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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696992/triathlon-medical-coverage-a-guide-for-medical-directors
#1
Chad A Asplund, Thomas K Miller, Lawrence Creswell, Andrew Getzin, Andrew Hunt, John Martinez, Jason Diehl, William D Hiller, Paul Berlin
Interest and participation in triathlon has grown rapidly over the past 20 yr and with this growth, there has been an increase in the number of new events. To maximize the safety of participation, triathlons require medical directors to plan and oversee medical care associated with event participation. Provision of proper medical care requires knowledge of staffing requirements, common triathlon medical conditions, impact of course design, communication skill, and a familiarity of administrative requirements...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#2
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#3
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in events such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609447/blood-biomarkers-in-male-and-female-participants-after-an-ironman-distance-triathlon
#4
Tom Danielsson, Jörg Carlsson, Hendrik Schreyer, Jonas Ahnesjö, Lasse Ten Siethoff, Thony Ragnarsson, Åsa Tugetam, Patrick Bergman
BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576689/coronal-alignment-predicts-the-use-of-semi-constrained-implants-in-contemporary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
J Ryan Martin, Keith A Fehring, Chad D Watts, Daniel L Levy, Bryan D Springer, Raymond H Kim
BACKGROUND: Semi-constrained, or varus-valgus constrained, implants are occasionally necessary to achieve stability in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, outcomes with these implants are largely unknown. Therefore, the primary goals of this study were to determine 1) can we identify preoperatively which patients might require a semi-constrained implant and 2) are there any clinical and or radiographic differences for those that require a semi-constrained implant? METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was performed to retrospectively review patients that had a Stryker Triathlon (Kalamazoo, MI) TKA with a Total Stabilized (TS) tibial insert (n=75)...
May 30, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559756/multimodal-care-in-the-management-of-a-patient-with-chronic-tendinopathy-of-the-biceps-femoris-a-case-report
#6
Brett R Martin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of dry needling in conjunction with auricular acupuncture, core exercises, and light aerobic activity for treating chronic tendinopathy of the biceps femoris. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 30-year-old white female presented with chronic biceps femoris tendinopathy. The injury had occurred 18 months prior while training for a triathlon. Active stretching of her right biceps femoris while standing with her feet 6 inches apart aggravated the pain at the origin in the right tendon of the biceps femoris at 0 degrees of movement...
June 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552834/high-impact-sport-after-hip-resurfacing-the-ironman-triathlon
#7
J Girard, A Lons, T Pommepuy, R Isida, K Benad, S Putman
BACKGROUND: Returning to high-impact sport is an increasingly frequent functional demand following hip replacement. The literature, however, is sparse on the subject and nonexistent regarding triathlon. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of hip resurfacing in triathlon players, to determine: (1) whether it is possible to return to this kind of sport; (2) if so, whether it is possible to return to the same level; and (3) how a resurfaced hip behaves under these conditions. HYPOTHESIS: Hip resurfacing allows return to competition level in long-distance triathlon...
May 25, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542004/do-dynamic-fat-and-fat-free-mass-changes-follow-theoretical-driven-rules-in-athletes
#8
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Diana Thomas, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. METHODS: 70 athletes (42 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n=20) or gained >1...
May 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511732/outbreak-of-diarrhoea-among-participants-of-a-triathlon-and-a-duathlon-on-12-july-2015-in-utrecht-the-netherlands
#9
S Parkkali, R Joosten, E Fanoy, R Pijnacker, J VAN Beek, D Brandwagt, W VAN Pelt
On 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI)...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507970/a-new-technique-for-surgical-treatment-of-proximal-hamstring-tendinopathy-in-a-triathlon-athlete
#10
Lincoln Paiva Costa, Antônio Augusto Guimarães Barros, Carlos Cesar Vassalo, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet, Victor Atsushi Kasuya Barbosa, Eduardo Frois Temponi
INTRODUCTION: Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) is the result of chronic overload caused by repetitive eccentric contraction. Surgical treatment becomes an option for patients with chronic symptoms that do not respond to conservative treatment. CASE REPORT: This report describes a case of a 48-year-old man, an amateur triathlete, with deep gluteal pain in the left hip for 12 months, leading to a decline in sports performance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities that suggested a PHT...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498220/patient-presentations-and-medical-logistics-at-full-and-half-ironman-distance-triathlons
#11
Sheila A Turris, Adam Lund, Ron R Bowles, Michael Camporese, Tom Green
We describe logistical challenges, illness/injury rates, as well as medical and ambulance transfer rates (ATR) at an annual large-scale half/full triathlon in a remote location. Prospective observational study; registry data. Data on patient presentation rates, percentage of patients transferred by ambulance, transfer to hospital rates (TTHR), ATR, and medical usage rates were collected and analyzed. In total, 1923 athletes participated in the 2016 triathlon (1404 in the full-length race and 519 in the half) and 181 patient encounters were documented...
