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Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kathryn A Leech, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Barbara Brown, Christine M Weber
Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter, yet there is an active debate in the field regarding what, if any, language measures may mark eventual recovery versus persistence. In this study, we examined whether growth in productive language performance may better predict the probability of recovery compared to static profiles taken from a single time point...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
E Rivers, B C Reynolds, S Bunn, N J Leech, J Straker, H J Lambert
Acute pancreatitis is a well-recognised complication of hypertriglyceridaemia. High serum triglycerides may develop in the autosomal recessive disorder glycogen storage disease (GSD). Plasmapheresis has been effective in reducing triglyceride levels in pancreatitis secondary to other conditions but not previously described in GSD. We describe a 16-year-old male with type 1a GSD who presented with severe abdominal pain, tachycardia and tachypnoea. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated acute pancreatitis...
October 14, 2017: JIMD Reports
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Mark Bolstridge, Lysia Demetriou, J Nienke Pannekoek, Matthew B Wall, Mark Tanner, Mendel Kaelen, John McGonigle, Kevin Murphy, Robert Leech, H Valerie Curran, David J Nutt
Psilocybin with psychological support is showing promise as a treatment model in psychiatry but its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after treatment with psilocybin (serotonin agonist) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Quality pre and post treatment fMRI data were collected from 16 of 19 patients. Decreased depressive symptoms were observed in all 19 patients at 1-week post-treatment and 47% met criteria for response at 5 weeks...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jeremy Joslin, Amy Biondich, Kara Walker, Nicole Zanghi
Exposure to leeches in the wilderness setting is common. Leeches may attach themselves to exposed skin or pass through one of the body's orifices and attach internally. The condition of leech attachment is known as hirudiniasis, which can result in serious morbidity and, rarely, mortality. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to detail the prevention of leech attachment, as well as both anecdotal and studied methods of removal. Complications from leech attachments include ongoing bleeding, wound infection, and poor wound healing...
October 10, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Nebiyu Shitaye, Segenet Shibabaw
BACKGROUND: Leeches are rare blood-sucking endoparasites. Swimming in streams and ponds as well as drinking contaminated water are the major ways to acquire leeches. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6 year old boy who came with a history of hematemesis, frequent spitting of blood stained saliva, fatigue and anorexia to a rural hospital in Ethiopia. This was a rare case of severe anemia caused by a single leech infestation of laryngopharynx that required blood transfusion. CONCLUSION: Leech infestation should be considered as a source of unexplained hematemesis, spitting of blood and severe anemia in rural areas...
October 12, 2017: BMC Surgery
Kaori Morishima, Tomohiro Suzuki, Mineaki Aizawa
We developed 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci of the Japanese land leech (Haemadipsa japonica; Haemadipsidea) using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing approach. A total of 42,064 nuclear DNA contigs were filtered for microsatellite motifs, of among 30,873 simple sequence repeat loci were identified. From these sequences, we selected 30 primer sets, and 13 of these loci were successfully amplified. Polymorphism of the 13 loci was tested using 16 individuals sampled from sixteen populations across Japan. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content varied from 5 to 17 and 0...
October 5, 2017: Parasitology International
Joshua Goldblatt, Ken Buxey, Eldho Paul, Rebecca Foot-Connolly, Tristan Leech, Stephen Bell
BACKGROUND: Stoma formation in colorectal surgery is a recognized independent cause of prolonged hospital stay. It has been shown that preoperative stoma education and siting leads to a reduction in the length of hospital stay. Despite this, the length of time to independent stoma management and the variables that affect this has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective case series to analyse this. METHODS: A total of 107 consecutive colorectal surgery patients undergoing stoma formation at two separate large metropolitan hospitals, one private funded and the other government funded, were enrolled in a prospective case series...
October 5, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Piotr Gasiorek, Hanna Rozycka
Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H...
