals such as sheep...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107300/adult-neural-stem-cell-fate-is-determined-by-thyroid-hormone-activation-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#9
J D Gothié, A Sébillot, C Luongo, M Legendre, C Nguyen Van, K Le Blay, M Perret-Jeanneret, S Remaud, B A Demeneix
OBJECTIVE: In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) produce both neuronal and glial cells. Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate adult NSC differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype, but also have major roles in mitochondrial metabolism. As NSC metabolism relies mainly on glycolysis, whereas mature cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation, we studied how THs and mitochondrial metabolism interact on NSC fate determination. METHODS: We used a mitochondrial membrane potential marker in vivo to analyze mitochondrial activity in the different cell types in the SVZ of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104534/mir-148b-regulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-rat-ischemic-stroke-model
#10
Jingru Wang, Tuanzhi Chen, Guangzhen Shan
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke induced proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) that have been proven to participate in ischemic brain repair. However, molecular mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis have not been fully investigated. MicroRNAs play an important role in the neurological repairing process and impact stroke recovery outcome. MiRNA-148b has been reported to regulate cell proliferation in tumor cells, but its role in NSCs after ischemic stroke remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081811/transplanted-adult-neural-stem-cells-express-sonic-hedgehog-in-vivo-and-suppress-white-matter-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Neural stem cells (NSCs) delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076551/tgf-%C3%AE-pro-oligodendrogenic-effects-on-adult-svz-progenitor-cultures-and-its-interaction-with-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#12
Laura I Gómez Pinto, Debora Rodríguez, Ana M Adamo, Patricia A Mathieu
Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. Notch and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β) signaling pathways play critical roles in controlling these cell fate decisions. TGF-β has been previously shown to exert pro-neurogenic effects on hippocampal and subventricular zone (SVZ) NPCs in vitro and to interact with Notch in different cellular types. Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the effect of TGF-β on adult rat brain SVZ NPC glial commitment and its interaction with Notch signaling...
October 27, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058117/recapitulating-cortical-development-with-organoid-culture-in-vitro-and-modeling-abnormal-spindle-like-aspm-related-primary-microcephaly-disease
#13
Rui Li, Le Sun, Ai Fang, Peng Li, Qian Wu, Xiaoqun Wang
The development of a cerebral organoid culture in vitro offers an opportunity to generate human brain-like organs to investigate mechanisms of human disease that are specific to the neurogenesis of radial glial (RG) and outer radial glial (oRG) cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex. Modeling neuronal progenitors and the organization that produces mature subcortical neuron subtypes during early stages of development is essential for studying human brain developmental diseases...
October 23, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050872/manf-promotes-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-progenitor-cells-with-potential-neural-regenerative-effects-in-stroke
#14
Kuan-Yin Tseng, Jenni E Anttila, Konstantin Khodosevich, Raimo K Tuominen, Maria Lindahl, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs die shortly after injury or are unable to arrive at the infarct boundary. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endogenous mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects NSCs against oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced injury and has a crucial role in regulating NPC migration...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033352/the-primate-specific-gene-tmem14b-marks-outer-radial-glia-cells-and-promotes-cortical-expansion-and-folding
#15
Jing Liu, Wensu Liu, Lu Yang, Qian Wu, Haofeng Zhang, Ai Fang, Long Li, Xiaohui Xu, Le Sun, Jun Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiaoqun Wang
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024634/space-invaders-brain-tumor-exploitation-of-the-stem-cell-niche
#16
REVIEW
Justine Sinnaeve, Bret C Mobley, Rebecca A Ihrie
Increasing evidence indicates that the adult neurogenic niche of the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), beyond serving as a potential site of origin, affects the outcome of malignant brain cancers. Glioma contact with this niche predicts worse prognosis, suggesting a supportive role for the V-SVZ environment in tumor initiation or progression. In this review, we describe unique components of the V-SVZ that may permit or promote tumor growth within the region. Cell-cell interactions, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix composition are discussed, and the role of the niche in future therapies is explored...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988711/in%C3%A2-vivo-selection-of-a-computationally-designed-schema-aav-library-yields-a-novel-variant-for-infection-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-in-the-svz
#17
David S Ojala, Sabrina Sun, Jorge L Santiago-Ortiz, Mikhail G Shapiro, Philip A Romero, David V Schaffer
Directed evolution continues to expand the capabilities of complex biomolecules for a range of applications, such as adeno-associated virus vectors for gene therapy; however, advances in library design and selection strategies are key to develop variants that overcome barriers to clinical translation. To address this need, we applied structure-guided SCHEMA recombination of the multimeric adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid to generate a highly diversified chimeric library with minimal structural disruption...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981617/transcription-factors-sp8-and-sp9-coordinately-regulate-olfactory-bulb-interneuron-development
#18
Jiwen Li, Chunyang Wang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Yan Wen, Lei An, Qifei Liang, Zhejun Xu, Song Wei, Weiwei Li, Teng Guo, Guoping Liu, Guangxu Tao, Yan You, Heng Du, Zhuoning Fu, Miao He, Bin Chen, Kenneth Campbell, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, John L Rubenstein, Zhengang Yang
Neural stem cells in the postnatal telencephalic ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) generate new interneurons, which migrate tangentially through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB). The Sp8 and Sp9 transcription factors are expressed in neuroblasts, as well as in the immature and mature interneurons in the V-SVZ-RMS-OB system. Here we show that Sp8 and Sp9 coordinately regulate OB interneuron development: although Sp9 null mutants show no major OB interneuron defect, conditional deletion of both Sp8 and Sp9 resulted in a much more severe reduction of OB interneuron number than that observed in the Sp8 conditional mutant mice, due to defects in neuronal differentiation, tangential and radial migration, and increased cell death in the V-SVZ-RMS-OB system...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966131/ras-grf2-regulates-nestin-positive-stem-cell-density-and-onset-of-differentiation-during-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#19
Carmela Gómez, David Jimeno, Alberto Fernández-Medarde, Rósula García-Navas, Nuria Calzada, Eugenio Santos
Various parameters of neurogenesis were analyzed in parallel in the two neurogenic areas (the Dentate Gyrus[DG] and the Subventricular Zone[SVZ]/Rostral Migratory Stream[RMS]/Main Olfactory Bulb[MOB] neurogenic system) of adult WT and KO mouse strains for the Ras-GRF1/2 genes (Ras-GRF1-KO, Ras-GRF2-KO, Ras-GRF1/2-DKO). Significantly reduced numbers of doublecortin[DCX]-positive cells were specifically observed in the DG, but not the SVZ/RMS/MOB neurogenic region, of Ras-GRF2-KO and Ras-GRF1/2-DKO mice indicating that this novel Ras-GRF2-dependent phenotype is spatially restricted to a specific neurogenic area...
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964836/update-on-forebrain-evolution-from-neurogenesis-to-thermogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Fernando García-Moreno, Maria Antonietta Tosches, András Csillag, Paul R Manger, Zoltán Molnár
Comparative developmental studies provide growing understanding of vertebrate forebrain evolution. This short review directs the spotlight to some newly emerging aspects, including the evolutionary origin of the proliferative region known as the subventricular zone (SVZ) and of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) that populate the SVZ, neural circuits that originated within homologous regions across all amniotes, and the role of thermogenesis in the acquisition of an increased brain size. These data were presented at the 8th European Conference on Comparative Neurobiology...
October 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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