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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936146/performance-of-clinical-screening-algorithms-for-tuberculosis-intensified-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-western-kenya
#1
Surbhi Modi, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ray W Shiraishi, Heather L Alexander, Kimberly D McCarthy, Barbara Burmen, Hellen Muttai, Chad M Heilig, Allyn K Nakashima, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935768/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-clinical-and-imaging-features
#2
Felix Y Yap, Matthew R Skalski, Dakshesh B Patel, Aaron J Schein, Eric A White, Anderanik Tomasian, Sulabha Masih, George R Matcuk
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a medical condition characterized by abnormal proliferation of skin and periosteal tissues involving the extremities and characterized by three clinical features: digital clubbing (also termed Hippocratic fingers), periostosis of tubular bones, and synovial effusions. HOA can be a primary entity, known as pachydermoperiostosis, or can be secondary to extraskeletal conditions, with different prognoses and management implications for each. There is a high association between secondary HOA and malignancy, especially non-small cell lung cancer...
December 9, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933327/traumatic-diaphragmatic-injuries-a-retrospective-review-of-the-12-year-experience-at-a-tertiary-trauma-centre
#3
Beng Leong Lim, Li Tserng Teo, Ming Terk Chiu, Marxengel L Asinas-Tan, Eillyne Seow
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (TDIs) are clinically challenging. We aimed to review TDIs treated at a tertiary trauma centre over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective review of adult patients with TDIs treated between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2014. Primary outcomes were mortality rates and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) associated with each TDI subtype. Secondary outcomes included proportions of TDIs diagnosed radiologically, operatively or during autopsy...
December 9, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933211/systematic-review-and-quality-analysis-of-emerging-diagnostic-measures-for-calcium-pyrophosphate-crystal-deposition-disease
#4
Y Wu, K Chen, R Terkeltaub
OBJECTIVES: Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is common, yet prevalence and overall clinical impact remain unclear. Sensitivity and specificity of CPPD reference standards (conventional crystal analysis (CCA) and radiography (CR)) were meta-analysed by EULAR (published 2011). Since then, new diagnostic modalities are emerging. Hence, we updated 2009-2016 literature findings by systematic review and evidence grading, and assessed unmet needs. METHODS: We performed systematic search of full papers (PubMed, Scopus/EMBASE, Cochrane 2009-2016 databases)...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931960/imaging-of-osteoarthritis-oa-what-is-new
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Mathiessen, Marco Amedeo Cimmino, Hilde Berner Hammer, Ida Kristin Haugen, Annamaria Iagnocco, Philip G Conaghan
In daily clinical practice, conventional radiography is still the most applied imaging technique to supplement clinical examination of patients with suspected osteoarthritis (OA); it may not always be needed for diagnosis. Modern imaging modalities can visualize multiple aspects of the joint, and depending on the diagnostic need, radiography may no longer be the modality of choice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a complete assessment of the joint and has a pivotal role in OA research. Computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine offer alternatives in research scenarios, while ultrasound can visualize bony and soft-tissue pathologies and is highly feasible in the clinic...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931959/imaging-of-gout-new-tools-and-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Araujo, Bernhard Manger, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Ralf G Thiele
While joint aspiration and crystal identification by polarizing microscopy remain the gold standard for diagnosing tophaceous gout, agreement among medical and ancillary health personnel examining synovial fluid using polarizing microscopy for the detection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals appears to be poor. Imaging modalities, including conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), have been found to provide information on the deposition of MSU crystals in tissues, and the consequences of such deposition...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929508/development-of-a-universal-medical-x-ray-imaging-phantom-prototype
#7
Annemari Groenewald, Willem A Groenewald
Diagnostic X-ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X-ray modalities, which consist of pro-jection radiography (including mobile X-ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality-specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929507/evaluation-of-digital-radiography-practice-using-exposure-index-tracking
#8
Alexander W Scott, Yifang Zhou, Janet Allahverdian, Jessica L Nute, Christina Lee
Some digital radiography (DR) detectors and software allow for remote download of exam statistics, including image reject status, body part, projection, and exposure index (EI). The ability to have automated data collection from multiple DR units is conducive to a quality control (QC) program monitoring institutional radiographic exposures. We have implemented such a QC program with the goal to identify outliers in machine radiation output and opportunities for improvement in radiation dose levels. We studied the QC records of four digital detectors in greater detail on a monthly basis for one year...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929277/acute-monoarthritis-diagnosis-in-adults
#9
Jonathan A Becker, Jennifer P Daily, Katherine M Pohlgeers
Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities. A delay in diagnosis and treatment, particularly in septic arthritis, can have catastrophic results including sepsis, bacteremia, joint destruction, or death. The history and physical examination can help guide the use of laboratory and imaging studies...
November 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929242/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Alexander Kaysin, Anthony J Viera
Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and lung examination findings. Diagnosis should be confirmed by chest radiography or ultrasonography. Validated prediction scores for pneumonia severity can guide the decision between outpatient and inpatient therapy. Using procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe infection may further assist with risk stratification...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929206/acute-bronchitis
#11
Scott Kinkade, Natalie A Long
Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in patients with tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, or lung findings suggestive of pneumonia, and radiography is warranted. Pertussis should be suspected in patients with cough persisting for more than two weeks that is accompanied by symptoms such as paroxysmal cough, whooping cough, and post-tussive emesis, or recent pertussis exposure...
