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Weight loss vegetarian

D L Ellsworth, N S Costantino, H L Blackburn, R J M Engler, M Kashani, M N Vernalis
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Subjects with diagnosed type-2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non-randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean-style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls)...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Jia Li, Cheryl L H Armstrong, Wayne W Campbell
Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults...
February 2016: Nutrients
Rupal Sinha, Dinesh Chandra Doval, Showket Hussain, Kapil Kumar, Shivendra Singh, Seemi Farhat Basir, Mausumi Bharadwaj
BACKGROUND: The study evaluated the patient, lifestyle and tumor profile in patients undergoing upfront surgery for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients were included. Details related to their demographic profile, habits, signs and symptoms, tumor profile, further treatment and follow up were recorded. RESULTS: The majority of the patients had colonic cancer (68%), advanced tumor stage 3 and 4 (46%), moderately differentiated tumors (70%) with absence of lymphatic invasion (60%) and metastasis (90%)...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Wendy J Moore, Daheia Barr-Anderson
This study examined differences in diet, particularly vegetarian and vegan, among ultramarathon and other long distance runners. Participants who had completed a half- (HALF), full- (FULL), or ultramarathon (ULTRA) in the past 12 months were recruited to complete an online survey assessing current diet, reason for diet, and other dietary behaviors. A total of 422 participants completed the survey (n=125 ULTRA, n=152 FULL, n=145 HALF). More ULTRA participants were men (63%) (vs. FULL (37%) and HALF (23%)) and ULTRA participants reported significantly more years of running (16...
October 19, 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Laura Quiles, Olga Portolés, José Vicente Sorlí, Dolores Corella
INTRODUCTION: vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and a more favourable lipid profile in vegetarians who follow these diets for a long term period in observational studies, but the short-term effects of vegetarian diets are less known. OBJECTIVE: our objective was to analyze the short-term effects of a low-fat vegetarian diet on lipid profile and fasting glucose in previously non-vegetarian subjects from a Mediterranean population...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Wendy L Bennett, Lawrence J Appel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Wendy J Moore, Michael E McGrievy, Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy
The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence...
December 2015: Eating Behaviors
Ru-Yi Huang, Chuan-Chin Huang, Frank B Hu, Jorge E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets may promote weight loss, but evidence remains inconclusive. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and UpToDate databases were searched through September 22, 2014, and investigators extracted data regarding study characteristics and assessed study quality among selected randomized clinical trials. Population size, demographic (i.e., gender and age) and anthropometric (i.e., body mass index) characteristics, types of interventions, follow-up periods, and trial quality (Jadad score) were recorded...
January 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Hana Kahleova, Terezie Pelikanova
Observational studies show that prevalence of type 2 diabetes is 1.6 to 2 times lower in vegetarians than in the general population, even after adjustment for differences in body mass index (BMI). Clinical interventional trials demonstrated that vegetarian diets lead to a greater weight loss and greater reduction in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, and hypoglycemic medication than a conventional hypocaloric diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We found a greater reduction in visceral fat and greater improvements in insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers with a vegetarian compared to a conventional hypocaloric diabetic diet...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Neal D Barnard, Susan M Levin, Yoko Yokoyama
In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported...
June 2015: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Charis R Davidson, Ellen E Wingard, Sara Wilcox, Edward A Frongillo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction...
February 2015: Nutrition
Madalina Neacsu, Claire Fyfe, Graham Horgan, Alexandra M Johnstone
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers...
August 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
David J A Jenkins, Julia M W Wong, Cyril W C Kendall, Amin Esfahani, Vivian W Y Ng, Tracy C K Leong, Dorothea A Faulkner, Ed Vidgen, Gregory Paul, Ratna Mukherjea, Elaine S Krul, William Singer
OBJECTIVE: Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006...
2014: BMJ Open
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Charis R Davidson, Sara Wilcox
Studies have found that people following plant-based eating styles, such as vegan or vegetarian diets, often have different demographic characteristics, eating styles, and physical activity (PA) levels than individuals following an omnivorous dietary pattern. There has been no research examining if there are differences in these characteristics among people who are willing to participate in a weight loss intervention using plant-based dietary approaches as compared to a standard reduced calorie approach, which does not exclude food groups...
February 2014: Appetite
Rosemary J Spencer, Jean M Russell, Margo E Barker
OBJECTIVE: The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. DESIGN: Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. SETTING: Desk-based study. SUBJECTS: Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. RESULTS: Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control...
October 2014: Public Health Nutrition
John L Sievenpiper, Paula D N Dworatzek
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone...
February 2013: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Sushama D Acharya, Maria M Brooks, Rhobert W Evans, Faina Linkov, Lora E Burke
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to compare the effect of a standard calorie- and fat-restricted diet (STD-D) and a calorie- and fat-restricted lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (LOV-D) on total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels after 6 months of behavioral intervention. DESIGN: This study is an ancillary study to a randomized clinical trial. SUBJECTS: Subjects included 143 overweight/obese adults (STD-D = 79; LOV-D = 64). INTERVENTION: Both groups received the same standard behavioral intervention; the only difference was that LOV-D participants were instructed to eliminate meat, poultry, and fish from their diet...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Jacqueline Redmer, Elizabeth Longmier, Paul Wedel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Journal of Family Practice
S Mishra, J Xu, U Agarwal, J Gonzales, S Levin, N D Barnard
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks...
July 2013: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ita P Heilberg, David S Goldfarb
We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones...
March 2013: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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