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Navneet Singh, Rahul Ranjan
The genus Orybina Snellen, 1895, a member of tribe Pyralini of the subfamily Pyralinae and family Pyralidae, was established as the objective replacement name for Oryba Walker, 1863. The original genus Oryba was established for its type species Oryba flaviplaga Walker, 1863 (by monotypy) from North Hindostan [North India]. Recently, the genus is reviewed by Qi et al. (2017) with inclusion of eight species and one subspecies in the World: Orybina kobesi Roesler, 1984, Orybina plangonalis (Walker, 1859), Orybina regalis (Leech, 1889), Orybina bellatulla Qi Li, 2017, Orybina puerensis Qi Li, 2017, Orybina hoenei Caradja, 1935, Orybina flaviplaga (Walker, 1863), Orybina imperatrix Caradja, 1925 and Orybina flaviplaga kiangsualis Caradja, 1925...
March 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Irina A Kaygorodova, Elena V Dzyuba
The Acanthobdellida is a group of annelid parasites of fish, which are restricted to subarctic parts of the Northern Hemisphere. These ancient worms arouse the interest of the scientific world due to their mosaic combination of (1) primitive oligochaetous characters (e.g. the presence of setae on the very anterior segments, a lateral nerve system and a metameric coelomic cavity around the intestinal canal) and (2) evolutionarily advanced hirudinean ecological and morphological features (e.g. suckers and parasitic lifestyle), attesting to their intermediate role between Oligochaeta and Euhirudinea (i...
March 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Naim Saglam, Ulrich Kutschera, Ralph Saunders, William M Saidel, Katherine L W Balombini, Daniel H Shain
The glossiphoniid freshwater leech, Helobdella stagnalis, was described by Linnaeus 1758 based on common European specimens. The presence of a brown, chitinous scute on the dorsal-anterior surface, as observed on leeches elsewhere in the world, has generally led to the classification of all scute-bearing members of the genus as H. stagnalis. Here we describe the morphology and behavior of the type species from Europe, and analyze H. stagnalis-like specimens collected worldwide. We present evidence for at least four distinct scute-bearing Helobdella species that can be morphologically resolved...
April 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Rahul Joshi, Navneet Singh, Jagbir Singh
A new species: Katha volynkini Joshi Singh, sp. nov. is described from Mizoram Meghalaya (North East India). A checklist of Katha species from the World with a taxonomic key to the Oriental species is provided. A new combination, Katha suffusa (Leech), comb. nov. is established, and L. chekiangica Daniel, is synonymized under K. suffusa.
April 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Le Cui, Nan Jiang, Dieter StÜning, Hongxiang Han
The genus Synegiodes Swinhoe, 1892 is reviewed and redescribed, S. sanguinaria (Moore, 1868) is formally fixed as type-species according to the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Seven species, including S. brunnearia (Leech, 1897), are presently recognized as members of this genus and two new species from China and N. Vietnam, S. expansus sp. nov. and S. elasmlatus sp. nov., are described herein. The original specific status of S. histrionaria ornata (Bastelberger, 1909) is restored...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Naoki Yata, Oleg G Gorbunov, Yutaka Arita, Yoshichika Aoki
The systematic position of Aegeria montis Leech, 1889 and Zhuosesia zhuoxiana Yang, 1977 is discussed. Having studied newly collected material, we transfer A. montis to the genus Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910, subgenus Chamaesphecia s. str. The male of this species and its genitalia are illustrated for the first time. The host-plant of its larvae is assumed to be a species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae).        Zhuosesia Yang, 1977, syn. nov., is shown to be a junior subjective synonym of Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910 with the new combination of its type species, Chamaesphecia zhuoxiana (Yang, 1977), comb...
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Zichao Liu, Feng Zhao, Xiangrong Tong, Kaiqing Liu, Bin Wang, Lijiang Yang, Tiao Ning, Yanjie Wang, Fang Zhao, Dingkang Wang, Debin Wang
The medicinal leeches have been widely utilized in medical procedures for thousands of years. Recently, there were more and more transcriptomes of leech published online including the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) and some other leeches. However, leech's genetic backgrounds are still largely unknown. In this report, transcriptomes of three phylogenetically close leeches (Poecilobdella javanica, Whitmania pigra, and Haemadipsa cavatuses) were established by RNA-seq technique for studying their genetic mechanisms of environmental adaption...
April 21, 2018: Gene
Malcolm D Burgess, Ken W Smith, Karl L Evans, Dave Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Claire J Branston, Kevin Briggs, John R Clark, Chris R du Feu, Kate Lewthwaite, Ruedi G Nager, Ben C Sheldon, Jeremy A Smith, Robin C Whytock, Stephen G Willis, Albert B Phillimore
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change may generate phenological mismatches that disrupt previously synchronous trophic interactions. Most work on mismatch has focused on temporal trends, whereas spatial variation in the degree of trophic synchrony has largely been neglected, even though the degree to which mismatch varies in space has implications for meso-scale population dynamics and evolution. Here we quantify latitudinal trends in phenological mismatch, using phenological data on an oak-caterpillar-bird system from across the UK...