May 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473024/-prehospital-arterial-blood-gas-analysis-after-collapse-connected-to-triathlon-participation
#12
Asbjørn Ettrup-Christensen, Louise Amstrup-Hansen, Stine T Zwisler
Long-distance athletes are at risk of serious fluid and electrolyte disturbances, such as hypernatraemia (dehydration). Recently, cases of serious morbidity have been reported, due to acute exercise-associated hyponatraemia, which can advance to encephalopathy. An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) was drawn from collapsed athletes at the championship of full-distance triathlon 2015, and different electrolyte imbalances were found. Our findings show that prehospital ABG can assist in differentiating the cause of collapse, and presumably, targeted treatment can be initiated already on scene...
May 1, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427385/differences-between-native-and-prosthetic-knees-in-terms-of-cross-sectional-morphology-of-the-femoral-trochlea-a-study-based-on-three-dimensional-models-and-virtual-total-knee-arthroplasty
#13
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, You Wang
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional morphology of the prosthetic knee is crucial to understanding patellar motion and quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. However, few comparative evaluations of the cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea have been performed in the native knee and currently available femoral implants, and the relationship between the trochlear anatomy of prosthetic components and post-operative patellofemoral complications remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea between native knees and prosthetic femoral components...
April 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416902/a-first-look-into-the-influence-of-triathlon-wetsuit-on-resting-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-variability
#14
A Prado, J Dufek, J Navalta, N Lough, J Mercer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing a wetsuit on resting cardiovascular measures (blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV)). The influence of position (upright, prone) and wetsuit size were also explored. Participants (n=12 males, 33.3±12.1 years) had BP and HRV measured during six resting conditions: standing or prone while not wearing a wetsuit (NWS), wearing the smallest (SWS), or largest (LWS) wetsuit (based upon manufacturer guidelines). Heart rate was recorded continuously over 5-mins; BP was measured three times per condition...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398949/sildenafil-possible-prophylaxis-against-swimming-induced-pulmonary-edema-sipe
#15
Stefanie D Martina, John J Freiberger, Dionne F Peacher, Michael J Natoli, Eric A Schinazi, Dawn N Kernagis, Jennifer Av Potter, Claire E Otteni, Richard E Moon
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) occurs during swimming and scuba diving, usually in cold water, in susceptible healthy individuals, especially military recruits and triathletes. We have previously demonstrated that pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) are higher during immersed exercise in SIPE-susceptible individuals vs. controls, confirming that SIPE is a form of hemodynamic pulmonary edema. Oral sildenafil 50 mg 1 hour before immersed exercise reduced PAP and PAWP, suggesting that sildenafil may prevent SIPE...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351605/infections-associated-with-adventure-travel-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Nathan D Gundacker, Robert J Rolfe, J Martin Rodriguez
AIM: To review infections associated with adventure travel. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched combining the words infection with the following keywords: rafting, whitewater, surfing, (surfer* or windsurf*), (caves or caving or spelunking), (triathlon or trekking) or (hiking or adventure race), bicycling, backpacking, (mountain climb* or bouldering), horseback riding, orienteering, trekking, and skiing. RESULTS: Adventure travel is becoming much more common among travelers and it is associated with a subset of infectious diseases including: leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, rickettsial diseases and endemic mycosis...
March 27, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350714/multiple-transportable-carbohydrate-effect-on-long-distance-triathlon-performance
#17
David S Rowlands, Stuart D Houltham
The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose-fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance relative to glucose alone. However, during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340944/snapping-knee-syndrome-caused-by-semitendinosus-and-semimembranosus-tendons-a-case-report
#18
Nikolaus von Dercks, Jan Dirk Theopold, Bastian Marquass, Christoph Josten, Pierre Hepp
We report the case of a 24-year-old female triathlon athlete with a snapping syndrome of both the distal semimembranosus and the semitendinosus tendon which has not been described so far. The semitendinosus tendon was harvested whereupon snapping has diminished. Tenoscopy and digital palpation showed the semimembranosus tendon to cause the snapping, as well. A careful step-by-step release of the anterior insertion of the tendon was performed with the result of a snapping-free range of motion of the patient's knee...
December 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303338/blood-glucose-kinetics-and-physiological-changes-in-a-type-1-diabetic-finisher-of-the-ultraman-triathlon-a-case-study
#19
Christopher W Bach, Daniel A Baur, William S Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood glucose kinetics and physiological effects experienced by a type 1 diabetic (T1D) finisher of a 3-day, multi-stage ultra endurance triathlon consisting of a 10 km swim and 144.8 km bike (stage 1), a 275.4 km bike (stage 2), and an 84.4 km run (stage 3). METHODS: The athlete self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) levels via fingerstick blood draw and hand-held glucometer. Researchers evaluated blood glucose kinetics via a continuous glucose monitoring device...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295487/sperm-dna-fragmentation-as-a-result-of-ultra-endurance-exercise-training-in-male-athletes
#20
D Vaamonde, C Algar-Santacruz, A Abbasi, J M García-Manso
Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C)...
March 15, 2017: Andrologia
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