October 3, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Katherine M Livingstone, Dana Lee Olstad, Rebecca M Leech, Kylie Ball, Beth Meertens, Jane Potter, Xenia Cleanthous, Rachael Reynolds, Sarah A McNaughton
Poor diet may represent one pathway through which lower socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to adverse health outcomes. This study examined the associations between SEP and diet quality, its components, energy, and nutrients in a nationally representative sample of Australians. Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (n = 4875; aged ≥ 19 years) were analysed. Diet quality was evaluated using the Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). SEP was assessed by index of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, education level, and household income...
October 4, 2017: Nutrients
Keenan A Lacey, John M Leech, Stephen J Lalor, Niamh McCormack, Joan A Geoghegan, Rachel M McLoughlin
Staphylococcus aureus has become increasingly resistant to antibiotics and vaccines offer a potential solution to this epidemic of antimicrobial resistance. Targeting of specific T cell subsets is now considered crucial for next generation anti-S. aureus vaccines, however there is a paucity of information regarding T cell antigens of S. aureus This study highlights the importance of cell wall-anchored proteins as human CD4(+) T cell activators, capable of driving antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell activation...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
Studies of neuronal network emergence during sensory processing and motor control are greatly promoted by technologies that allow us to simultaneously record the membrane potential dynamics of a large population of neurons in single cell resolution. To achieve whole-brain recording with the ability to detect both small synaptic potentials and action potentials, we developed a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging technique based on a double-sided microscope that can image two sides of a nervous system simultaneously...
September 25, 2017: ELife
Felicity J Pendergast, Rebecca M Leech, Sarah A McNaughton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in technology-based dietary assessment allow real-time data collection of eating occasions, yet their application to assessing eating pattern constructs has not been evaluated. The purpose of this review was to examine existing electronic and mobile food diary methods in relation to their ability to assess eating patterns constructs (e.g. patterning, format and context of eating occasions). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search of electronic databases identified 18 dietary assessment methods...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
Arthur Kocher, Benoit De Thoisy, François Catzeflis, Sophie Valiere, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Blood meal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Peter O'Donoghue
A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids) and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms). Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
James D Kotick, Amir Taghinia
Use of the medicinal leech in microsurgery is common place for venous decongestion and can be associated with the need for transfusion over time and multiple applications. Here the authors present a case of profound, ongoing, life-threatening bleeding after a single leech application in pediatric microscopic surgery. There are no reports of such profound bleeding in the literature, and this case serves as a warning of the need for close surveillance in this subset of patients.
August 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
Liberata Gualtieri, Francesco Nugnes, Anna G Nappo, Marco Gebiola, Umberto Bernardo
The incidence of horizontal transmission as a route for spreading symbiont infections is still being debated, but a common view is that horizontal transfers require intimate between-species relationships. Here we study a system that meets ideal requirements for horizontal transmission: the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa and its parasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These wasps belong to the same subfamily, spend most of their lives inside the same minute gall and are both infected by Rickettsia, a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infects several arthropods, sometimes manipulating their reproduction, like inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis in L...
July 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sayed Aladdin Asgari, Sadeq Rostami, Mojtaba Teimoori
Priapism is well-defined by persistent, painful penile erection which happens without sexual stimulation. Currently, the hirudotherapy is practiced to treat venous congestion and subsequent compartment syndrome. Here we will report a case of a male with priapism treated by leeches. The case was a 26 yr old young single male referred to the Razi Hospital Emergency Department, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran due to long-time spontaneous erections. The patient had no history of mental disorders, trauma or sickle cell anemia...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Nasrin Hamidizadeh, Amir Azizi, Mohammad M Zarshenas, Sara Ranjbar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Mary Anne Stritch, Elizabeth Forde, Michelle Leech
The International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements -83 recommends prescribing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in a dose-volume manner. Despite this, clinical variation still exists in how prostate IMRT plans are prescribed. This study aims to investigate the impact of different plan normalization methods for postprostatectomy IMRT. IMRT treatment plans were created retrospectively for 20 postprostatectomy patients. These were normalized such that the dose received by 98% (D98) of the planning target volume (PTV) was equal to 100% of the prescribed dose...
August 23, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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