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K S Wan, W F Wu, T C Chen, C S Wu, C W Hung, Y S Chang
AIM: Intranasal corticosteroids (INS) have been proven effective in controlling postnasal drip, decreasing inflammatory response, reducing nasal swelling, and increasing aeration of the sinuses such that INS are recommended as treatment of sinusitis. METHODS: Fifty children with acute rhinosinusitis, 50 children with acute rhiniosinusitis and allergic rhinitis (AR), and 20 rhiniosinusitis children as control were selected for investigation. Each group had a single-blind treatment of three types: with coamoxiclav only, with coamoxiclav plus INS, and with matched placebo (without antibiotics and INS) for two weeks...
December 2015: Minerva Pediatrica
Timothy Lawes, José-María López-Lozano, César Nebot, Gillian Macartney, Rashmi Subbarao-Sharma, Ceri R J Dare, Giles F S Edwards, Ian M Gould
OBJECTIVES: To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. SETTING: Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. PARTICIPANTS: General adult (N=1,051,993) or intensive care (18,235) admissions and primary care registrations (460,000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012...
2015: BMJ Open
Dilista Piljić, Humera Porobić-Jahić, Dragan Piljić, Nijaz Tihić, Rahima Jahić, Jasminka Petrović
AIM: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of dominant causes of urinary tract infections (UTI) in patients treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, University Clinical Center Tuzla during the period January 2010 to June 2011. METHODS: This prospective study included 438 patients divided into three groups: hospital-treated patients group (H-T), outpatient- treated group (O-T) and patients with hospital-acquired (H-A) UTI. Identification of UTI causes completed using standard microbiological methods; antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc-diffusion method according to the CLSI...
February 2014: Medicinski Glasnik
Nagham Khanafer, Abdoulaye Touré, Cécile Chambrier, Martin Cour, Marie-Elisabeth Reverdy, Laurent Argaud, Philippe Vanhems
AIM: To describe and analyse factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) severity in hospitalised medical intensive care unit patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 40 patients with CDI in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a French university hospital. We include patients hospitalised between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Data on demographics characteristics, past medical history, CDI description was collected...
November 28, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Masoumeh Tayari, Zahra Moosavi-Nejad, Fatemeh Moosavi Nejad, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh
Haptoglobin (Hp) is a mammalian serum glycoprotein showing a genetic polymorphism with three types, 1-1, 2-2 and 1-2. Hp appears to conserve the recycling of heme-iron by forming an essentially irreversible but non-covalent complex with hemoglobin which is released into the plasma by erythrocyte lysis. As an important consequence, Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex (Hp-Hb) shows considerable antioxidant property. In this study, antioxidant activity of Hp (2-2)-Hb complex on hydrogen peroxide has been studied and analyzed in the absence and presence of two beta-lactam antibiotics in-vitro...
2011: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Masoumeh Tayari, Danial Afsharzadeh
It is clear that Haptoglobin binds to Hemoglobin strongly and irreversibly. This binding, protects body tissues against heme-mediated oxidative tissue damages via peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex. Peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex was determined via measurement of following increase in absorption of produced tetraguaiacol as the second substrate of Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 470 nm and 42°C. The results are showing that peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex is modulated by homotropic effect of hydrogen peroxide as the allosteric substrate...
April 2012: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Lafaine M Grant, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains an important disease in clinical practice. It is difficult to predict, diagnose and manage. Studies in the peer-reviewed literature in the last 2 years, focusing on the diagnosis, prediction and management of DILI will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibiotics remain the most common drug causing DILI in the United States and Europe. Expert opinion may still be the better method of diagnosing DILI compared with an objective tool such as the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method...
May 2012: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Padma Krishnan, P Rajendran, A P Sambandan, C Anitha, R K Chavda, K J Khobragade
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are most important respiratory pathogens with increasing antimicrobial resistance among the key pathogens responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections and have the potential to limit the effectiveness of antibiotics available to treat these infections. In the present study, a total of 18 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 9 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were characterised from specimens obtained from patients of acute respiratory tract infections including otitis media, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis...
April 2011: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Mani Nallasivan, Fergus Maher, Krishna Murthy
A 58-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted for knee replacement but during the postoperative period she developed sepsis due to pneumonia, which was treated with coamoxiclav and then piperacillin (for 2 weeks). She had renal failure, which needed haemofiltration. During her recovery she had diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile, which was not controlled with metronidazole. Vancomycin was therefore given, but she developed urticarial erythematous skin rash and hence it was stopped. She was not on any other new medications and a vasculitic screen was negative...
2009: BMJ Case Reports
Josip Culig, Ana Mlinarić-Dzepina, Marcel Leppée, Jasmina Vranes
AIM: To compare resistance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) to antibiotics in women in generative ages and pregnant women during two year period (2004 and 2008) in Zagreb, and comparison of resistance and the consumption of antibiotics. METHODS: The standard disk-diffusion method was used for sensitivity testing to 16 different antibiotics. Data on antibiotic utilization were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants using Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical/DDD methodology...
