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Theta burst stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028501/interindividual-variability-in-response-to-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-in-healthy-adults
#1
Ali Jannati, Gabrielle Block, Lindsay M Oberman, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
OBJECTIVE: We used complete-linkage cluster analysis to identify healthy subpopulations with distinct responses to continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). METHODS: 21 healthy adults (age±SD, 36.9±15.2years) underwent cTBS of left motor cortex. Natural log-transformed motor evoked potentials (LnMEPs) at 5-50min post-cTBS (T5-T50) were calculated. RESULTS: Two clusters were found; Group 1 (n=12) that showed significant MEP facilitation at T15, T20, and T50 (p's<0...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984621/the-effects-of-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-plasticity-a-feasibility-trial
#2
Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F Cabral, Carrie Hinchman, Ali Jannati, Timothy P Morris, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Exercise-mediated cognitive improvements can be at least partly attributed to neuroplastic changes in the nervous system, and may be influenced by the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess mechanisms of plasticity in humans noninvasively. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of evaluating the effects of short-term regular exercise on cognitive performance, and to evaluate the relationship between these effects, TMS measures of plasticity, and BDNF Met carrier status in young healthy sedentary adults...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976633/imaging-neuronal-structure-dynamics-using-two-photon-super-resolution-patterned-excitation-reconstruction-super-microscopy
#3
Ben E Urban, Lei Xiao, Biqin Dong, Siyu Chen, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy, Hao F Zhang
Visualizing fine neuronal structures deep inside strong light-scattering brain tissue remains a challenge in neuroscience. Recent nanoscopy techniques have reached the necessary resolution, but often suffer from limited imaging depth, long imaging time, or high light fluence requirements. Here, we present two-photon Super-resolution Patterned Excitation Reconstruction (2P-SuPER) microscopy for three-dimensional imaging of dendritic spine dynamics at a maximum demonstrated imaging depth of 130 μm in living brain tissue with approximately 100 nm spatial resolution...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970790/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reveals-executive-control-dissociation-in-the-rostral-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Weijiang He, Chenggui Fan, Ling Li
Although previous studies have shown that the rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC) plays a crucial role in executive tasks, the various functions of the rPFC in the humans are still understudied. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to interfere with the executive control functions of the right rostrolateral PFC (RLPFC) or the right rostromedial PFC (RMPFC). Subjects performed a task-switching paradigm, which included spatial detection (SD), prospective memory (PM) and working memory (WM) tasks, after cTBS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956646/effectiveness-of-central-plus-peripheral-stimulation-cpps-on-post-stroke-upper-limb-motor-rehabilitation
#5
Fayaz Rahman Khan, Mohamed Faisal Chevidikunnan
PURPOSE: This study was to assess the motor-cortex integrity and reaction time of the upper limb in patients early after stroke after CPPS approach with Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) an repetitive Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) paradigm and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). METHODS: Ten patients and ten age matched controls underwent three experimental sessions in three consecutive weeks. First-week W1 (TBS) with TBS alone, second-week W2 (NMES) with NMES alone and third-week W3 (TBS + NMES) with both TBS and NMES given sequentially...
September 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953034/efficacy-of-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-on-unilateral-neglect-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Jingjing Fan, Yi Li, Yonghong Yang, Yun Qu, Shasha Li
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect (UN) is a common debilitating consequence of stroke. This review focused on the effect of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques in the recovery of UN in poststroke patients. METHODS: Relevant databases were comprehensively searched, including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, the Web of Knowledge, and relevant websites. All randomized controlled trials were identified which used NIBS for poststroke UN...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947393/alterations-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-healthy-subjects-with-theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-cortex-of-the-suprahyoid-muscles
#7
Xiuhang Ruan, Guangqing Xu, Cuihua Gao, Lingling Liu, Yanli Liu, Lisheng Jiang, Xin Chen, Shaode Yu, Xinqing Jiang, Yue Lan, Xinhua Wei
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) has emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of swallowing disorders; however, the short-term after-effects of brain activation induced by TBS remain unknown. Here, we measured the changes in spontaneous brain activation using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach in subjects who underwent different TBS protocols. Sixty right-handed healthy participants (male, n=30; female, n=30; mean age=23.5y) were recruited in this study and randomly assigned to three groups that underwent three different TBS protocols...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937248/theta-burst-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-orofacial-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
B Kohútová, J Fricová, M Klírová, T Novák, R Rokyta
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a modified form of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with promising effect in chronic pain. The aim of our double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group, randomized study was to assess an efficacy of intermittent TBS (iTBS) in the treatment of patients with chronic orofacial pain. Nineteen patients (twelve females) with chronic orofacial pain were prospectively included and randomly assigned to single session of an active (iTBS) or sham (intermediate TBS; imTBS) stimulation delivered to the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to painful side...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936169/movement-related-activity-of-human-subthalamic-neurons-during-a-reach-to-grasp-task
#9
Monika Pötter-Nerger, Rene Reese, Frank Steigerwald, Jan Arne Heiden, Jan Herzog, Christian K E Moll, Wolfgang Hamel, Uri Ramirez-Pasos, Daniela Falk, Maximilian Mehdorn, Christian Gerloff, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann
The aim of the study was to record movement-related single unit activity (SUA) in the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) during a standardized motor task of the upper limb. We performed microrecordings from the motor region of the human STN and registered kinematic data in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery (seven women, mean age 62.0 ± 4.7 years) while they intraoperatively performed visually cued reach-to-grasp movements using a grip device. SUA was analyzed offline in relation to different aspects of the movement (attention, start of the movement, movement velocity, button press) in terms of firing frequency, firing pattern, and oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#10
