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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908915/-the-hypothalamic-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-glp-1r-is-sufficient-but-not-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#1
Melissa A Burmeister, Jennifer E Ayala, Hannah Smouse, Adriana Landivar-Rocha, Jacob D Brown, Daniel J Drucker, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the hypothalamic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) promotes weight loss and improves glucose tolerance. This demonstrates that the hypothalamic GLP-1R is sufficient but does not show whether it is necessary for the effects of exogenous GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) or endogenous GLP-1 on these parameters. To address this, we crossed mice harboring floxed Glp1r alleles to mice expressing Nkx2.1-Cre to knock down Glp1r expression throughout the hypothalamus (GLP-1RKD(ΔNkx2...
December 1, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#2
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864883/neuronal-sources-of-hedgehog-modulate-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-planarian-brain
#3
Ko W Currie, Alyssa M Molinaro, Bret J Pearson
The asexual freshwater planarian is a constitutive adult, whose central nervous system (CNS) is in a state of constant homeostatic neurogenesis. However, very little is known about the extrinsic signals that act on planarian stem cells to modulate rates of neurogenesis. We have identified two planarian homeobox transcription factors, Smed-nkx2.1 and Smed-arx, which are required for the maintenance of cholinergic, GABAergic, and octopaminergic neurons in the planarian CNS. These very same neurons also produce the planarian hedgehog ligand (Smed-hh), which appears to communicate with brain-adjacent stem cells to promote normal levels of neurogenesis...
November 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829313/taz-induction-directs-differentiation-of-thyroid-follicular-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Risheng Ma, Syed Morshed, Rauf Latif, Terry F Davies
OBJECTIVE: The differentiation program for human thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) relies on the interplay between sequence-specific transcription factors and transcriptional co-regulators. TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) is a co-activator that regulates several transcription factors, including PAX8 and NKX2-1, which play a central role in thyroid-specific gene transcription. TAZ and PAX8/NKX2-1 are co-expressed in the nuclei of thyroid cells and TAZ interacts directly with both PAX8 and NKX2-1 leading to their enhanced transcriptional activity on the thyroglobulin (TG) promoter and additional genes...
November 9, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821429/non-invasive-lung-cancer-diagnosis-by-detection-of-gata6-and-nkx2-1-isoforms-in-exhaled-breath-condensate
#5
Aditi Mehta, Julio Cordero, Stephanie Dobersch, Addi J Romero-Olmedo, Rajkumar Savai, Johannes Bodner, Cho-Ming Chao, Ludger Fink, Ernesto Guzmán-Díaz, Indrabahadur Singh, Gergana Dobreva, Ulf R Rapp, Stefan Günther, Olga N Ilinskaya, Saverio Bellusci, Reinhard H Dammann, Thomas Braun, Werner Seeger, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Achim Tresch, Andreas Günther, Guillermo Barreto
Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early LC diagnosis is crucial to reduce the high case fatality rate of this disease. In this case-control study, we developed an accurate LC diagnosis test using retrospectively collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues and prospectively collected exhaled breath condensates (EBCs). Following international guidelines for diagnostic methods with clinical application, reproducible standard operating procedures (SOP) were established for every step comprising our LC diagnosis method...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810169/conservatism-and-variability-of-gene-expression-profiles-among-homeologous-transcription-factors-in-xenopus-laevis
#6
Minoru Watanabe, Yuuri Yasuoka, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Aya Kuretani, Michihiko Ito, Mariko Kondo, Haruki Ochi, Hajime Ogino, Akimasa Fukui, Masanori Taira, Tsutomu Kinoshita
Xenopus laevis has an allotetraploid genome of 3.1Gb, in contrast to the diploid genome of a closely related species, Xenopus tropicalis. Here, we identified 412 genes (189 homeolog pairs, one homeologous gene cluster pair, and 28 singletons) encoding transcription factors (TFs) in the X. laevis genome by comparing them with their orthologs from X. tropicalis. Those genes include the homeobox gene family (Mix/Bix, Lhx, Nkx, Paired, POU, and Vent), Sox, Fox, Pax, Dmrt, Hes, GATA, T-box, and some clock genes...
October 31, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807061/familial-non-medullary-thyroid-cancer-unraveling-the-genetic-maze
#7
REVIEW
Samantha Peiling Yang, Joanne Ngeow
Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) constitutes 3-9% of all thyroid cancers. Out of all FNMTC cases, only 5% in the syndromic form has well-studied driver germline mutations. These associated syndromes include Cowden syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, Werner syndrome and DICER1 syndrome. It is important for the clinician to recognize these phenotypes so that genetic counseling and testing can be initiated to enable surveillance for associated malignancies and genetic testing of family members...
