Read by QxMD icon Read


Minhan Ka, Jeffrey J Moffat, Woo-Yang Kim
GABAergic interneurons develop in the ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate during development. However, key molecules controlling interneuron migration remain poorly identified. Here, we show that microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) regulates GABAergic interneuron migration and positioning in the developing mouse brain. To investigate the role of MACF1 in developing interneurons, we conditionally deleted the MACF1 gene in mouse interneuron progenitors and their progeny using Dlx5/6-Cre-IRES-EGFP and Nkx2...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Yong Huang, Tongwei Chu, Tongquan Liao, Xu Hu, Bo Huang
Molecular and functional mechanisms of bone metastases were poorly understood. This study was to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional proteins in bone metastases from lung for better understanding of the molecular and functional mechanisms. Our results suggested CTSS, CTSD, MX1, NKX2-1 might play a decisive role in bone metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrated that bone metastasis from lung cancer would lead to changes in lysosome function, which may affect the decomposition and elimination of old bone matrix, thus affecting bone turnover...
August 9, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ryan N Delgado, Changqing Lu, Daniel A Lim
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Guoping Liu, Kainan Wu, Yuan Sheng
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of ATC were systematically explored. A total of 55 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from two mRNA expression datasets including 23 ATC samples and 24 paired normal samples. Gene expression levels of three randomly selected DEGs, VCAN, COL5A1 and KCNJ16, were examined using RT-PCR in 10 ATC samples. Notably, the ATC and normal samples were clearly classified into two groups based on their common DEGs...
September 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
Daniel Silberschmidt, Alina Rodriguez-Mallon, Prathiba Mithboakar, Gaetano Calì, Elena Amendola, Remo Sanges, Mariastella Zannini, Marzia Scarfò, Pasquale De Luca, Lucio Nitsch, Roberto Di Lauro, Mario De Felice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Christopher Y Chen, Alex Plocik, Nickesha C Anderson, Daniel Moakley, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn Dundes, Chelsea Lassiter, Brenton R Graveley, Laura Grabel
The generation of inhibitory interneuron progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is of great interest due to their potential use in transplantation therapies designed to treat central nervous system disorders. The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a transient embryonic structure in the ventral telencephalon that is a major source of cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneuron progenitors. These progenitors migrate tangentially to sites in the cortex and differentiate into a variety of interneuron subtypes, forming local synaptic connections with excitatory projection neurons to modulate activity of the cortical circuitry...
August 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Alexia L Weeks, Scott G Wilson, Lynley Ward, Jack Goldblatt, Jennie Hui, John P Walsh
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of nonsyndromic familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is poorly understood. A recent study identified HABP2 as a tumor suppressor gene and identified a germline variant (G534E) in an extended FNMTC kindred. The relevance of this to other FNMTC kindreds is uncertain. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was performed on peripheral blood DNA from probands from 37 Australian FNMTC kindreds to detect the G534E variant. Whole exome data from 59 participants from 20 kindreds were examined for mutations in HABP2 and the thyroid cancer susceptibility genes SRGAP1, NKX2-1, SRRM2 and FOXE1...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Lucie Knabe, Jessica Varilh, Anne Bergougnoux, Anne-Sophie Gamez, Jennifer Bonini, Alexandra Pommier, Aurélie Petit, Nicolas Molinari, Isabelle Vachier, Magali Taulan-Cadars, Arnaud Bourdin
Impaired airway homeostasis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be partly related to club cell secretory protein (CCSP) deficiency. We hypothesize that CCSP G38A polymorphism is involved and aim to examine the influence of the CCSP G38A polymorphism on CCSP transcription levels and its regulatory mechanisms. CCSP genotype and CCSP levels in serum and sputum were assessed in 66 subjects with stable COPD included in a 1-yr observational study. Forty-nine of them had an exacerbation. In an in vitro study, the impact on the CCSP promoter of 38G wild-type or 38A variant was assessed...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Haichuan Hu, Zhengliang Sun, Yuan Li, Yiliang Zhang, Hang Li, Yang Zhang, Yunjian Pan, Lei Shen, Rui Wang, Yihua Sun, Haiquan Chen
