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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451595/evaluation-of-molluscicidal-activity-of-three-mangrove-species-avicennia-schaueriana-laguncularia-racemosa-and-rhizophora-mangle-and-their-effects-on-the-bioactivity-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-say-1818
#1
Renato Juvino de Aragão Mendes, Adalberto Alves Pereira Filho, Aline de Jesus Lustosa Nogueira, Karla Regina Freitas Araújo, Clícia Rosane Costa França, Iramar Borba de Carvalho, Natale Maria Lindoso da Silva, Alexandre Santana Azevedo, Ivone Garros Rosa
Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445203/effects-of-touch-location-and-intensity-on-interneurons-of-the-leech-local-bend-network
#2
Friederice Pirschel, Gerrit Hilgen, Jutta Kretzberg
Touch triggers highly precise behavioural responses in the leech. The underlying network of this so-called local bend reflex consists of three layers of individually characterised neurons. While the population of mechanosensory cells provide multiplexed information about the stimulus, not much is known about how interneurons process this information. Here, we analyse the responses of two local bend interneurons (cell 157 and 159) to a mechanical stimulation of the skin and show their response characteristics to naturalistic stimuli...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444844/the-stomatogastric-nervous-system-of-the-medicinal-leech-its-anatomy-physiology-and-associated-aminergic-neurons
#3
Karen A Mesce, Magda Alania, Quentin Gaudry, Joshua G Puhl
Blood feeding is an essential and signature activity of the medicinal leech species, Hirudo verbana Despite keen interest in understanding the neuronal substrates of this behavior, a major component of the nervous system associated with feeding has remained overlooked. In this study, for the first time, we report on the presence and characteristics of five stomatogastic ganglia (STGs) comprising the visceral stomatogastric nervous system (STN) of the leech. Although Hanke (1948) provided a brief report that a ring of three ganglia (not five) was associated with the cephalic ganglia, this information was never integrated into subsequent neurobiological studies of feeding...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441201/leech-management-before-application-on-patient-a-nationwide-survey-of-practices-in-french-university-hospitals
#4
Delphine Grau, Raphaël Masson, Maxime Villiet, Brigitte Lamy
Background: Leech therapy in plastic/reconstructive microsurgery significantly improves a successful outcome of flap salvage but the drawback is a risk of severe infection that results in a drop of the salvage rates from 70-80% to below 30%. We report the results of a national survey conducted in all the French university hospitals to assess the current extent of use of leech for medical practices in the hospital and to investigate maintenance, delivery practices and prevention of the risk of infection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428310/assessing-access-to-assisted-reproductive-services-for-serodiscordant-couples-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#5
Ashley A Leech, Pietro Bortoletto, Cindy Christiansen, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Benjamin P Linas, Cassandra Roeca, Megan Curtis, Meg Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To understand the barriers that serodiscordant couples with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) face in accessing services for risk reduction and infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). DESIGN: Two-arm cross-sectional telephone "secret shopper" study. SETTING: Infertility clinics designated by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), 140 from 15 American states with the highest prevalence of heterosexual HIV-infected men...
February 7, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427072/cost-effectiveness-thresholds-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#6
Praveen Thokala, Jessica Ochalek, Ashley A Leech, Thaison Tong
Cost-effectiveness (CE) thresholds are being discussed more frequently and there have been many new developments in this area; however, there is a lack of understanding about what thresholds mean and their implications. This paper provides an overview of the CE threshold literature. First, the meaning of a CE threshold and the key assumptions involved (perfect divisibility, marginal increments in budget, etc.) are highlighted using a hypothetical example, and the use of historic/heuristic estimates of the threshold is noted along with their limitations...
February 9, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406691/nanoporous-gold-based-biofuel-cells-on-contact-lenses
#7
Xinxin Xiao, Till Siepenkoetter, Peter Ó Conghaile, Donal Leech, Edmond Magner
A lactate/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) was prepared as a potential power source for wearable micro-electronic devices. Mechanically stable and flexible nanoporous gold (NPG) electrodes were prepared using an electrochemical dealloying method consisting of a pre-anodization process and a subsequent electrochemical cleaning step. Bioanodes were prepared by the electrodeposition of an Os polymer and Pediococcus sp. lactate oxidase onto the electrode. The electrocatalytic response to lactate could be tuned by adjusting the deposition time...
February 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396890/duplicated-foxa-genes-in-the-leech-helobdella-insights-into-the-evolution-of-direct-development-in-clitellate-annelids
#8
Dian-Han Kuo, Yu-Hsiang Hsiao
BACKGROUND: As an adaptation to the land, the clitellate annelid had reorganized its embryogenesis to develop "directly" without the ancestral planktonic larval stage. To study the evolution of gut development in the directly developing clitellates, we characterized the expression pattern of the conserved gut gene FoxA in the embryonic development of the leech. RESULTS: The leech has three FoxA paralogs. Hau-FoxA1 is first expressed in a subset of endoderm cells and then in the foregut and the midgut...
February 2, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391451/atp12a-promotes-mucus-dysfunction-during-type-2-airway-inflammation
#9
Alison T Lennox, Stefanie L Coburn, John A Leech, Elisa M Heidrich, Thomas R Kleyman, Sally E Wenzel, Joseph M Pilewski, Timothy E Corcoran, Mike M Myerburg
Allergic airway disease is known to cause significant morbidity due to impaired mucociliary clearance, however the mechanism that leads to the mucus dysfunction is not entirely understood. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), a key mediator of Type 2 (T2) inflammation, profoundly alters the ion transport properties of airway epithelium. However, these electrophysiological changes cannot explain the thick, tenacious airway mucus that characterizes the clinical phenotype. Here we report that IL-13 dramatically increases the airway surface liquid (ASL) viscosity in cultured primary human bronchial epithelial cells and thereby inhibits mucus clearance...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382997/leech-related-aeromonas-veronii-complex-infection-after-reconstruction-with-a-microvascular-forearm-flap
#10
Benjamin Beger, Friederike von Loewenich, Elisabeth Goetze, Maximilian Moergel, Christian Walter
Medical leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) in plastic and reconstructive surgery are often used for the treatment of vascular failure after microvascular surgery. Leeches are a reservoir for bacteria of the Aeromonas group that help digesting the blood meal. In some cases these bacteria are able to cause severe wound infections that can lead to loss of tissue transplants. We report about a patient with a common microvascular forearm flap after resection of an oral squamous cell carcinoma which got infected by Aeromonas spp...