December 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780732/altered-postnatal-maturation-of-striatal-gabaergic-interneurons-in-a-phenotypic-animal-model-of-dystonia
#8
Christoph Bode, Franziska Richter, Christine Spröte, Tanja Brigadski, Anne Bauer, Simone Fietz, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Angelika Richter
GABAergic disinhibition has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several basal ganglia disorders, including dystonia, a common movement disorder. Previous studies have shown a deficit of striatal GABAergic interneurons (IN) in the dt(sz) mutant hamster, one of the few phenotypic animal models of dystonia. However, mechanisms underlying this deficit are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the migration and maturation of striatal IN during postnatal development (18days of age) and at age of highest severity of dystonia (33days of age) in this hamster model...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770487/medial-ganglionic-eminence-cells-freshly-obtained-or-expanded-as-neurospheres-show-distinct-cellular-and-molecular-properties-in-reducing-epileptic-seizures
#9
Simone A A Romariz, Daisyléa S Paiva, Layla T Galindo, Gabriela F Barnabé, Vivian A Guedes, Cesario V Borlongan, Beatriz M Longo
AIMS: Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors give rise to inhibitory interneurons and may serve as an alternative cell source for large-scale cell transplantation for epilepsy after in vitro expansion. We investigated whether modifications in the culture medium of MGE neurospheres affect neuronal differentiation and expression of MGE-specific genes. In vivo, we compared anticonvulsant effects and cell differentiation pattern among neurospheres grown in different culture media and compared them with freshly harvested MGE cells...
October 21, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756764/macf1-controls-migration-and-positioning-of-cortical-gabaergic-interneurons-in-mice
#10
Minhan Ka, Jeffrey J Moffat, Woo-Yang Kim
GABAergic interneurons develop in the ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate during development. However, key molecules controlling interneuron migration remain poorly identified. Here, we show that microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) regulates GABAergic interneuron migration and positioning in the developing mouse brain. To investigate the role of MACF1 in developing interneurons, we conditionally deleted the MACF1 gene in mouse interneuron progenitors and their progeny using Dlx5/6-Cre-IRES-EGFP and Nkx2...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683953/downregulation-of-lysosomal-and-further-gene-expression-characterization-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastasis
#11
Yong Huang, Tongwei Chu, Tongquan Liao, Xu Hu, Bo Huang
Molecular and functional mechanisms of bone metastases were poorly understood. This study was to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional proteins in bone metastases from lung for better understanding of the molecular and functional mechanisms. Our results suggested CTSS, CTSD, MX1, NKX2-1 might play a decisive role in bone metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrated that bone metastasis from lung cancer would lead to changes in lysosome function, which may affect the decomposition and elimination of old bone matrix, thus affecting bone turnover...
August 9, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606338/maintenance-of-neural-stem-cell-regional-identity-in-culture
#12
Ryan N Delgado, Changqing Lu, Daniel A Lim
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599582/elucidation-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-by-integrated-mirna-and-mrna-analysis
#13
Guoping Liu, Kainan Wu, Yuan Sheng
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of ATC were systematically explored. A total of 55 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from two mRNA expression datasets including 23 ATC samples and 24 paired normal samples. Gene expression levels of three randomly selected DEGs, VCAN, COL5A1 and KCNJ16, were examined using RT-PCR in 10 ATC samples. Notably, the ATC and normal samples were clearly classified into two groups based on their common DEGs...
September 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553860/erratum-to-in-vivo-role-of-different-domains-and-of-phosphorylation-in-the-transcription-factor-nkx2-1
#14
Daniel Silberschmidt, Alina Rodriguez-Mallon, Prathiba Mithboakar, Gaetano Calì, Elena Amendola, Remo Sanges, Mariastella Zannini, Marzia Scarfò, Pasquale De Luca, Lucio Nitsch, Roberto Di Lauro, Mario De Felice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539622/transcriptome-and-in-vitro-differentiation-profile-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-nkx2-1-positive-neural-progenitors
#15
Christopher Y Chen, Alex Plocik, Nickesha C Anderson, Daniel Moakley, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn Dundes, Chelsea Lassiter, Brenton R Graveley, Laura Grabel
The generation of inhibitory interneuron progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is of great interest due to their potential use in transplantation therapies designed to treat central nervous system disorders. The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a transient embryonic structure in the ventral telencephalon that is a major source of cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneuron progenitors. These progenitors migrate tangentially to sites in the cortex and differentiate into a variety of interneuron subtypes, forming local synaptic connections with excitatory projection neurons to modulate activity of the cortical circuitry...
