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Androgenic alopecia

Gustavo José Leirós, Julieta María Ceruti, María Lía Castellanos, Ana Gabriela Kusinsky, María Eugenia Balañá
In androgenetic alopecia, androgens impair dermal papilla-induced hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) differentiation inhibiting Wnt signaling. Wnt agonists/antagonists balance was analyzed after dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation in androgen-sensitive dermal papilla cells (DPC) cultured as spheroids or monolayer. In both culture conditions, DHT stimulation downregulated Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA while the Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 was upregulated. Notably, tissue architecture of DPC-spheroids lowers Dkk-1 and enhances Wnt agonists' basal expression; probably contributing to DPC inductivity...
October 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Regina Feederle, Josef-Karl Gerber, Amy Middleton, Emily Northrup, Ralf Kist, Elisabeth Kremmer, Heiko Peters
Pax genes encode an evolutionary conserved group of transcription factors with multiple roles during embryonic development and for cell type specification in normal and malignant tissues of the adult organism. In mice, Pax1 is required for the formation of specific skeletal structures as well as for the development of a fully functional thymus. In humans, the PAX1 locus has been linked to otofaciocervical syndrome, idiopathic scoliosis, and to a higher susceptibility for androgenic alopecia. In addition, the methylation status of PAX1 has recently emerged as a sensitive marker for predictive screening of cervical cancer...
October 5, 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Mahnaz Banihashemi, Yalda Nahidi, Naser Tayyebi Meibodi, Lida Jarahi, Mojgan Dolatkhah
BACKGROUND: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients...
July 2016: International Journal of Trichology
Kanagaraj Ramsamy, Radhakrishnan Subramaniyan, Anjan Kumar Patra
INTRODUCTION: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by miniaturization of the hair follicle, leading to vellus transformation of the terminal hair follicle. It is caused by interactions between androgens, several genes, and environmental factors with hair follicles. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent among elderly men but infrequent in those younger than 40 years. Because both entities share a common pathogenesis and AGA manifests before the onset of BPH, there could be an association between AGA and BPH...
April 2016: International Journal of Trichology
Joanna L Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom, Shoshana Landow
A 77-year-old woman born in the Dominican Republic presented with fullness of the glabella and medial eyebrows for 1 year followed by alopecia of the lateral eyebrows and frontal hairline. She stated that although she had a high hairline at baseline, it had receded in the past year. She had also noted central scalp hair thinning that started 6 years earlier. She denied all styling practices that used traction or chemical processes, although she admitted to hair dye and blow dryer use. She reported "acne" in the central face for decades and darkening of the skin on the lateral face for several years...
2016: Skinmed
Naglaa F Agamia, Tamer Abou Youssif, Abeer El-Hadidy, Amr El-Abd
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and metabolic syndrome in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in comparison with those with no AGA, as several previous studies have reported inconsistent results of an association between metabolic syndrome and BPH with AGA. PATIENTS SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 400 participants, divided into 300 patients diagnosed with AGA, with different grades according to Norwood-Hamilton classification, and 100 control subjects with no AGA...
June 2016: Arab Journal of Urology
Gwang Seong Choi, Joon Hyung Kim, Shin-Young Oh, Jung-Min Park, Ji-Soo Hong, Yil-Seob Lee, Won-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: After the approval of dutastride for androgenic alopecia (AGA) in 2009, Korean authority required a post-marketing surveillance to obtain further data on its safety profile. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to monitor adverse events (AEs) of dutasteride 0.5 mg in Korean AGA male patients in a clinical practice environment. METHODS: Open label, multi-center, non-interventional observational study was done from July 2009 to July 2013...
August 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Niloufar Torkamani, Nicholas Rufaut, Leslie Jones, Rodney Sinclair
Proximally, the arrector pili muscle (APM) attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the bulge, but its distal properties are comparatively unclear. In this work, a novel method employing an F-actin probe, phalloidin, was employed to visualize the APM anatomy. Phalloidin staining of the APM was validated by comparison with conventional antibodies/stains and by generating three-dimensional reconstructions. The proximal attachment of the APM to the bulge in 8 patients with androgenic alopecia was studied using Masson's trichrome stain...
