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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633661/prevalence-of-arthritis-according-to-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-status-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage-wave-1
#1
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, S Cook, M T Leech, S J Bowe, P Kowal, N Naidoo, I N Ackerman, R S Page, S M Hosking, J A Pasco, M Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs...
June 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624889/transcriptional-control-of-unequal-cleavage-in-early-tubifex-embryos
#2
Momoe Aoki, Takashi Shimizu
Early embryos of the clitellate annelid Tubifex (oligochaete) undergo a series of unequal spiral cell divisions before the descendants of the D quadrant micromeres (cells 2d and 4d) divide bilaterally. Here, we show that inhibition of zygotic transcription by microinjection of α-amanitin (transcription inhibitor) exclusively converts unequal cleavage in cell 2d(11) (granddaughter of 2d) into equal cleavage while other unequal cleavages and ensuing bilateral cleavages in cells 4d and 2d(111) (great-granddaughter of 2d) all proceed in a normal fashion in the presence of this inhibitor...
June 17, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615887/an-unusual-cause-of-chest-discomfort-case-report-of-oesophageal-hirudiniasis
#3
Cristóvão Figueiredo, Joana Alves, Cláudia Carvalho, António Sarmento
Hirudiniasis is caused by sanguivorous leeches feeding on mucous membranes with possible severe obstructive or haemorrhagic manifestations. Few cases have been reported in humans, and most occur in tropical countries. A seventy-year-old female patient presented to our Emergency Department (ED) with retrosternal discomfort. She was taking warfarin for a mechanical prosthetic heart valve. While in the ED, a leech was spontaneously extruded from her mouth, with symptomatic resolution. Endoscopy revealed an area of previous leech attachment in the distal oesophageal, without severe bleeding...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610277/-i-helobdella-i-i-buzz-i-n-sp-clitellata-hirudinida-a-bromeliad-leech-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#4
Rafael Eiji Iwama, João Miguel DE Matos Nogueira, Ana Zangirolame Gonçalves
Tank bromeliads are important components of tropical forests and are capable of hosting many species of invertebrates in their tank water, such as insect larvae, ostracods and oligochaetes (Frank & Lounibos 2009; Jocque & Field 2014; Richardson 1999).
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609943/-i-mimaporia-i-a-new-genus-of-epicopeiidae-lepidoptera-with-description-of-a-new-species-from-vietnam
#5
Chia-Hsuan Wei, Shen-Horn Yen
The Epicopeiidae is a small geometroid family distributed in the East Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It exhibits high morphological diversity in body size and wing shape, while their wing patterns involve in various complex mimicry rings. In the present study, we attempted to describe a new genus, and a new species from Vietnam, with comments on two assumed congeneric novel species from China and India. To address its phylogenetic affinity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the family by using sequence data of COI, EF-1α, and 28S gene regions obtained from seven genera of Epicopeiidae with Pseudobiston pinratanai as the outgroup...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595003/the-in-vivo-potential-regulated-protective-protein-of-nitrogenase-in-azotobacter-vinelandii-supports-aerobic-bioelectrochemical-dinitro-gen-reduction-in-vitro
#6
Ross D Milton, Rong Cai, Selmihan Sahin, Sofiene Abdellaoui, Bassam Alkotaini, Donal Leech, Shelley D Minteer
Nitrogenase, the only enzyme known to be able to reduce dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is irreversibly damaged upon ex-posure to molecular oxygen (O2). Several microbes, however, are able to grow aerobically and diazotrophically (fixing N2 to grow) while containing functional nitrogenase. The obligate aerobic diazotroph, Azotobacter vinelandii, employs a multitude of protective mechanisms to preserve nitrogenase activity, including a "conformational switch" protein (FeSII, or "Shethna") that reversibly locks nitrogenase into a multi-component protective complex upon exposure to low concentrations of O2...
