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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502263/infection-specificity-and-host-manipulation-of-australapatemon-sp-trematoda-strigeidae-in-two-sympatric-species-of-leeches-hirudinea
#1
Anssi Karvonen, Anna Faltýnková, Jocelyn Mah Choo, E Tellervo Valtonen
Factors that drive parasite specificity and differences in infection dynamics among alternative host species are important for ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions, but still often poorly known in natural systems. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal dynamics of infection, host susceptibility and parasite-induced changes in host phenotype in a rarely explored host-parasite system, the Australapatemon sp. trematode infecting two sympatric species of freshwater leeches, Erpobdella octoculata and Helobdella stagnalis...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499405/a-comparative-molecular-and-3-dimensional-structural-investigation-into-cross-continental-and-novel-avian-trypanosoma-spp-in-australia
#2
Crystal Cooper, R C Andrew Thompson, Adriana Botero, Amanda Kristancic, Christopher Peacock, Yaowanuj Kirilak, Peta L Clode
BACKGROUND: Molecular and structural information on avian Trypanosoma spp. throughout Australia is limited despite their intrinsic value in understanding trypanosomatid evolution, diversity, and structural biology. In Western Australia tissue samples (n = 429) extracted from 93 birds in 25 bird species were screened using generic PCR primers to investigate the diversity of Trypanosoma spp. To investigate avian trypanosome structural biology the first 3-dimensional ultrastructural models of a Trypanosoma spp...
May 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497254/9-phenanthrol-modulates-postinhibitory-rebound-and-afterhyperpolarizing-potentials-in-an-excitatory-motor-neuron-of-the-medicinal-leech
#3
James D Angstadt, Joshua R Giordano, Alexander J Goncalves
Postinhibitory rebound (PIR) responses in leech dorsal excitatory motor neurons (cell DE-3) are eliminated by Ca(2+) channel blockers but also exhibit a strong dependence on extracellular Na(+). These features could be explained by a voltage-gated Ca(2+) current acting in concert with a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific current (ICAN). In vertebrates, ICAN is associated with TRPM4 channels which are blocked selectively by 9-phenanthrol. Here, we show that 9-phenanthrol selectively inhibits a late phase of PIR and simultaneously enhances afterhyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495872/the-planarian-trpa1-homolog-mediates-extraocular-behavioral-responses-to-near-ultraviolet-light
#4
Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
Although light is most commonly thought of as a visual cue, many animals possess mechanisms to detect light outside of the eye for various functions, including predator avoidance, circadian rhythms, phototaxis, and migration. Similar to C. elegans, leeches, and Drosophila larvae, we confirmed that planarians are also capable of detecting and responding to light using extraocular photoreception. We found that when either eyeless or decapitated worms were exposed to near ultraviolet (UV) light, intense wildtype photophobic behaviors were still observed...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456577/evaluation-of-processed-borax-as-antidote-for-aconite-poisoning
#5
Prasanta Kumar Sarkar, Pradeep K Prajapati, Vinay J Shukla, Basavaiah Ravishankar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconite root is very poisonous; causes cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. There is no specific antidote for aconite poisoning. In Ayurveda, dehydrated borax is mentioned for management of aconite poisoning. AIM OF THE STUDY: The investigation evaluated antidotal effect of processed borax against acute and sub-acute toxicity, cardiac toxicity and neuro-muscular toxicity caused by raw aconite...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450998/-a-rare-case-report-of-laryngeal-leech-infestation-in-a-70-year-old-man
#6
Said Anajar, Mohammed Tatari, Jawad Hassnaoui, Reda Abada, Sami Rouadi, Mohammed Roubal, Mohammed Mahtar
Foreign bodies in the upper respiratory tract are one of the most difficult otolaryngological emergencies; leeches are a very rare foreign bodies in the world. We report the case of a 70-year-old man with no past medical history presenting with laryngeal dyspnea associated with low abundant paroxysmal hemoptysis. The patient underwent nasofibroscopy showing the presence of a living and mobile organism at the subglottic level evoking a leech. Extraction was carried out under local anesthesia using laryngoscope and Magill forceps...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399491/metformin-and-improved-treatment-outcomes-in-radiation-therapy-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Nur Atiqah Binte Samsuri, Michelle Leech, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND: Metformin, a primary treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, is associated with improved outcomes for diabetic cancer patients fuelling further investigation on its mechanisms of action. The radiosensitising properties of metformin are increasingly reported in pre-clinical studies. This review discusses whether metformin should be offered to radiotherapy (RT) cancer patients as a means to improve their treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search was conducted for articles published with metformin as the main intervention between 2010 and 2016...
