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X ray

Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Nan Hu, Jun Feng Yin, Ze Ji, Yidong Hong, Puyuan Wu, Baoxiang Bian, Ziyan Song, Rutian Li, Qin Liu, Fenglei Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-21 is an oncogenic miR (oncomiR) frequently elevated in gastric cancer (GC). Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-fluorouridine (5-Fu) and trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). This study is a continuation of earlier findings involving poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target GC with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 (AMO-21) and 5-Fu...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mélanie Valpacos, Delphine Arni, Amy Keir, Ann Aspirot, James C H Wilde, Spencer Beasley, Daniele De Luca, Riccardo E Pfister, Oliver Karam
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide investigation and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the parameters used to diagnose or exclude NEC, and to identify differences between neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. METHODS: A scenario-based survey was sent to neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. RESULTS: 173 physicians from 26 countries completed the survey (55% neonatologists and 45% pediatric surgeons)...
December 15, 2017: Neonatology
Susan A Cumberland, Barbara Etschmann, Joël Brugger, Grant Douglas, Katy Evans, Louise Fisher, Peter Kappen, John W Moreau
The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting or promoting the mobility of U via binding, reduction, or complexation. To understand the interactions between OM and U, we characterised U oxidation state and speciation in nine OM-rich sediment cores (18 samples), plus a lignite sample from the Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit in Western Australia. Uranium was unevenly dispersed within the analysed samples with 84% of the total U occurring in samples containing >21 wt % OM...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Corin M Hammond, Robert Aubrey Root, Raina M Maier, Jon Chorover
Phytostabilization is a cost-effective long-term bioremediation technique for immobilization of metalliferous mine tailings. However the biogeochemical processes affecting metal(loid) molecular stabilization and mobility in the root zone remain poorly resolved. Roots of Prosopis juliflora grown for up to 36 months in compost-amended pyritic mine tailings from a federal Superfund site were investigated by micro-scale and bulk synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and multiple energy micro X-ray fluorescence (ME-μXRF) imaging to determine iron, arsenic, sulfur speciation, abundance, and spatial distribution...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jonathan A Mitchell, Alessandra Chesi, Diana L Cousminer, Shana E McCormack, Heidi J Kalkwarf, Joan M Lappe, Vicente Gilsanz, Sharon E Oberfield, John A Shepherd, Andrea Kelly, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant
Osteoporosis is a complex disease with developmental origins. It is therefore important to understand the genetic contribution to pediatric areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Individual skeletal site phenotyping has been primarily used to identify pediatric aBMD loci. However, this approach is limited because there is a degree of aBMD discordance across skeletal sites. We, therefore, applied a novel multi-dimensional phenotyping approach to further understand the genetic regulation of pediatric aBMD. Our sample comprised a prospective, longitudinal cohort of 1,293 children of European ancestry (52% female; up to 7 annual measurements)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Siri Helland Hansen, Agnieszka J Pawlowicz, Leif Kronberg, Kristine Bjerve Gützkow, Ann-Karin Olsen, Gunnar Brunborg
The alkaline comet assay and a cell-free system were used to characterise DNA lesions induced by treatment with glycidamide (GA), a metabolite of the food contaminant acrylamide. DNA lesions induced by GA were sensitively detected when the formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme was included in the comet assay. We used LC-MS to characterise modified bases from GA-treated naked DNA with and without subsequent Fpg treatment. N7-GA-Guanine and N3-GA-Adenine aglycons were detected in the supernatant showing some depurination of adducted bases; treatment of naked DNA with Fpg revealed no further increase in the adduct yield nor occurrence of other adducted nucleobases...
December 12, 2017: Mutagenesis
Danmin Wang, Zhiduo Hou, Yao Gong, Subiao Chen, Ling Lin, Zhengyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the relationship between bone marrow edema (BME) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: The study included 333 patients with AS who underwent BMD measurements and axial MRI. Additionally, 106 normal controls were included. The modified New York criteria were used as the classification criteria of AS. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected and analyzed...