April 23, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
S Spasic, M Stanojevic, J Nesovic Ostojic, S Kovacevic, M Prostran, S Lopicic
In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed account of electrophysiological effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DABA). 2,4-DABA is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by Cyanobacteria with a possible link to neurodegenerative disorders in animals and humans. Intracellular recordings were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga using glass microelectrodes filled with 3 mol/L KCl. Our results show that 2,4-DABA is an excitatory amino acid, causing membrane depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Man-Jun Wu, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Hong-Zhuan Shi, Fei Liu, Guo-Wei Shi, Bin Wu
To study the effects of ingestion on antithrombin activities in different tissues of Whitmania pigra, the salivary glands, ingluvies, intestine and muscle of adult leeches were weighted on the 1st d, 3rd d, 5th d, 7th d and 11th d after feeding, respectively, and meanwhile antithrombin activity was measured by antithrombin titration method. The results showed that the antithrombin activity of salivary glands in different stages was significantly higher than that in other tissues ( P <0.05). The activity of antithrombin in muscle tissue increased initially and then decreased with the prolongation of the time after feeding, and the peak was observed on the 5th day after feeding ( P <0...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Bård G Stokke, Irja I Ratikainen, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, Karl Schulze-Hagen, David I Leech, Anders Pape Møller, Frode Fossøy
Host quality is critical for parasites. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a generalist avian brood parasite, but individual females show strong preference for a specific host species. Here, we use three extensive datasets to investigate different host characteristics determining cuckoo host selection at the species level: (i) 1871 population-specific parasitism rates collected across Europe; (ii) 14 K cases of parasitism in the United Kingdom; and (iii) 16 K cases of parasitism in Germany, with data collected during the period 1735-2013...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lixu Xu, Xue Li, E Zhang, Hao Liang, Weiting Li, Shangyi Wang, Shuliang Song, Aiguo Ji
OBJECTIVE: This study was focused on screening leech extracts to identify those with little or no anti-coagulation effect or with significant anti-endothelial dysfunction activity. METHODS: Different leech extracts were prepared by enzymolysis and microbial transformation and their cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay. The effect of different leech extracts on mRNA expression of coagulation-related factors (PAI, vWF, tPA, PS, TFPI, TM) was quantified by RT-PCR...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Charlotte E Rees, Paul Crampton, Fiona Kent, Ted Brown, Kerry Hood, Michelle Leech, Jennifer Newton, Michael Storr, Brett Williams
OBJECTIVES: While postgraduate studies have begun to shed light on informal interprofessional workplace learning, studies with preregistration learners have typically focused on formal and structured work-based learning. The current study investigated preregistration students' informal interprofessional workplace learning by exploring students' and clinicians' experiences of interprofessional student-clinician (IPSC) interactions. DESIGN: A qualitative interview study using narrative techniques was conducted...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Boin Choi, Kathryn A Leech, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of longitudinal changes in cognitive function would potentially allow targeted intervention in those at greatest risk of cognitive decline. We sought to build a multivariate model using volumetric neuroimaging data alone to accurately predict cognitive function. METHODS: Volumetric T1-weighted neuroimaging data from virally suppressed HIV-positive individuals from the CHARTER cohort (n=139) were segmented into grey and white matter and spatially normalised before were entering into machine learning models...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Dana Lee Olstad, Rebecca M Leech, Katherine M Livingstone, Kylie Ball, Beth Thomas, Jane Potter, Xenia Cleanthous, Rachael Reynolds, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Increasing inequalities in rates of obesity and chronic disease may be partly fuelled by increasing dietary inequalities, however very few nationally representative analyses of socioeconomic trends in dietary inequalities exist. The release of the 2011-13 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data allows investigation of change in dietary intake according to socioeconomic position (SEP) in Australia using a large, nationally representative sample, compared to the previous national survey in 1995...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Amir Arami, Shelly Gurevitz, Ram Palti, Shay Menachem, Mina Berelowitz, Batia Yaffe
PURPOSE: A noteworthy cause of failure in digital replantation is venous insufficiency. External bloodletting with medicinal leeches is a common treatment for venous insufficiency after distal digital replantations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the salvage rate of digits replanted proximal to the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint that were treated with medicinal leeches for venous congestion. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with complete or incomplete digit amputation admitted between January, 2008 and April, 2014...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Jing-Kui Wu, Qiao Yang
To explore the effect of leech on lipid metabolism and liver function in hyperlipidemia rats and the possible mechanism, biochemical analyzer was used to examine the regulation of leech on levels of serum triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). The levels of ALT and AST in serum were detected by ELISA. The proteins expression of ACAT-2, Fas and HMGCR in liver tissue was detected by Western blot. The weight of body and liver were weighed, and liver index was calculated...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
In this protocol, we introduce an effective method for voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) loading and imaging of leech ganglia as used in Tomina and Wagenaar (2017). Dissection and dye loading procedures are the most critical steps toward successful whole-ganglion VSD imaging. The former entails the removal of the sheath that covers neurons in the segmental ganglion of the leech, which is required for successful dye loading. The latter entails gently flowing a new generation VSD, VF2.1(OMe).H, onto both sides of the ganglion simultaneously using a pair of peristaltic pumps...
March 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Romy Lorenz, Ines R Violante, Ricardo Pio Monti, Giovanni Montana, Adam Hampshire, Robert Leech
Understanding the unique contributions of frontoparietal networks (FPN) in cognition is challenging because they overlap spatially and are co-activated by diverse tasks. Characterizing these networks therefore involves studying their activation across many different cognitive tasks, which previously was only possible with meta-analyses. Here, we use neuroadaptive Bayesian optimization, an approach combining real-time analysis of functional neuroimaging data with machine-learning, to discover cognitive tasks that segregate ventral and dorsal FPN activity...
March 26, 2018: Nature Communications
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