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Fluid and electrolytes balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900717/intravenous-fluids-balancing-solutions
#2
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn
The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#3
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#4
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892449/otorrhagia-and-nosebleed-as-first-signs-of-intravascular-absorption-syndrome-during-hysteroscopy-from-bench-to-bedside
#5
V Giacobbe, D Rossetti, S G Vitale, A M C Rapisarda, F Padula, A S Laganà, V I Palmara
Hysteroscopic surgery is indicated for the treatment of several intrauterine diseases. The surgeon needs to be aware of, and know how to prevent, possible complications related to these procedures. In the case of operative hysteroscopy, the systemic effects of low-viscosity fluid uptake must be considered in order to prevent the complications in the patient. We report on two unusual clinical signs of intravascular absorption syndrome (IAS) that developed during an operative hysteroscopy with glycine 1.5% as the fluid of distension...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889623/training-needs-of-clinical-nurses-at-an-university-hospital-in-turkey
#6
Emine Kol, Emine İlaslan, Mehtap Turkay
The learning needs of clinical nurses should be determined and evaluated at regular intervals for evaluate the continuity and the efficiency of education. The descriptive study was conducted to determine the training needs of nurses working in an educational hospital between February 1st 2012 and May 1st 2012. It was determined that, among the training topics related to patient care, those demanded the most were cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, fluid-electrolyte balance, safe drug administration and wound Care...
November 16, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#7
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863592/nursing-interventions-in-stroke-care-delivery-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#8
Dimitrios Theofanidis, Bernard Gibbon
INTRODUCTION: Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). AIM: This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828935/fluid-and-electrolyte-imbalances-interpretation-and-assessment
#9
Mandi D Walker
Maintaining the balance of fluid and electrolytes is crucial to the care of patients across the continuum. To do this, a practitioner must be cognizant of key monitoring and assessment parameters. Key electrolytes, their function within the body, normal values, signs and symptoms of imbalances, key treatment modalities, and other considerations are discussed.
November 2016: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813057/fluid-therapy-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#10
REVIEW
Ian K Maconochie, Soumyadeep Bhaumik
BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. This is the latest update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2014...
November 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#11
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783275/a-new-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid-for-japanese-patients-a-randomized-non-inferiority-clinical-trial-of-safety-and-efficacy
#12
Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Akiba, Masao Kim, Hidemune Naito, Shigeko Hara, Teruhiko Maeba, Noriaki Yorioka, James A Sloand, Mark R Marshall
BACKGROUND: We report here two new peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) for Japan [BLR 250, BLR 350 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The PDFs use two-chamber systems, and have bicarbonate and lactate buffer to a total of 35 mmol/L. In separate trials, the new PDFs were compared to two "standard" systems [PD-4, PD-2 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The trials aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority of peritoneal creatinine clearance (pCcr), peritoneal urea clearance (pCurea) and ultrafiltration volume (UF), and compare acid-base and electrolyte balance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747968/perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children-guidelines-from-the-association-of-the-scientific-medical-societies-in-germany
#13
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720664/pharmacological-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-neonates
#14
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
October 6, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699748/-nursing-experience-with-a-patient-with-gastrostomy-leakage-resulting-in-moisture-associated-skin-damage
#15
Mei-Yu Hsu, Hsiao-Hui Hsu, Ji-Yan Lyu
Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection...
October 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689113/the-effects-of-different-electrolyte-composition-in-dialysate-on-qtc-interval-a-controlled-trial
#16
Foroogh Sabzghabaei, Seyed Alireza Heydariezade, Rashin S Joodat
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) has impact on the cardiovascular system by inducing changes in the characteristics of body fluids such as PH, temperature and electrolyte concentrations. In the previous studies, prolongation of the QT interval and increase of QT dispersion have been reported during HD sessions. These changes were more significant while using solutions with less potassium and higher bicarbonate during dialysis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different potassium and bicarbonate concentrations on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters and the electrochemical balance of cell membranes...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685848/fluid-composition-and-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Fernando G Zampieri, Alexandre B Libório, Alexandre B Cavalcanti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the understanding of the role of fluid composition in renal outcomes in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The debate on fluid composition is now focused in a pragmatic discussion on fluid electrolyte composition. The resurgence of this debate was propelled by several observational studies that suggested that balanced (i.e., low chloride) solutions were associated with less acute kidney injury in critically ill patients...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627089/-the-difference-and-ratio-between-serum-concentrations-of-natrium-and%C3%A2-chlorides-in-patients-with-hyponatremia
#18
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598420/water-balance-and-salt-wasting-in-the-first-year-of-life-the-role-of-aldosterone-signaling-defects
#19
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#20
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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