April 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397600/a-new-species-of-orobdella-hirudinida-arhynchobdellida-orobdellidae-from-japan-reveals-the-function-of-the-orobdella-gastroporal-duct
#8
Takafumi Nakano
A quadrannulate species of Orobdella, O. kanaekoikeae sp. nov., from the mountainous region of Shikoku, Japan is described. This new species is small with a body length of mature individuals reaching only ca. 5 cm. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 18S, histone H3, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Met), 12S rRNA, tRNA(Val), 16S rRNA, tRNA(Leu), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 markers showed that O. kanaekoikeae is a sister species of the quadrannulate small O. brachyepididymis...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387814/grey-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-treated-hiv-disease-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#9
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Matthan Caan, Davide De Francesco, Robert Leech, Rosan A van Zoest, Tanja Su, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Peter Portegies, Maria Prins, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Caroline A Sabin, Charles Majoie, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Long-term comorbidities such as cognitive impairment remain prevalent in otherwise effectively treated people-living-with-HIV. We investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain structure in successfully treated patients using multi-modal neuroimaging from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort. Methods: Cognitive function, brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure were assessed in 134 HIV-positive patients and 79 controls...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373838/decoding-time-varying-functional-connectivity-networks-via-linear-graph-embedding-methods
#10
Ricardo P Monti, Romy Lorenz, Peter Hellyer, Robert Leech, Christoforos Anagnostopoulos, Giovanni Montana
An exciting avenue of neuroscientific research involves quantifying the time-varying properties of functional connectivity networks. As a result, many methods have been proposed to estimate the dynamic properties of such networks. However, one of the challenges associated with such methods involves the interpretation and visualization of high-dimensional, dynamic networks. In this work, we employ graph embedding algorithms to provide low-dimensional vector representations of networks, thus facilitating traditional objectives such as visualization, interpretation and classification...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372517/concentrations-of-calcium-and-25-hydroxycholecalciferol-vitamin-d3-in-plasma-of-wild-k%C3%A4-k%C3%A4-p%C3%A5-strigops-habroptilus-living-on-two-islands-in-new-zealand
#11
J Chatterton, A Pas, S Alexander, M Leech, R Jakob-Hoff, B P Jensen, A Digby
AIMS: This preliminary study had the objectives of describing the concentrations of ionised calcium and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) in the blood of wild kākāpō (Strigops habroptilus) living on two islands in New Zealand, and to determine the effects of supplementary feeding on these blood parameters. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 33 kākāpō living on two offshore islands during routine health checks in 2015. Birds on Hauturu were sampled in May (n=5) and birds on Whenua Hou were sampled in July (n=15) and November (n=26)...
May 3, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343561/locomotor-and-energetic-consequences-of-behavioral-thermoregulation-in-the-sanguivorous-leech-hirudo-verbana
#12
Amanda C Hitchcock, Erin M Connolly, Karin Darakananda, Janet W Jeong, Arbor J L Quist, Allison B Robbins, David J Ellerby
Medicinal leeches (Hirudo verbana) thermoregulate with respect to their sanguivorous feeding behavior. Immediate postprandial preferences are for warmer than their initial acclimation temperature (Ta, 21°C, Petersen et al. 2011), while unfed leeches have a lower preferred temperature (Tpref, 12.5°C). This may reduce energy expenditure and defer starvation if feeding opportunities are limited. Energetic benefits may have an associated cost if low temperatures reduce mobility and the ability to locate further hosts...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314066/comparison-of-propeller-perforator-flap-and-venous-supercharged-propeller-perforator-flap-in-reconstruction-of-lower-limb-soft-tissue-defect-a-prospective-study
#13
Benoit Chaput, Nicolas Bertheuil, Jean-Louis Grolleau, Farid Bekara, Raphael Carloni, Jerome Laloze, Christian Herlin
INTRODUCTION: In lower limbs, reliability of propeller perforator flaps (PPF) remains uncertain. The main complication is venous congestion, which can lead to distal necrosis. We aim to highlight if venous supercharging of PPF could substantially limit complications in lower limb coverage. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, we developed a standardized procedure of venous supercharging in the lower limb reconstruction with PPF using saphenous veins anastomosis. Then, we prospectively compared a consecutive series of 30 PPF to cover lower limbs defect, with a consecutive series of 30 venous-supercharged PPF (vsPPF)...
