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R-J Spencer, J U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered a last resort to recover threatened or endangered species, but they may also help reduce anthropogenic threats where it is difficult or impossible to address them directly. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals for subsequent release into the wild, is controversial because it treats only a symptom of a larger conservation problem; however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly near population centers...
December 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Marilyn S Townsend, Mical K Shilts, Dennis M Styne, Christiana Drake, Louise Lanoue, Leslie Woodhouse, Lindsay H Allen
Young children are not meeting recommendations for vegetable intake. Our objective is to provide evidence of validity and reliability for a pictorial vegetable behavioral assessment for use by federally funded community nutrition programs. Parent/child pairs (n=133) from Head Start and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children [WIC] provided parent-administered vegetable tools, three child 24-hour diet recalls, child blood sample and measured heights/weights. The 10-item Focus on Veggies scale, with an alpha of ...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
Jolie Ringash, Richard Fisher, Lester Peters, Andy Trotti, Brian O'Sullivan, June Corry, Lizbeth Kenny, Sandra Nuyts, Chris Wratten, Danny Rischin
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has a favorable prognosis. Current research de-escalates treatment, aiming to improve quality of life (QOL). Understanding the QOL experience with current standard treatment (chemoradiation therapy) provides context for emerging data. We report the impact of p16 status on QOL for patients with stage III or IV OPC undergoing chemoradiation therapy in an international phase 3 trial (TROG 02.02 [HeadSTART]). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A subgroup analysis by p16 status was conducted in patients with OPC treated in a phase 3 randomized trial...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Toni Cunillera, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information...
February 2016: Neuropsychologia
Michael P Wines, Valerie M Johnson, Brad Lock, Fred Antonio, James C Godwin, Elizabeth M Rush, Craig Guyer
Optimal husbandry techniques are desirable for any headstart program, but frequently are unknown for rare species. Here we describe key reproductive variables and determine optimal incubation temperature and diet diversity for Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) grown in laboratory settings. Optimal incubation temperature was estimated from two variables dependent on temperature, shell dimpling, a surrogate for death from fungal infection, and deviation of an egg from an ovoid shape, a surrogate for death from developmental anomalies...
May 2015: Zoo Biology
Joanna Triscott, Cathy Lee, Colleen Foster, Branavan Manoranjan, Mary Rose Pambid, Rachel Berns, Abbas Fotovati, Chitra Venugopal, Katrina O'Halloran, Aru Narendran, Cynthia Hawkins, Vijay Ramaswamy, Eric Bouffet, Michael D Taylor, Ash Singhal, Juliette Hukin, Rod Rassekh, Stephen Yip, Paul Northcott, Sheila K Singh, Christopher Dunham, Sandra E Dunn
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. This disease is heterogeneous and is composed of four subtypes of medulloblastoma [WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4]. An immediate goal is to identify novel molecular targets for the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an oncogenic kinase that controls cell cycle and proliferation, making it a strong candidate for medulloblastoma treatment. In this study, pediatric medulloblastomas were subtyped in two patient cohorts (discovery cohort, n = 63 patients; validation cohort, n = 57 patients) using NanoString nCounter analysis and PLK1 mRNA was assessed...
November 15, 2013: Cancer Research
Michael P Schwarz, Simon M Tierney, Sandra M Rehan, Luke B Chenoweth, Steven J B Cooper
Understanding how sterile worker castes in social insects first evolved is one of the supreme puzzles in social evolution. Here, we show that in the bee tribe Allodapini, the earliest societies did not entail a foraging worker caste, but instead comprised females sharing a nest with supersedure of dominance. Subordinates delayed foraging until they became reproductively active, whereupon they provided food for their own brood as well as for those of previously dominant females. The earliest allodapine societies are, therefore, not consistent with an 'evo-devo' paradigm, where decoupling of foraging and reproductive tasks is proposed as a key early step in social evolution...
April 23, 2011: Biology Letters
Danny Rischin, Lester J Peters, Brian O'Sullivan, Jordi Giralt, Richard Fisher, Kally Yuen, Andy Trotti, Jacques Bernier, Jean Bourhis, Jolie Ringash, Michael Henke, Lizbeth Kenny
PURPOSE: Promising results in a randomized phase II trial with the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) combined with cisplatin (CIS) and radiation led to this phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated stage III or IV (excluding T1-2N1 and M1) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx were randomly assigned to receive definitive radiotherapy (70 Gy in 7 weeks) concurrently with either CIS (100 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of weeks 1, 4, and 7 or CIS (75 mg/m(2)) plus TPZ (290 mg/m(2)/d) on day 1 of weeks 1, 4, and 7 and TPZ alone (160 mg/m(2)/d) on days 1, 3, and 5 of weeks 2 and 3 (TPZ/CIS)...
June 20, 2010: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Astrid Skjesol, Toril Aamo, Marit Nøst Hegseth, Børre Robertsen, Jorunn B Jørgensen
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a major pathogen in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Factors contributing to IPNV pathogenicity are yet poorly understood. Indications of IPNV being able to evade or counteract innate host defense come from its lack of ability to induce strong type I interferon (IFN) responses in cell culture. We show here that addition of salmon rIFN-alpha1 to cells prior to IPNV infection halts the viral protein synthesis and prevents processing of pVP2 into mature VP2. Furthermore, compared to pre-treatment with IFN-alpha1 the antiviral state in cells infected with IPNV prior to IFN-treatment, was antagonized by IPNV, as detected by higher viral titers, faster viral protein synthesis and also by reduced Mx expression...