December 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530615/habp2-germline-variants-are-uncommon-in-familial-nonmedullary-thyroid-cancer
#16
Alexia L Weeks, Scott G Wilson, Lynley Ward, Jack Goldblatt, Jennie Hui, John P Walsh
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of nonsyndromic familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is poorly understood. A recent study identified HABP2 as a tumor suppressor gene and identified a germline variant (G534E) in an extended FNMTC kindred. The relevance of this to other FNMTC kindreds is uncertain. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was performed on peripheral blood DNA from probands from 37 Australian FNMTC kindreds to detect the G534E variant. Whole exome data from 59 participants from 20 kindreds were examined for mutations in HABP2 and the thyroid cancer susceptibility genes SRGAP1, NKX2-1, SRRM2 and FOXE1...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496897/ccsp-g38a-polymorphism-environment-interactions-regulate-ccsp-levels-differentially-in-copd
#17
Lucie Knabe, Jessica Varilh, Anne Bergougnoux, Anne-Sophie Gamez, Jennifer Bonini, Alexandra Pommier, Aurélie Petit, Nicolas Molinari, Isabelle Vachier, Magali Taulan-Cadars, Arnaud Bourdin
Impaired airway homeostasis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be partly related to club cell secretory protein (CCSP) deficiency. We hypothesize that CCSP G38A polymorphism is involved and aim to examine the influence of the CCSP G38A polymorphism on CCSP transcription levels and its regulatory mechanisms. CCSP genotype and CCSP levels in serum and sputum were assessed in 66 subjects with stable COPD included in a 1-yr observational study. Forty-nine of them had an exacerbation. In an in vitro study, the impact on the CCSP promoter of 38G wild-type or 38A variant was assessed...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496649/the-histologic-classifications-of-lung-adenocarcinomas-are-discriminable-by-unique-lineage-backgrounds
#18
Haichuan Hu, Zhengliang Sun, Yuan Li, Yiliang Zhang, Hang Li, Yang Zhang, Yunjian Pan, Lei Shen, Rui Wang, Yihua Sun, Haiquan Chen
OBJECTIVES: Lung adenocarcinomas are a heterogeneous set of diseases with distinct genetic and histologic characteristics. Besides the discovery of oncogenic mutations and introduction of the histologic classifications (2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society and 2015 WHO), increasing evidence has linked this intertumor heterogeneity to the lung lineage-specific pathways and lineage genes. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the gene expression of identified lung lineage genes to study their role in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma diversities...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389981/hypoxia-promotes-thyroid-differentiation-of-native-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Yipeng Yang, Yunshu Lu, Tong Chen, Shenglai Zhang, Bingfeng Chu, Yurong Gong, Weixin Zhao, Jian Zhu, Yingbin Liu
Hypothyroidism is a very common hormonal deficiency and the stem cell technology which developed in the recent years may offer a therapeutic strategy for treating this disorder. Hypoxia has been demonstrated to play an important role in embryonic formation and development and to modulate stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of oxygen tension on thyroid differentiation has not been studied. In this study, we used murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for thyroid cell differentiation under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and compared differentiation efficiency in morphology, function, gene and protein expression under both conditions...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373559/detection-of-novel-gene-variants-associated-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-in-a-finnish-patient-cohort
#20
Christoffer Löf, Konrad Patyra, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Jagadish Vangipurapu, Henriette Undeutsch, Holger Jaeschke, Tuulia Pajunen, Andreina Kero, Heiko Krude, Heike Biebermann, Gunnar Kleinau, Peter Kühnen, Krista Rantakari, Päivi Miettinen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Taina Mustila, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Marja Ojaniemi, Jorma Toppari, Jaakko Ignatius, Markku Laakso, Jukka Kero
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is defined as the lack of thyroid hormones at birth. Mutations in at least 15 different genes have been associated with this disease. While up to 20% of CH cases are hereditary, the majority of cases are sporadic with unknown etiology. Apart from a monogenic pattern of inheritance, multigenic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in CH. The genetics of CH has not been studied in Finland so far. Therefore, multigenic sequencing of CH candidate genes was performed in a Finnish patient cohort with both familial and sporadic CH...
September 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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