June 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581649/beyond-collective-supervision-informal-social-control-prosocial-investment-and-juvenile-offending-in-urban-neighborhoods
#7
Tamara G J Leech
This article examines prosocial investment and supervision of youth as separate indicators of informal social control. Data from 599 survey respondents in 90 Indianapolis, IN, block groups indicate that, at the neighborhood level, the relationship between these two variables and delinquency during early and middle adolescence varies by severity of offense. Specifically, negative binomial models reveal an inverse relationship between supervision and both status offenses and misdemeanors, but the relationship with misdemeanors is stronger in areas with higher levels of prosocial investment...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570454/intramedullary-venous-drainage-system-for-distal-fingertip-replantations
#8
Husrev Purisa, Muhammed Besir Ozturk, Fatih Kabakas, Berkan Mersa, Ismail Bulent Ozcelik, Ilker Sezer
The number of venous anastomoses performed during fingertip replantation is one of the most important factors affecting the success of replantation. However, because vessel diameters decrease in the zone 1 level, vessel anastomoses, especially vein anastomoses, are technically difficult and, thus, cannot be performed in most cases. Alternative venous drainage methods are crucial when any reliable vein repair is not possible. In the literature, so many artery-only replantation techniques have been defined, such as arteriovenous anastomoses, forming an arteriovenous or venocutaneous fistula, manual milking and massage, puncturing, and external bleeding via a fishmouth incision and using a medical leech...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561038/the-role-of-energy-intake-and-energy-misreporting-in-the-associations-between-eating-patterns-and-adiposity
#9
R M Leech, A Worsley, A Timperio, S A McNaughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Research examining associations between eating occasion (EO) frequency and adiposity is inconclusive; studies examining the impact of energy misreporting are rare. This study examined associations between eating patterns and adiposity, with adjustment for energy misreporting, in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed via two 24-h recalls collected during the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4050 adults, aged ⩾19 years)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558138/a-long-term-copper-exposure-in-a-freshwater-ecosystem-using-lotic-mesocosms-invertebrate-community-responses
#10
Sandrine Joachim, Hélène Roussel, Jean-Marc Bonzom, Eric Thybaud, Christopher A Mebane, Paul Van den Brink, Laury Gauthier
A lotic mesocosm study was carried out in 20-m-long channels, under continuous, environmentally realistic concentrations of copper (Cu) in low, medium, and high exposures (nominally 0, 5, 25, and 75 μg L(-1) ; average effective concentrations <0.5, 4, 20, and 57 μg L(-1) respectively) for 18 mo. Total abundance, taxa richness, and community structure of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and emerging insects were severely affected at Cu treatment levels of 25 and 75 μg L(-1) . Some taxa were sensitive to Cu, including gastropods such as Lymnaea spp...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546342/intrinsic-frequency-response-patterns-in-mechano-sensory-neurons-of-the-leech
#11
Linda Fischer, Frank Scherbarth, Boris Chagnaud, Felix Felmy
Animals employ mechano-sensory systems to detect and explore their environment. Mechano-sensation encompasses stimuli like constant pressure, surface movement or vibrations at various intensities that need to be segregated in the central nervous system. Besides different receptor structures sensory filtering via intrinsic response properties could provide a convenient way to solve this problem. In leech, three major mechano-sensory cell types can be distinguished according to their stimulus sensitivity into nociceptive, pressure and touch cells...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502263/infection-specificity-and-host-manipulation-of-australapatemon-sp-trematoda-strigeidae-in-two-sympatric-species-of-leeches-hirudinea
#12
Anssi Karvonen, Anna Faltýnková, Jocelyn Mah Choo, E Tellervo Valtonen
Factors that drive parasite specificity and differences in infection dynamics among alternative host species are important for ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions, but still often poorly known in natural systems. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal dynamics of infection, host susceptibility and parasite-induced changes in host phenotype in a rarely explored host-parasite system, the Australapatemon sp. trematode infecting two sympatric species of freshwater leeches, Erpobdella octoculata and Helobdella stagnalis...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499405/a-comparative-molecular-and-3-dimensional-structural-investigation-into-cross-continental-and-novel-avian-trypanosoma-spp-in-australia
#13
Crystal Cooper, R C Andrew Thompson, Adriana Botero, Amanda Kristancic, Christopher Peacock, Yaowanuj Kirilak, Peta L Clode
BACKGROUND: Molecular and structural information on avian Trypanosoma spp. throughout Australia is limited despite their intrinsic value in understanding trypanosomatid evolution, diversity, and structural biology. In Western Australia tissue samples (n = 429) extracted from 93 birds in 25 bird species were screened using generic PCR primers to investigate the diversity of Trypanosoma spp. To investigate avian trypanosome structural biology the first 3-dimensional ultrastructural models of a Trypanosoma spp...
