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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725633/exploiting-leech-saliva-to-treat-osteoarthritis-a-provocative-perspective
#1
Edwin L Cooper, Natalie Mologne
Plant and animal-derived products are crucial components in complementary and alternative medicine. Although modern medicine has provided numerous innovations and advancements, these often fail to reveal new and dependable, inexpensive treatments nor real cures that are relatively free of adverse side effects. We present evidence that hirudotherapy, which utilizes leeches, improves certain diseases, including osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, a disease in joints, could benefit from use of medicinal peptides found in leech saliva, components of its immune system...
July 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724917/endocannabinoids-have-opposing-effects-on-behavioral-responses-to-nociceptive-and-non-nociceptive-stimuli
#2
Torrie Summers, Brandon Hanten, Warren Peterson, Brian Burrell
The endocannabinoid system is thought to modulate nociceptive signaling making it a potential therapeutic target for treating pain. However, there is evidence that endocannabinoids have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. In previous studies using Hirudo verbana (the medicinal leech), endocannabinoids were found to depress nociceptive synapses, but enhance non-nociceptive synapses. Here we examined whether endocannabinoids have similar bidirectional effects on behavioral responses to nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive stimuli in vivo...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719229/experiences-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-safer-conception-among-hiv-serodiscordant-heterosexual-couples-in-the-united-states
#3
Angela R Bazzi, Ashley A Leech, Dea L Biancarelli, Meg Sullivan, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast...
July 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711029/an-oxygen-independent-and-membrane-less-glucose-biobattery-supercapacitor-hybrid-device
#4
Xinxin Xiao, Peter Ó Conghaile, Dónal Leech, Roland Ludwig, Edmond Magner
Enzymatic biofuel cells can generate electricity directly from the chemical energy of biofuels in physiological fluids, but their power density is significantly limited by the performance of the cathode which is based on oxygen reduction for in vivo applications. An oxygen-independent and membrane-less glucose biobattery was prepared that consists of a dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) supported glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) bioanode, immobilised with the assistance of conductive polymer/Os redox polymer composites, and a solid-state NPG/MnO2 cathode...
July 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699036/spatiotemporal-expression-of-a-twist-homolog-in-the-leech-helobdella-austinensis
#5
Jin-Se Kim, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Hee-Jin Kwak, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
Genes of the twist family encode bHLH transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation and differentiation of early mesoderm. Here, we report our characterization of Hau-twist, a twist homolog from the leech Helobdella austinensis, a tractable lophotrochozoan representative. Hau-twist was expressed in segmental founder cells of the mesodermal lineage, in subsets of cells within the mesodermal lineage of the germinal plate, in circumferential muscle fibers of a provisional integument during segmentation and organogenesis stages and on the ventral side of the developing proboscis...
July 11, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695833/investigation-on-the-collection-and-economy-of-medicinal-leeches-from-wetlands-around-lake-e%C3%A4-irdir-turkey
#6
Mustafa Ceylan, Osman Çetinkaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the collection and economy of medicinal leeches from wetlands around Lake Eğirdir, Turkey. METHODS: Data used in this study were based on findings, observations, and face-to-face interviews obtained from a research performed between January 2013 - February 2016 on medicinal leech populations. RESULTS: The leech collecting is carried out without any permission, by both local peoples and others especially who are from Afyonkarahisar...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692290/top-down-atmospheric-ionization-mass-spectrometry-microscopy-combined-with-proteogenomics
#7
Cheng-Chih Hsu, Michael W Baker, Terry Gaasterland, Michael J Meehan, Eduardo R Macagno, Pieter C Dorrestein
Mass spectrometry-based protein analysis has become an important methodology for proteogenomic mapping by providing evidence for the existence of proteins predicted at the genomic level. However, screening and identification of proteins directly on tissue samples, where histological information is preserved, remain challenging. Here we demonstrate that the ambient ionization source, nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI), interfaced with light microscopy allows for protein profiling directly on animal tissues at the microscopic scale...