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinomas are a heterogeneous set of diseases with distinct genetic and histologic characteristics. Besides the discovery of oncogenic mutations as well as the introduction of 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS and 2015 WHO histologic classification, increasing evidence has linked this inter-tumor heterogeneity to the lung lineage-specific pathways and lineage genes. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the gene expression of identified lung lineage genes to study their role in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma diversities...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Yipeng Yang, Yunshu Lu, Tong Chen, Shenglai Zhang, Bingfeng Chu, Yurong Gong, Weixin Zhao, Jian Zhu, Yingbin Liu
Hypothyroidism is a very common hormonal deficiency and the stem cell technology which developed in the recent years may offer a therapeutic strategy for treating this disorder. Hypoxia has been demonstrated to play an important role in embryonic formation and development and to modulate stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of oxygen tension on thyroid differentiation has not been studied. In this study, we used murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for thyroid cell differentiation under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and compared differentiation efficiency in morphology, function, gene and protein expression under both conditions...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Christoffer Löf, Konrad Patyra, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Jagadish Vangipurapu, Henriette Undeutsch, Holger Jaeschke, Tuulia Pajunen, Andreina Kero, Heiko Krude, Heike Biebermann, Gunnar Kleinau, Peter Kühnen, Krista Rantakari, Päivi Miettinen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Taina Mustila, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Marja Ojaniemi, Jorma Toppari, Jaakko Ignatius, Markku Laakso, Jukka Kero
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is defined as the lack of thyroid hormones at birth. Mutations in at least 15 different genes have been associated with this disease. While up to 20% of CH cases are hereditary, the majority of cases are sporadic with unknown etiology. Apart from a monogenic pattern of inheritance, multigenic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in CH. The genetics of CH has not been studied in Finland so far. Therefore, multigenic sequencing of CH candidate genes was performed in a Finnish patient cohort with both familial and sporadic CH...
September 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Liheng Wang, Dieter Egli, Rudolph L Leibel
The hypothalamus comprises neuronal clusters that are essential for body weight regulation and other physiological functions. Insights into the complex cellular physiology of this region of the brain are critical to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity, but human hypothalamic cells are largely inaccessible for direct study. Here we describe a technique for generation of arcuate-like hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells. Early activation of SHH signaling and inhibition of BMP and TGFβ signaling, followed by timed inhibition of NOTCH, can efficiently differentiate hPS cells into NKX2...
2016: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Jaroslaw Jendrzejewski, Sandya Liyanarachchi, Rebecca Nagy, Leigha Senter, Paul E Wakely, Andrew Thomas, Fadi Nabhan, Huiling He, Wei Li, Krzysztof Sworczak, Matthew D Ringel, Lawrence S Kirschner, Albert de la Chapelle
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is reported to be highly heritable in epidemiological studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered several variants associated with PTC predisposition. It remains unknown whether these variants might contribute to better clinical stratification of PTC patients. METHODS: In order to assess the usefulness of germline genetic analyses in the management of PTC patients, the genotypes of five variants (rs965513, rs944289, rs116909374, rs2439302, and rs966423) were determined in 1216 PTC patients and 1416 controls...
September 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Shanru Li, Michael Morley, MinMin Lu, Su Zhou, Kathleen Stewart, Catherine A French, Haley O Tucker, Simon E Fisher, Edward E Morrisey
The inhibitory mechanisms that prevent gene expression programs from one tissue to be expressed in another are poorly understood. Foxp1/2/4 are forkhead transcription factors that repress gene expression and are individually important for endoderm development. We show that combined loss of all three Foxp1/2/4 family members in the developing anterior foregut endoderm leads to a loss of lung endoderm lineage commitment and subsequent development. Foxp1/2/4 deficient lungs express high levels of transcriptional regulators not normally expressed in the developing lung, including Pax2, Pax8, Pax9 and the Hoxa9-13 cluster...