2017: PloS One
Giuseppe Zanotti, Francesca Vallese, Alberto Ferrari, Ilaria Menozzi, Tadeo E Saldaño, Paola Berto, Sebastian Fernandez-Alberti, Rodolfo Berni
The molecular symmetry of multimeric proteins is generally determined by using X-ray diffraction techniques, so that the basic question as to whether this symmetry is perfectly preserved for the same protein in solution remains open. In this work, human transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric plasma transport protein with two binding sites for the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), is considered as a case study. Based on the crystal structure of the TTR tetramer, a hypothetical D2 symmetry is inferred for the protein in solution, whose functional behavior reveals the presence of two markedly different Kd values for the two T4 binding sites...
2017: PloS One
Svetlana V Kononova, Elena V Kruchinina, Valentina A Petrova, Yulia G Baklagina, Kira A Romashkova, Anton S Orekhov, Vera V Klechkovskaya, Yury A Skorik
Two-ply composite membranes with separation layers from chitosan and sulfoethylcellulose were developed on a microporous support based on poly(diphenylsulfone-N-phenylphthalimide) and investigated by use of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The pervaporation properties of the membranes were studied for the separation of aqueous alcohol (ethanol, propan-2-ol) mixtures of different compositions. When the mixtures to be separated consist of less than 15 wt % water in propan-2-ol, the membranes composed of polyelectrolytes with the same molar fraction of ionogenic groups (-NH₃⁺ for chitosan and -SO₃- for sulfoethylcellulose) show high permselectivity (the water content in the permeate was 100%)...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Artur Jabłoński, Karolina Matczak, Aneta Koceva-Chyła, Kamil Durka, Dietmar Steverding, Katarzyna Jakubiec-Krześniak, Jolanta Solecka, Damian Trzybiński, Krzysztof Woźniak, Vanesa Andreu, Gracia Mendoza, Manuel Arruebo, Krzysztof Kochel, Barbara Krawczyk, Dominik Szczukocki, Konrad Kowalski
The synthesis of four cymantrene-5-fluorouracil derivatives (1-4) and two cymantrene-adenine derivatives (5 and 6) is reported. All of the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and the crystal structure of two derivatives (1 and 6), together with the previously described cymantrene-adenine compound C was determined by X-ray crystallography. While the compounds 1 and 6 crystallized in the triclinic P-1 space group, compound C crystallized in the monoclinic P2₁/m space group. The newly synthesized compounds 1-6 were tested together with the two previously described cymantrene derivatives B and C for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against seven cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MCF-7/DX, MDA-MB-231, SKOV-3, A549, HepG2m and U-87-MG), five bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive, methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, including clinical isolates of S...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tuan Anh Pham, Xueqiang Zhang, Brandon C Wood, David Prendergast, Sylwia Ptasinska, Tadashi Ogitsu
Many energy storage and conversion devices rely on processes that take place at complex interfaces, where structural and chemical properties are often difficult to probe under operating conditions. A primary example is solar water splitting using high-performance photoelectrochemical cells, where surface chemistry, including native oxide formation, affects hydrogen generation. In this perspective, we discuss some of the challenges associated with interrogating interface chemistry, and how they may be overcome by integrating high-level first-principles calculations of explicit interfaces with ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and direct spectroscopic simulations...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Guiliang Xu, Lisong Xiao, Tian Sheng, Jianzhao Liu, Yi-Xin Hu, Tianyuan Ma, Rachid Amine, Yingying Xie, Xiaoyi Zhang, Yuzi Liu, Yang Ren, Chengjun Sun, Steve M Heald, Jasmina Kovacevic, Yee Hwa Sehlleier, Christof Schulz, Wenjuan Liu Mattis, Shi-Gang Sun, Hartmut Wiggers, Zonghai Chen, Khalil Amine
Room temperature sodium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop versatile electrode materials with favorable properties, which requires smart structure design and good mechanistic understanding. Herein, we reported a general and scalable approach to synthesize 3D titania-graphene hybrid via electrostatic-interaction-induced self-assembly. Synchrotron X-ray probe, transmission electron microscopy and computational modeling revealed that the strong interaction between Titania and graphene through comparably strong van-der-Waals forces not only facilitates bulk Na+ intercalation but also enhances the interfacial sodium storage...