July 29, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Alfredo Rossi, Alessia Anzalone, Maria Caterina Fortuna, Gemma Caro, Valentina Garelli, Giulia Pranteda, Marta Carlesimo
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a genetically determined progressive hair-loss condition which represents the most common cause of hair loss in men. The use of the medical term androgenetic alopecia reflects current knowledge about the important role of androgens and genetic factors in its etiology. In addition to androgen-dependent changes in the hair cycle, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation contributes to its onset. Furthermore, Prostaglandins have been demonstrated to have the ability in modulating hair follicle cycle; in particular, PGD2 inhibits hair growth while PGE2/F2a promote growth...
July 18, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
Daria Lizneva, Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan, Walidah Walker, Ricardo Azziz
Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia...
May 19, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Birgit N Khandalavala, Melissa Voutsalath Do
OBJECTIVE: Hidradenitis suppurativa is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and a hormonal component has been implicated. Finasteride is an anti-androgenic agent used for benign prostatic hypertrophy, androgenic alopecia, and, in females, hirsutism. Finasteride is an inhibitor of type II5 alpha-reductase that reduces dihydrotestosterone levels and appears to alter end-organ sensitivity of the folliculopilosebaceous unit. The objective is to review the use of finasteride for hidradenitis suppurativa...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Helen Triantafyllidi, Agis Grafakos, Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Pavlidis, Paraskevi Trivilou, Antonis Schoinas, John Lekakis
An association between androgenic alopecia (AGA), coronary artery disease, and hypertension has been reported in previous epidemiological studies. The authors evaluated the relationship of target organ damage caused by hypertension with AGA in 101 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension men with mild to moderate AGA (AGAm ), severe AGA (AGAs ), and non-AGA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), office and 24-hour pulse pressure (PP), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary flow reserve (CFRd), and AGA severity by Hamilton-Norwood scale were estimated...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Seyed Mehdi Tabaie, Hoda Berenji Ardestani, Mir Hadi Azizjalali
INTRODUCTION: Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation...
2016: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
Sarita Sanke, Ram Chander, Anju Jain, Taru Garg, Pravesh Yadav
IMPORTANCE: Early androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is patterned hair loss occurring before age 30 years. Early AGA in men is frequently reported as the phenotypic equivalent of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women, which carries the risk of developing obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate this. OBJECTIVE: To study the hormonal profile of men with early AGA and to evaluate if early AGA in men can be considered as the phenotypic equivalent of PCOS, the associated risks of which are well known...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Anita K Gupta, Neetu Sharma, Prashant Shukla
Finasteride and dutasteride are commonly used 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. While finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase Type II, dutasteride inhibits 5- alpha reductase Type I and II. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of finasteride for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as androgenic alopecia (AGA) while dutasteride is approved only for BPH. Off-label use of dutasteride is not uncommon in AGA as well. Although the postfinasteride syndrome (PFS) is a well-established entity, its symptomatology is quite variable...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Hima Gopinath, Gatha M Upadya
BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. AIM: To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. METHODS: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Shanghun Shin, Karam Kim, Myung Joo Lee, Jeongju Lee, Sungjin Choi, Kyung-Suk Kim, Jung-Min Ko, Hyunjoo Han, Su Young Kim, Hae Jeong Youn, Kyu Joong Ahn, In-Sook An, Sungkwan An, Hwa Jun Cha
BACKGROUND: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces androgenic alopecia by shortening the hair follicle growth phase, resulting in hair loss. We previously demonstrated how changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile influenced DHT-mediated cell death, cell cycle arrest, cell viability, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence. Protective effects against DHT have not, however, been elucidated at the genome level. OBJECTIVE: We showed that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, protects DHT-induced cell death by regulating the cellular miRNA expression profile...
June 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Jan Schoones
BACKGROUND: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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