July 2009: Virus Research
Priscilla Dixey, Jan Seiler, Jo Ann Woodie, Carol Hall Grantham, Myra C Carmon
The purpose of this study was to determine if providing a sticker after a finger stick for hemoglobin check reduced pain perception among preschool-aged children. The hypothesis was: Sticker rewards influence the perception of pain as measured by the Oucher scale following a finger stick to check hemoglobin. Preschoolers from Headstart Centers in a southeastern city were recruited for the study. The age range of participants was between 3 and 5 years. The children were assigned randomly into two groups: those receiving stickers (Group I), and those not receiving a sticker (Group II)...
November 2008: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Jennifer A Polk, Nicholas Woolridge, Linda Wilson-Pauwels, Jodie Jenkinson, Margot Mackay
A prototype Web site, "HeadStart: a craniosynostosis and positional plagiocephaly resource," was developed to help parents of children with cranial abnormalities access information about their child's condition. An on-line survey of 30 parents confirmed the need for information regarding the early diagnosis and treatment of cranial abnormalities. Three methods of creating the illusion of 3-D in a 2-D interactive animation were investigated. The final prototype Web site was developed using a novel approach to rendering 3-D models for use on the Web using a non-photorealistic rendering technique which emulated a hand-drawn appearance...
2003: Journal of Biocommunication
Karen A Gresty, Deborah R E Cotton
AIMS: The aim of this project was to develop and evaluate an online resource designed to improve the biosciences knowledge of preregistration nursing students. BACKGROUND: A number of studies have identified lack of biological subject knowledge and anxiety about studying biosciences as serious problems for nursing students. The availability of a contextualized biological information resource prior to and early in their studies might help to reduce this fear and anxiety...
November 2003: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Louis W Sullivan
The author served as the 17th U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, from March 1, 1989 until January 20, 1993. The department had 250 programs and 38 percent of the expenditures of the federal government ($600.0 billion), the fourth largest budget in the world. The history of the department included the fact that the tenure of previous Secretaries had ranged from only eight months up to 37 months, and had averaged 27.5 months, resulting in the view that the department was unmanageable. The author's tenure as Secretary was 47 months, and, in the author's view, the department was indeed manageable...
2002: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Hare, Call, Agnetta, Tomasello
We report a series of experiments on social problem solving in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. In each experiment a subordinate and a dominant individual were put into competition over two pieces of food. In all experiments dominants obtained virtually all of the foods to which they had good visual and physical access. However, subordinates were successful quite often in three situations in which they had better visual access to the food than the dominant, for example, when the food was positioned so that only the subordinate (and not the dominant) could see it...
April 2000: Animal Behaviour
J P Mayer, R Housemann, B Piepenbrok
This study evaluated an intervention to improve immunization rates in a high poverty, medically underserved rural area employing a pretest-posttest design. The intervention expanded immunization availability, established walk-in appointment policies, and introduced intensified parent education. Formative evaluation indicated specific messages with high salience to parents. As a result, the susceptibility and severity of childhood infectious disease, the outcome efficacy of vaccines, and methods to reduce barriers to immunization were emphasized in communications with parents...
February 1999: Journal of Community Health
S R Wilson, P Scamagas, J Grado, L Norgaard, N J Starr, S Eaton, K Pomaville
The Fresno Asthma Project targeted the entire low-income, inner-city, multiethnic population of Fresno, California. For 36 months following a 6-month planning phase, continuing education was provided to a high proportion of physicians, pharmacists, nurses/respiratory therapists, emergency medical technicians, school personnel, and allied health professionals involved in asthma care in Fresno, including virtually all those providing care/services to the target population. Small group patient education was made available and provided in age- and culturally appropriate formats to patients/families in clinics, hospitals, and schools...
February 1998: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
M L Stuber, K O Nader, R S Pynoos
This paper describes an acute trauma consultation to one Los Angeles HeadStart program following the severe civil disturbance in the spring of 1992. By self-report, 7% (3/42) of the teachers had severe post-traumatic stress symptoms, and 29% (21/42) had moderate symptoms one month after the event. Teachers, comparing behavior following the disturbance to behavior two weeks before, reported statistically significant increases in the students' aggression and noise level, and decreases in "getting along" with peers and academic progress...
June 1997: Community Mental Health Journal
M L Jones, A P Mourino, T A Bowden
493 African-American children between the ages of three and four years were examined for evaluation of molar occlusion with frequency of anterior and posterior crossbite, fractured and/or darkened teeth from trauma and dental anomalies in the primary dentition. Overall results from both age groups revealed 90% had a mesial step, 8% a flush and 2% a distal step molar occlusion. Crossbite, either anterior or posterior, occurred in 12% of all children examined. Posterior crossbite was seen in 7% and anterior crossbite in 5%...
1993: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
K M Dunegan, A P Mourino, F H Farrington, J C Gunsolley
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), a parent rating scale of children's behaviors at home, and children's disruptive behaviors during an initial dental visit. Behaviors of 18 Headstart children, 40 to 55 months of age, undergoing an initial exam were observed. Four possible negative behaviors based upon the North Carolina Behavior Rating Scale (NCBRS), were recorded by two observers for each subject during five phases of an initial dental visit and statistically compared to the total ECBI score and individual answers within the ECBI questionnaire...
1994: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
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