March 17, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296177/fibromyalgia-remains-a-significant-burden-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-in-australia
#14
Anthea C Gist, Emma K Guymer, Laura E Eades, Michelle Leech, Geoffrey O Littlejohn
AIM: High rates of fibromyalgia (FM) are reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Advances in RA management have occurred, but information regarding current significance of FM in RA is limited. This investigation estimated the prevalence and health effects of concomitant FM in Australian RA patients. METHODS: Participants were recruited from Australian rheumatology clinics. Subjects were assessed using the 1990 and 2011 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) FM criteria and the polysymptomatic distress score (PDS) was calculated...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293509/free-flap-salvage-after-recurrent-venous-thrombosis-by-means-of-large-scale-treatment-with-medical-leeches
#15
Kensuke Tashiro, Masahide Fujiki, Masaki Arikawa, Yu Kagaya, Shimpei Miyamoto
An anterolateral thigh flap was salvaged using 110 medical leeches in the absence of an available vein for reanastomosis. After surgical construction of the flap for full-thickness thoracic wall reconstruction, the patient developed complete venous occlusion. Specifically, the anastomotic vein developed complete occlusion, and the internal jugular vein had a thrombus. In addition, because the lung was posterior to the flap, the angiogenic area of the flap was very small. When the medical leeches were first applied, the flap showed prominent venous congestion...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290215/genetic-assessment-of-leech-species-from-yak-bos-grunniens-in-the-tract-of-northeast-india
#16
Nilkantha Chatterjee, Bishal Dhar, Debasis Bhattarcharya, Sourabh Deori, Juwar Doley, Joken Bam, Pranab J Das, Asit K Bera, Sitangshu M Deb, Ningthoujam Neelima Devi, Rajesh Paul, Sorokhaibam Malvika, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
Yak is an iconic symbol of Tibet and high altitudes of Northeast India. It is highly cherished for milk, meat, and skin. However, yaks suffer drastic change in milk production, weight loss, etc, when infested by parasites. Among them, infestation by leeches is a serious problem in the Himalayan belt of Northeast India. The parasite feeds on blood externally or from body orifices, like nasopharynx, oral, rectum, etc. But there has been limited data about the leech species infesting the yak in that region because of the difficulties in morphological identification due to plasticity of the body, changes in shape, and surface structure and thus, warrants for the molecular characterization of leech...
March 14, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288700/externally-induced-frontoparietal-synchronization-modulates-network-dynamics-and-enhances-working-memory-performance
#17
Ines R Violante, Lucia M Li, David W Carmichael, Romy Lorenz, Robert Leech, Adam Hampshire, John C Rothwell, David J Sharp
Cognitive functions such as working memory (WM) are emergent properties of large-scale network interactions. Synchronisation of oscillatory activity might contribute to WM by enabling the coordination of long-range processes. However, causal evidence for the way oscillatory activity shapes network dynamics and behavior in humans is limited. Here we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to exogenously modulate oscillatory activity in a right frontoparietal network that supports WM. Externally induced synchronization improved performance when cognitive demands were high...
March 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269138/statistical-identification-of-stimulus-activated-network-nodes-in-multi-neuron-voltage-sensitive-dye-optical-recordings
#18
Elham Fathiazar, Jorn Anemuller, Jutta Kretzberg
Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263617/training-preschoolers-prospective-abilities-through-conversation-about-the-extended-self
#19
Nadia Chernyak, Kathryn A Leech, Meredith L Rowe
The ability to act on behalf of one's future self is related to uniquely human abilities such as planning, delay of gratification, and goal attainment. Although prospection develops rapidly during early childhood, little is known about the mechanisms that support its development. Here we explored whether encouraging children to talk about their extended selves (self outside the present context) boosts their prospective abilities. Preschoolers (N = 81) participated in a 5-min interaction with an adult in which they were asked to talk about events in the near future, distant future, near past, or present...
April 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258081/increased-brain-predicted-aging-in-treated-hiv-disease
#20
James H Cole, Jonathan Underwood, Matthan W A Caan, Davide De Francesco, Rosan A van Zoest, Robert Leech, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Peter Portegies, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Claudio Franceschi, Caroline A Sabin, Charles B L M Majoie, Alan Winston, Peter Reiss, David J Sharp
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. METHODS: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45-82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration...
April 4, 2017: Neurology
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