February 2010: Medicinski Glasnik
Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, Peder Bo Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal flora of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (TGB) and to examine if this information is useful in selecting appropriate antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis and treatment of biopsy-associated infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 2007 and 2008, rectal swabs were cultured from patients before undergoing TGB. Antimicrobial sensitivity of coliforms to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and coamoxiclav was determined...
October 2010: BJU International
Andrea G Borsari, Barbara Bucher, Pierluigi Brazzola, Giacomo D Simonetti, Marisa Dolina, Mario G Bianchetti
BACKGROUND: Based on antimicrobial resistance patterns found in Swiss university hospitals, treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin is currently advised for Swiss children with urinary tract infection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with symptomatic community-acquired urinary tract infection. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of E coli strains causing symptomatic community-acquired urinary tract infections was assessed in outpatient children attending the emergency management unit at the Department of Pediatrics, Mendrisio and Bellinzona Hospitals, Switzerland...
November 2008: Clinical Therapeutics
Artur Bauhofer, Markus Huttel, Wilfried Lorenz, Daniel I Sessler, Alexander Torossian
BACKGROUND: In addition to their antimicrobial activity, antibiotics modulate cellular host defence. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is also a well known immunomodulator; however little is known about the interactions of G-CSF with antibiotics. We investigated in septic rats the effects of two antibiotic combinations with G-CSF. METHODS: In two clinic modelling randomised trials (CMRTs), male Wistar rats were anesthetized, given antibiotic prophylaxis, had a laparotomy with peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI), and were randomly assigned (n = 18 rats/group) to: 1) PCI only; 2) PCI+antibiotic; and, 3) PCI+antibiotic+G-CSF prophylaxis (20 mug/kg, three times)...
2008: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bernard Lobel, Anne Valot, Vincent Cattoir, Olivier Lemenand, Olivier Gaillot
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women is based mainly on empirical antibiotic therapy. It requires up-to-date knowledge of the susceptibility patterns of the bacteria most commonly identified in that setting. The aim of this prospective study was to measure the antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates responsible for UTIs in women from a single area and to compare it in hospital and community settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2003 through April 2004, UTI was diagnosed in 1838 women around Rennes (France), 893 of them inpatients admitted to the teaching hospital and 945 outpatients in the community...
May 2008: La Presse Médicale
Agata Lanzafame, Giovanni Bonfiglio, Luca Santini, Roberto Mattina
The objective of our study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of levofloxacin in comparison with other antibiotics (coamoxiclav, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, meropenem, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin and netilmicin) against about 500 Gram-negative nosocomial microorganisms, isolated during 2003. The bactericidal activities (minimal bactericidal activity and killing curve) of levofloxacin and the other antibiotics were also evaluated. The results confirm the excellent in vitro activity of levofloxacin against multiresistant nosocomial Gram-negative pathogens, including the 73 extended spectrum beta-lactamase producer strains (90% of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inhibited at 0...
March 2005: Chemotherapy
Muhammad Azeem Aslam, Zafar Ahmed, Raana Azim
OBJECTIVE: To identify the commonest microorganisms associated with chronic discharging ears and their antimicrobial sensitivities. DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: This study was carried out from August 2003 to February 2004 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 124 patients with unilateral or bilateral active chronic suppurative otitis media attending the outpatient clinic were included in the study...
August 2004: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Itzhak Brook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2004: Current Infectious Disease Reports
D Passàli, T Mazzei, A Novelli, S Fallani, P Dentico, C Mezzedimi, G C Passàli, L Bellussi
UNLABELLED: Amoxicillin/clavulanate in chronic rhinosinusitis: tissue and serum distribution. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to determine the concentrations of coamoxiclav in the sinusal mucosa of patients undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis in comparison to serum levels after single oral administration. METHODOLOGY: 24 patients affected by chronic sinusitis, undergoing sinus surgery, were divided into three groups receiving an oral dose of 1 g of coamoxiclav (875 mg amoxicillin, 125 g of clavulanic acid, 7:1 ratio) at 2 h (first group), 4 h (second group) and 6 h (third group) before surgery...
2001: Acta Oto-rhino-laryngologica Belgica
T Schaberg, I Ballin, G Huchon, H Bassaris, B Hampel, P Reimnitz
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of once daily dosing with moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) with that of coamoxiclav given three times daily for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Moxifloxacin (one 400 mg tablet daily) was administered orally for 5 days and co-amoxiclav (three 625 mg tablets daily) was given orally for 7 days. The study was randomized, non-blinded, multinational (12 countries) and multicentre (68 centres). A total of 575 patients, all with clear signs of AECB, were treated, 292 with moxifloxacin and 283 with co-amoxiclav...
July 2001: Journal of International Medical Research
S Bronner, D Pompei, H Elkhaïli, N Dhoyen, H Monteil, F Jehl
The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro/ex vivo bactericidal activity of a new coamoxiclav single-dose sachet formulation (1 g amoxicillin + 0.125 g clavulanic acid) against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. The evaluation covered the 12 h period after antibiotic administration. Serum specimens from the 12 healthy volunteers included in the pharmacokinetic study were pooled by time point and in equal volumes. Eight of 12 pharmacokinetic sampling time points were included in the study...
October 2001: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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