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901287/causal-evidence-for-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-dynamics-supporting-cognitive-control
#11
Derek Evan Nee, Mark D'Esposito
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is essential for higher-level cognition, but the nature of its interactions in supporting cognitive control remains elusive. Previously (Nee and D'Esposito, 2016), dynamic causal modeling (DCM) indicated that mid LPFC integrates abstract, rostral and concrete, caudal influences to inform context-appropriate action. Here, we use continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) to test this model causally. cTBS was applied to three LPFC sites and a control site in counterbalanced sessions...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894415/loss-of-fmrp-impaired-hippocampal-long-term-plasticity-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#12
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Shujiang Shang, Yijun Cai, Xiaofei Deng, Jian Zhang, Feng Shao, Desheng Zhu, Yunbo Liu, Guiquan Chen, Jing Liang, Qiang Sun, Zilong Qiu, Chen Zhang
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene that inactivate expression of the gene product, the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology to generate Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats by disruption of the fourth exon of the Fmr1 gene. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the FMRP was absent from the brains of the Fmr1 KO rats (Fmr1(exon4-KO) )...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893669/mismatch-novelty-exploration-training-enhances-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-a-tool-for-cognitive-stimulation
#13
M F Aidil-Carvalho, A J S Carmo, J A Ribeiro, D Cunha-Reis
Memory formation relies on experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity, that in turn depend on previous learning experiences through metaplasticity. Novelty detection is a particularly important cognitive stimulus in this respect, and mismatch novelty has been associated with the activation of the hippocampal CA1 area in human studies. A single exposure a new location of known objects in a familiar environment, a behavioural mismatch novelty paradigm, is known to favour the expression of LTD in hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synaptic transmission in vivo, through short-term metaplasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882634/learning-stage-dependent-effect-of-m1-disruption-on-value-based-motor-decisions
#14
Gerard Derosiere, Pierre Vassiliadis, Sophie Demaret, Alexandre Zénon, Julie Duque
The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money...
September 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881444/gabaergic-inhibition-gates-excitatory-ltp-in-perirhinal-cortex
#15
Vibhakar C Kotak, Ana Mirallave, Todd M Mowery, Dan H Sanes
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a key region downstream of auditory cortex (ACx) that processes familiarity linked mnemonic signaling. In gerbils, ACx-driven EPSPs recorded in PRh neurons are largely shunted by GABAergic inhibition (Kotak et al. 2015). To determine whether inhibitory shunting prevents the induction of excitatory long-term potentiation (e-LTP), we stimulated ACx-recipient PRh in a brain slice preparation using theta burst stimulation (TBS). Under control conditions, without GABA blockers, the majority of PRh neurons exhibited long-term depression...
September 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877723/conditioned-place-preference-training-prevents-hippocampal-depotentiation-in-an-orexin-dependent-manner
#16
Guan-Ling Lu, Hau-Jie Yau, Lih-Chu Chiou
BACKGROUND: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is well recognized as a cellular-correlated synaptic plasticity of learning and memory. However, its reversal forms of synaptic plasticity, depotentiation, is less studied and its association with behaviors is also far from clear. Previously, we have shown that nanomolar orexin A can prevent the depotentiation induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS) following theta burst stimulation-induced LTP, namely inducing re-potentiation, at hippocampal CA1 synapses in vitro...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875335/facilitation-of-fast-backward-priming-after-left-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#17
Louise S T Allen-Walker, R Martyn Bracewell, Guillaume Thierry, Paloma Mari-Beffa
Traditional theories of backward priming account only for the priming effects found at long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Here, we suggest that the presence of backward priming at short SOAs may be related to the integrative role of the cerebellum. Previous research has shown that the right cerebellum is involved in forward associative priming. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals some activation of the left cerebellar hemisphere during backward priming; but what this activation represents is unclear...
September 5, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871222/reproducibility-of-single-pulse-paired-pulse-and-intermittent-theta-burst-tms-measures-in-healthy-aging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Peter J Fried, Ali Jannati, Paula Davila-Pérez, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess neurophysiology and the mechanisms of cortical brain plasticity in humans in vivo. As the use of these measures in specific populations (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; AD) increases, it is critical to understand their reproducibility (i.e., test-retest reliability) in the populations of interest. Objective: Reproducibility of TMS measures was evaluated in older adults, including healthy, AD, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups. Methods: Participants received two identical neurophysiological assessments within a year including motor thresholds, baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), and MEP changes following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867993/impact-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-clinical-neuropsychological-tasks
#19
Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Mercè Boixadós, Marc Palaus, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Elena M Marron
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols hold high promise in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their ability to either decrease (continuous, cTBS) or increase (intermittent, iTBS) cortical excitability in areas other than the primary motor cortex, and their consistency modulating human behaviors with clinically relevant tasks remain to be fully established. The behavioral effects of TBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are particularly interesting given its involvement in working memory (WM) and executive functions (EF), often impaired following frontal brain damage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866300/action-observation-effects-reflect-the-modular-organization-of-the-human-motor-system
#20
Pauline M Hilt, Eleonora Bartoli, Elisabetta Ferrari, Marco Jacono, Luciano Fadiga, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Action observation, similarly to action execution, facilitates the observer's motor system and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been instrumental in exploring the nature of these motor activities. However, contradictory findings question some of the fundamental assumptions regarding the neural computations run by the Action Observation Network (AON). To better understand this issue, we delivered TMS over the observers' motor cortex at two timings of two reaching-grasping actions (precision vs power grip) and we recorded Motor-Evoked Potentials (4 hand/arm muscles; MEPs)...
August 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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