July 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684464/ammonia-independent-sodium-uptake-mediated-by-na-channels-and-nhes-in-the-freshwater-ribbon-leech-nephelopsis-obscura
#8
Alex R Quijada-Rodriguez, Aaron G Schultz, Jonathan M Wilson, Yuhe He, Garett J P Allen, Greg G Goss, Dirk Weihrauch
Freshwater organisms actively take up ions from their environment to counter diffusive ion losses due to inhabiting hypo-osmotic environments. The mechanisms behind active Na(+) uptake are quite well understood in freshwater teleosts, however, the mechanisms employed by invertebrates are not. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to investigate Na(+) uptake mechanisms and their link to ammonia excretion in the ribbon leech Nephelopsis obscura At the molecular level, we identified a Na(+) channel and a Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) in the skin of N...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676576/stimulating-multiple-demand-cortex-enhances-vocabulary-learning
#9
Magdalena W Sliwinska, Inês R Violante, Richard J S Wise, Robert Leech, Joseph T Devlin, Fatemeh Geranmayeh, Adam Hampshire
It is well established that networks within multiple-demand cortex (MDC) become active when diverse skills and behaviors are being learnt. However, their causal role in learning remains to be established. In the present study, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on healthy female and male human participants to confirm that MDC was most active in the initial stages of learning a novel vocabulary, consisting of pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords), each associated with a picture of a real object...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675913/institutional-outcomes-of-leech-therapy-for-venous-congestion-in-87-patients
#10
Agustin Cornejo, Ronnie L Shammas, Luke P Poveromo, Hui-Jie Lee, Scott T Hollenbeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666786/phylogenetic-analysis-of-placobdella-hirudinea-rhynchobdellida-glossiphoniidae-with-consideration-of-coi-variation
#11
Danielle de Carle, Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa, Michael Tessler, Mark E Siddall, Sebastian Kvist
Placobdella is a genus of blood-feeding leeches in the family Glossiphoniidae. Historically, species of Placobdella have posed difficulty for systematists owing to a lack of informative morphological characters and the preponderance of inadequate or incomplete species descriptions. Here, we conduct a phylogenetic analysis of 55 individuals representing 20 of the 24 currently recognized nominal taxa using COI, ND1, 12S rDNA and ITS sequences under parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. We also examine the isolated COI phylogeny for the genus using an expanded dataset encompassing three additional species not included in the concatenated dataset...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633661/prevalence-of-arthritis-according-to-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-status-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage-wave-1
#12
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, S Cook, M T Leech, S J Bowe, P Kowal, N Naidoo, I N Ackerman, R S Page, S M Hosking, J A Pasco, M Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs...
June 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624889/transcriptional-control-of-unequal-cleavage-in-early-tubifex-embryos
#13
Momoe Aoki, Takashi Shimizu
Early embryos of the clitellate annelid Tubifex (oligochaete) undergo a series of unequal spiral cell divisions before the descendants of the D quadrant micromeres (cells 2d and 4d) divide bilaterally. Here, we show that inhibition of zygotic transcription by microinjection of α-amanitin (transcription inhibitor) exclusively converts unequal cleavage in cell 2d(11) (granddaughter of 2d) into equal cleavage while other unequal cleavages and ensuing bilateral cleavages in cells 4d and 2d(111) (great-granddaughter of 2d) all proceed in a normal fashion in the presence of this inhibitor...
June 17, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615887/an-unusual-cause-of-chest-discomfort-case-report-of-oesophageal-hirudiniasis
#14
Cristóvão Figueiredo, Joana Alves, Cláudia Carvalho, António Sarmento
Hirudiniasis is caused by sanguivorous leeches feeding on mucous membranes with possible severe obstructive or haemorrhagic manifestations. Few cases have been reported in humans, and most occur in tropical countries. A seventy-year-old female patient presented to our Emergency Department (ED) with retrosternal discomfort. She was taking warfarin for a mechanical prosthetic heart valve. While in the ED, a leech was spontaneously extruded from her mouth, with symptomatic resolution. Endoscopy revealed an area of previous leech attachment in the distal oesophageal, without severe bleeding...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610277/-i-helobdella-i-i-buzz-i-n-sp-clitellata-hirudinida-a-bromeliad-leech-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#15
Rafael Eiji Iwama, João Miguel DE Matos Nogueira, Ana Zangirolame Gonçalves
Tank bromeliads are important components of tropical forests and are capable of hosting many species of invertebrates in their tank water, such as insect larvae, ostracods and oligochaetes (Frank & Lounibos 2009; Jocque & Field 2014; Richardson 1999).