March 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381622/nasal-columellar-reconstruction-with-reverse-lateral-nasal-artery-pedicled-nasolabial-island-flap
#11
Suk Yoon Jang, Woo Seob Kim, Han Koo Kim, Tae Hui Bae
Nasal columellar is a complex area to reconstruct due to its unique esthetic and functional characteristics. Malignancy, trauma, infection, and esthetic surgery complications can cause columellar defect. Among many surgical plans, nasolabial island flap is most commonly used. However, flap congestions occasionally occur which inevitably lead to leech therapy. The authors introduce reverse lateral nasal artery pedicled nasolabial island flap, which has lower risk of postoperative complications.
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355074/medical-student-psychological-distress-and-academic-performance
#12
Claire Dendle, Julie Baulch, Rebecca Pellicano, Margaret Hay, Irene Lichtwark, Sally Ayoub, David M Clarke, Eric F Morand, Arunaz Kumar, Michelle Leech, Kylie Horne
INTRODUCTION: The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. METHODS: This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia...
January 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351062/phylogeny-and-cocoon-production-in-the-parasitic-leech-myzobdella-lugubris-leidy-1851-hirudinidae-piscicolidae
#13
Naim Saglam, Ralph Saunders, Shirley A Lang, Daniel H Shain
Myzobdella lugubris is a commensal leech on crustaceans and a parasite to fishes, surviving predominantly in brackish waters throughout North America. Specimens in this study were collected within the tidal zone of the Delaware River basin (New Jersey and Pennsylvania). To compare regional M. lugubris specimens, defined characters were scored after dorsal and ventral dissections, and phylogenetic relationships were resolved using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 12S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 18S rDNA gene fragments...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345615/variability-in-neural-networks
#14
Daniel R Kick, David J Schulz
Experiments on neurons in the heart system of the leech reveal why rhythmic behaviors differ between individuals.
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345614/output-variability-across-animals-and-levels-in-a-motor-system
#15
Angela Wenning, Brian J Norris, Cengiz Günay, Daniel Kueh, Ronald L Calabrese
Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δϕ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute little to population output variability, but that differences between bilaterally homologous cells may contribute to some of this variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344982/experience-with-pharmacologic-leeching-with-bivalirudin-for-adjunct-treatment-of-venous-congestion-of-head-and-neck-reconstructive-flaps
#16
Aisha Harun, Rachel M Kruer, Andrew Lee, Kofi Boahene, Patrick J Byrne, Jeremy D Richmon
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to review the feasibility of local bivalirudin injection for adjunct treatment of venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent bivalirudin treatment for venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps in a single institution from September 1, 2012 to September 1, 2015 was undertaken. Individuals were treated with variable number of intradermal injections directly into the flap followed by a small skin incision to allow extended passive bleeding...
January 18, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333342/is-there-a-link-between-aging-and-microbiome-diversity-in-exceptional-mammalian-longevity
#17
Graham M Hughes, John Leech, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Jose V Lopez, Emma C Teeling
A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311681/creating-flexible-motor-memories-in-human-walking
#18
Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
The human nervous system has the ability to save newly learned movements (i.e. re-learn faster after initial learning) and generalize learning to new conditions. In the context of walking, we rely on savings and generalization of newly learned walking patterns to navigate changing environments and make progressive improvements with gait rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study how different perturbation parameters can influence savings and generalization of learning during walking. In Experiment 1, we investigated the effect of split perturbation size on savings of a newly learned walking pattern...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309532/no-evidence-for-accelerated-ageing-related-brain-pathology-in-treated-hiv-longitudinal-neuroimaging-results-from-the-comorbidity-in-relation-to-aids-cobra-project
#19
James H Cole, Matthan W A Caan, Jonathan Underwood, Davide De Francesco, Rosan A van Zoest, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Henk J M M Mutsaerts, Rob Leech, Gert J Geurtsen, Peter Portegies, Charles B L M Majoie, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Caroline A Sabin, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Despite successful antiretroviral therapy people living with HIV (PLWH) experience higher rates of age-related morbidity, including abnormal brain structure, brain function and cognitive impairment. This has raised concerns that PLWH may experience accelerated ageing-related brain pathology. Methods: We performed a multi-centre longitudinal study of 134 virologically-suppressed PLWH (median age = 56.0 years) and 79 demographically-similar HIV-negative controls (median age = 57...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299945/a-review-of-plan-library-approaches-in-adaptive-radiotherapy-of-bladder-cancer
#20
Shane D Collins, Michelle M Leech
BACKGROUND: Large variations in the shape and size of the bladder volume are commonly observed in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). The clinical target volume (CTV) is therefore frequently inadequately treated and large isotropic margins are inappropriate in terms of dose to organs at risk (OAR); thereby making adaptive radiotherapy (ART) attractive for this tumour site. There are various methods of ART delivery, however, for bladder cancer, plan libraries are frequently used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of published studies on plan libraries for bladder cancer using four databases (Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Cochrane Library) was conducted...
January 4, 2018: Acta Oncologica
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