August 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Scott A Rankin, Lu Han, Kyle W McCracken, Alan P Kenny, Christopher T Anglin, Emily A Grigg, Calyn M Crawford, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
Organogenesis of the trachea and lungs requires a complex series of mesoderm-endoderm interactions mediated by WNT, BMP, retinoic acid (RA), and hedgehog (Hh), but how these pathways interact in a gene regulatory network is less clear. Using Xenopus embryology, mouse genetics, and human ES cell cultures, we identified a conserved signaling cascade that initiates respiratory lineage specification. We show that RA has multiple roles; first RA pre-patterns the lateral plate mesoderm and then it promotes Hh ligand expression in the foregut endoderm...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
Liankai Chi, Beibei Fan, Dandan Feng, Zhenyu Chen, Zhongliang Liu, Yi Hui, Xiangjie Xu, Lin Ma, Yujiang Fang, Quanbin Zhang, Guohua Jin, Ling Liu, Fangxia Guan, Xiaoqing Zhang
The anteroposterior patterning of the central nervous system follows an activation/transformation model, which proposes that a prospective telencephalic fate will be activated by default during the neural induction stage, while this anterior fate could be transformed posteriorly according to caudalization morphogens. Although both extrinsic signals and intrinsic transcription factors have been implicated in dorsoventral (DV) specification of vertebrate telencephalon, the DV patterning model remains elusive...
May 25, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Pan-Pan Jia, Yan-Bo Ma, Chun-Jiao Lu, Zakaria Mirza, Wei Zhang, Yong-Fang Jia, Wei-Guo Li, De-Sheng Pei
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of DEHP (0, 40, 100, 200, 400 μg/L) from 2 to 168 hours post fertilization (hpf). Thyroid hormones (THs) levels and transcriptional profiling of key genes related to hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. The result of whole-body thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) indicated that the thyroid hormone homeostasis was disrupted by DEHP in the zebrafish larvae...
2016: PloS One
Wei Guo, Houda Benlhabib, Carole R Mendelson
Lung alveolar type II cells uniquely synthesize surfactant, a developmentally regulated lipoprotein that is essential for breathing. Expression of the gene (SFTPA) encoding the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in midgestation human fetal lung (HFL) is dramatically induced by cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP induction of SP-A expression is repressed by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and by hypoxia. In this study, we found that expression of the microRNA 29 (miR-29) family was significantly upregulated in epithelial cells isolated from mouse fetal lung during late gestation and in epithelial cells isolated from HFL explants during type II cell differentiation in culture...
August 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Alice J Sigurdson, Alina V Brenner, James A Roach, Lilia Goudeva, Jörg A Müller, Kai Nerlich, Christoph Reiners, Robert Schwab, Liliane Pfeiffer, Melanie Waldenberger, Melissa Braganza, Li Xu, Erich M Sturgis, Meredith Yeager, Stephen J Chanock, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer (PTC and FTC, respectively) risk, but few have replicated. After analyzing 17525 tag SNPs in 1129 candidate genes, we found associations with PTC risk in SERPINA5, FTO, HEMGN (near FOXE1) and other genes. Here, we report results from a replication effort in a large independent PTC/FTC case-control study conducted in Germany. We evaluated the best tagging SNPs from our previous PTC study and additionally included SNPs in or near FOXE1 and NKX2-1 genes, known susceptibility loci for thyroid cancer...
July 2016: Carcinogenesis
Rebekah J Nevel, Errine T Garnett, John A Worrell, Ronald L Morton, Lawrence M Nogee, Timothy S Blackwell, Lisa R Young
RATIONALE: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a diffuse lung disease that presents in infancy and improves during childhood. Long-term outcomes have not previously been described. In one familial cohort, we have reported that NEHI is associated with a heterozygous variant of NKX2.1/TTF1. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine whether pulmonary abnormalities persist in adults with NEHI, to aid in elucidating the natural history of this disease...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"