December 14, 2017: Nano Letters
Sidharam P Pujari, Alexei D Filippov, Satesh Gangarapu, Han Zuilhof
H-Si(111)-terminated surfaces were alkenylated via two routes: through a novel one-step gas-phase hydrosilylation reaction with short alkynes (C3 to C6) and for comparison via a two-step chlorination and Grignard alkenylation process. All modified surfaces were characterized by static water contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Propenyl- and butenyl-coated Si(111) surfaces display a significantly higher packing density than conventional C10-C18 alkyne-derived monolayers, showing the potential of this approach...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yan Chen, Jin-Yi Zhu, Kwon Ho Hong, David C Mikles, Gunda I Georg, Alex S Goldstein, John K Amory, Ernst Schönbrunn
The ALDH1A subfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes are crucial in regulating retinoic acid (RA) signaling and have received attention as potential drug targets. ALDH1A2 is the primary RA-synthesizing enzyme in mammalian spermatogenesis and is therefore considered a viable drug target for male contraceptive development. However, only a small number of ALDH1A2 inhibitors have been reported, and information on the structure of ALDH1A2 was limited to the NAD-liganded enzyme void of substrate or inhibitors. Herein, we describe the mechanism of action of structurally unrelated reversible and irreversible inhibitors of human ALDH1A2 using direct binding studies and X-ray crystallography...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Molly M MacInnes, Sofiya Hlynchuk, Saurabh Acharya, Nicolai Lehnert, Stephen Maldonado
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films have been prepared by immersion of graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature in non-aqueous solutions containing simple, outer-sphere metallocene reductants. Specifically, solutions of cobaltocene, cobaltocene & trifluoroacetic acid, and decamethylcobaltocene each showed activity for the rapid reduction of GO films cast on a wide variety of substrates. Each reactant increased the conductivity of the films by several orders of magnitude, with RGO films prepared with either decamethylcobaltocene or with cobaltocene & trifluoroacetic acid possessing the highest conductivities (~ 104 S m-1)...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xueying Chu, Yan Zhu, Ou Wang, Min Nie, Tingting Quan, Yu Xue, Wenbo Wang, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Weibo Xia, Xiaoping Xing
BACKGROUND: Bone responsiveness to serum PTH in pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: Forty-eight PHP1B patients diagnosed by molecular analysis were recruited from 2000 to 2016 from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Fifty-five gender-matched non-surgical hypoparathyroidism (NS-HP) patients were selected and included for comparison. METHODS: Basic information, laboratory test and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry results were collected...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
V N Lednev, P A Sdvizhenskii, M Ya Grishin, V V Cheverikin, A Ya Stavertiy, R S Tretyakov, M V Taksanc, S M Pershin
Three-dimensional multi-elemental mapping of composite wear-resistant coatings by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Individual clads of 1560 nickel alloy reinforced with tungsten carbide were synthesized by a co-axial laser cladding technique. Electron energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed elemental maps for major elements (W, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe) but failed to measure silicon and carbon. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was utilized for elemental mapping of carbon and all other elements of interest...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Simone Ciaccioni, Giancarlo Condello, Flavia Guidotti, Laura Capranica
The aim of this study was to provide a systematic literature review on the osteogenic effects of judo (PROSPERO: CRD42016041803). The online search was conducted according to the inclusion criteria: observational studies and clinical/interventional trials in English from inception to June 2016; bone health, mineral density (BMD), diameters, impact force and turnover markers (BTM) outcomes. Thirty-four studies were included and graded for their methodological quality ("fair" quality: 79.4%). The most used assessment method (44...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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