May 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497254/9-phenanthrol-modulates-postinhibitory-rebound-and-afterhyperpolarizing-potentials-in-an-excitatory-motor-neuron-of-the-medicinal-leech
#14
James D Angstadt, Joshua R Giordano, Alexander J Goncalves
Postinhibitory rebound (PIR) responses in leech dorsal excitatory motor neurons (cell DE-3) are eliminated by Ca(2+) channel blockers but also exhibit a strong dependence on extracellular Na(+). These features could be explained by a voltage-gated Ca(2+) current acting in concert with a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific current (ICAN). In vertebrates, ICAN is associated with TRPM4 channels which are blocked selectively by 9-phenanthrol. Here, we show that 9-phenanthrol selectively inhibits a late phase of PIR and simultaneously enhances afterhyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495872/the-planarian-trpa1-homolog-mediates-extraocular-behavioral-responses-to-near-ultraviolet-light
#15
Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
Although light is most commonly thought of as a visual cue, many animals possess mechanisms to detect light outside of the eye for various functions, including predator avoidance, circadian rhythms, phototaxis, and migration. Similar to C. elegans, leeches, and Drosophila larvae, we confirmed that planarians are also capable of detecting and responding to light using extraocular photoreception. We found that when either eyeless or decapitated worms were exposed to near ultraviolet (UV) light, intense wildtype photophobic behaviors were still observed...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456577/evaluation-of-processed-borax-as-antidote-for-aconite-poisoning
#16
Prasanta Kumar Sarkar, Pradeep K Prajapati, Vinay J Shukla, Basavaiah Ravishankar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconite root is very poisonous; causes cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. There is no specific antidote for aconite poisoning. In Ayurveda, dehydrated borax is mentioned for management of aconite poisoning. AIM OF THE STUDY: The investigation evaluated antidotal effect of processed borax against acute and sub-acute toxicity, cardiac toxicity and neuro-muscular toxicity caused by raw aconite...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450998/-a-rare-case-report-of-laryngeal-leech-infestation-in-a-70-year-old-man
#17
Said Anajar, Mohammed Tatari, Jawad Hassnaoui, Reda Abada, Sami Rouadi, Mohammed Roubal, Mohammed Mahtar
Foreign bodies in the upper respiratory tract are one of the most difficult otolaryngological emergencies; leeches are a very rare foreign bodies in the world. We report the case of a 70-year-old man with no past medical history presenting with laryngeal dyspnea associated with low abundant paroxysmal hemoptysis. The patient underwent nasofibroscopy showing the presence of a living and mobile organism at the subglottic level evoking a leech. Extraction was carried out under local anesthesia using laryngoscope and Magill forceps...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399491/metformin-and-improved-treatment-outcomes-in-radiation-therapy-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Nur Atiqah Binte Samsuri, Michelle Leech, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND: Metformin, a primary treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, is associated with improved outcomes for diabetic cancer patients fuelling further investigation on its mechanisms of action. The radiosensitising properties of metformin are increasingly reported in pre-clinical studies. This review discusses whether metformin should be offered to radiotherapy (RT) cancer patients as a means to improve their treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search was conducted for articles published with metformin as the main intervention between 2010 and 2016...
April 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397600/a-new-species-of-orobdella-hirudinida-arhynchobdellida-orobdellidae-from-japan-reveals-the-function-of-the-orobdella-gastroporal-duct
#19
Takafumi Nakano
A quadrannulate species of Orobdella, O. kanaekoikeae sp. nov., from the mountainous region of Shikoku, Japan is described. This new species is small with a body length of mature individuals reaching only ca. 5 cm. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 18S, histone H3, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Met), 12S rRNA, tRNA(Val), 16S rRNA, tRNA(Leu), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 markers showed that O. kanaekoikeae is a sister species of the quadrannulate small O. brachyepididymis...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387814/grey-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-treated-hiv-disease-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#20
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Matthan Caan, Davide De Francesco, Robert Leech, Rosan A van Zoest, Tanja Su, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Peter Portegies, Maria Prins, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Caroline A Sabin, Charles Majoie, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Long-term comorbidities such as cognitive impairment remain prevalent in otherwise effectively treated people-living-with-HIV. We investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain structure in successfully treated patients using multi-modal neuroimaging from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort. Methods: Cognitive function, brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure were assessed in 134 HIV-positive patients and 79 controls...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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