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609943/-i-mimaporia-i-a-new-genus-of-epicopeiidae-lepidoptera-with-description-of-a-new-species-from-vietnam
#16
Chia-Hsuan Wei, Shen-Horn Yen
The Epicopeiidae is a small geometroid family distributed in the East Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It exhibits high morphological diversity in body size and wing shape, while their wing patterns involve in various complex mimicry rings. In the present study, we attempted to describe a new genus, and a new species from Vietnam, with comments on two assumed congeneric novel species from China and India. To address its phylogenetic affinity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the family by using sequence data of COI, EF-1α, and 28S gene regions obtained from seven genera of Epicopeiidae with Pseudobiston pinratanai as the outgroup...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595003/the-in-vivo-potential-regulated-protective-protein-of-nitrogenase-in-azotobacter-vinelandii-supports-aerobic-bioelectrochemical-dinitrogen-reduction-in-vitro
#17
Ross D Milton, Rong Cai, Selmihan Sahin, Sofiene Abdellaoui, Bassam Alkotaini, Dónal Leech, Shelley D Minteer
Nitrogenase, the only enzyme known to be able to reduce dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is irreversibly damaged upon exposure to molecular oxygen (O2). Several microbes, however, are able to grow aerobically and diazotrophically (fixing N2 to grow) while containing functional nitrogenase. The obligate aerobic diazotroph, Azotobacter vinelandii, employs a multitude of protective mechanisms to preserve nitrogenase activity, including a "conformational switch" protein (FeSII, or "Shethna") that reversibly locks nitrogenase into a multicomponent protective complex upon exposure to low concentrations of O2...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581649/beyond-collective-supervision-informal-social-control-prosocial-investment-and-juvenile-offending-in-urban-neighborhoods
#18
Tamara G J Leech
This article examines prosocial investment and supervision of youth as separate indicators of informal social control. Data from 599 survey respondents in 90 Indianapolis, IN, block groups indicate that, at the neighborhood level, the relationship between these two variables and delinquency during early and middle adolescence varies by severity of offense. Specifically, negative binomial models reveal an inverse relationship between supervision and both status offenses and misdemeanors, but the relationship with misdemeanors is stronger in areas with higher levels of prosocial investment...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570454/intramedullary-venous-drainage-system-for-distal-fingertip-replantations
#19
Husrev Purisa, Muhammed Besir Ozturk, Fatih Kabakas, Berkan Mersa, Ismail Bulent Ozcelik, Ilker Sezer
The number of venous anastomoses performed during fingertip replantation is one of the most important factors affecting the success of replantation. However, because vessel diameters decrease in the zone 1 level, vessel anastomoses, especially vein anastomoses, are technically difficult and, thus, cannot be performed in most cases. Alternative venous drainage methods are crucial when any reliable vein repair is not possible. In the literature, so many artery-only replantation techniques have been defined, such as arteriovenous anastomoses, forming an arteriovenous or venocutaneous fistula, manual milking and massage, puncturing, and external bleeding via a fishmouth incision and using a medical leech...
August 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561038/the-role-of-energy-intake-and-energy-misreporting-in-the-associations-between-eating-patterns-and-adiposity
#20
R M Leech, A Worsley, A Timperio, S A McNaughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Research examining associations between eating occasion (EO) frequency and adiposity is inconclusive; studies examining the impact of energy misreporting are rare. This study examined associations between eating patterns and adiposity, with adjustment for energy misreporting, in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed via two 24-h recalls collected during the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4050 adults, aged ⩾19 years)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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