October 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928810/the-association-of-stone-opacity-in-plain-radiography-with-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-outcomes-and-complications
#12
Robab Maghsoudi, Masoud Etemadian, Amir Hossein Kashi, Alireza Ranjbaran
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of stone opacity in plain radiography on stone free rate and complications ofpercutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 101 patients who underwent PCNL between July-September 2015 wereprospectively included. Stone opacity was judged on preoperative plain Kidney-Ureter-Bladder X-ray. Stone freerate was evaluated two weeks after the operation by ultrasonography and KUB. RESULTS: There were 61 patients with opaque stones and 40 patients with non-opaque stones...
December 8, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928677/four-dimensional-hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography-with-auxiliary-hydrogen-peroxide-examination-for-the-diagnosis-of-fallopian-tube-patency-following-interventional-treatment-of-ovarian-ectopic-cysts
#13
Dejiao Kong, Xiaoqiu Dong, Zihan Wang, Liwei Zhang, Xiaohui Shao, Yunfeng Qi
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the practical value of using four-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography with auxiliary hydrogen peroxide examination which is necessary for the diagnosis of fallopian tube patency following treatment of ovarian ectopic cysts. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of hysterosalpingography (HSG) examination data from 71 patients who had received sonography-guided interventional treatment for ovarian ectopic cysts at the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University was carried out...
December 7, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928471/radiological-imaging-findings-of-scheuermann-disease
#14
Erkan Gokce, Murat Beyhan
AIM: To find accompanying anomalies of typical and atypical Scheuermann's disease (SD) is reported in the present study. METHODS: Study included 20 patients (16 men and 4 women) who had radiological imaging radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, if available, due to back pain, curved back and low back pain in November 2011-February 2016 period. Patients were categorized into typical and atypical patterns based on the region involved...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928235/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cbct-with-different-voxel-sizes-and-intraoral-digital-radiography-for-detection-of-periapical-bone-lesions-an-ex-vivo-study
#15
Shirin Sakhdari, Ahmad Reza Talaeipour, Maziar Talaeipour, Maryam Pazhutan, Sanaz Heidarkhan Tehrani, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with different voxel sizes and intraoral digital radiography with photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate for detection of periapical (PA) bone lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this ex vivo diagnostic study, one-millimeter defects were created in the alveolar sockets of 15 bone blocks, each with two posterior teeth. A no-defect control group was also included. Digital PA radiographs with PSP plates and CBCT scans with 200, 250 and 300μ voxel sizes were obtained...
March 2016: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927552/multicenter-comparison-of-3d-spinal-measurements-using-surface-topography-with-those-from-conventional-radiography
#16
Patrick Knott, Peter Sturm, Baron Lonner, Patrick Cahill, Marcel Betsch, Richard McCarthy, Michael Kelly, Lawrence Lenke, Randal Betz
INTRODUCTION: In pediatric spinal deformity the gold standard for curve surveillance remains standing full-column radiographs, but repeated exposure to ionizing radiation motivates us to look for nonradiographic solutions. This study tests a modern system of surface topography (ST) to determine whether it is reliable and reproducible. METHODS: Patients from 6 pediatric spinal deformity clinics were recruited for enrollment. Inclusion criteria were age 8-18; diagnosis of scoliosis measuring ≥10 and <50 degrees or increased kyphosis of ≥45 degrees...
March 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926467/pulmonary-artery-intramural-leiomyosarcoma-mimicking-pulmonary-aneurysm
#17
Rie Kanaoka, Yusuke Takahashi, Shigeki Morita, Hitoshi Dejima, Noriyuki Matsutani, Masafumi Kawamura
Chest radiography indicated a well-defined rounded mass at the left lung hilum in a 77-year-old former smoker. Chest computed tomography revealed a longitudinal saccular enlargement of the left pulmonary artery with surrounding soft tissue opacity. Resection of the left lower lobe with segment 1 + 2c was carried out to completely remove the dilated pulmonary artery. The resected specimen revealed obvious dilatation of the interlobar pulmonary artery and its branches. A small yellowish well-demarcated myxoid tumor was contained in this lesion, which was diagnosed as a primary pulmonary artery intramural leiomyosarcoma...
November 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924366/utility-of-plain-radiographs-and-mri-in-cervical-spine-clearance-in-symptomatic-non-obtunded-pediatric-patients-without-high-impact-trauma
#18
Justin M Moore, Jonathan Hall, Michael Ditchfield, Christopher Xenos, Andrew Danks
PURPOSE: The optimal imaging modality for evaluating cervical spine trauma and optimizing management in the pediatric population is controversial. In pediatric populations, there are no well-established guidelines for cervical spine trauma evaluation and treatment. Currently, there is virtually no literature regarding imaging and management of symptomatic pediatric patients who present with cervical spine trauma without high-impact mechanism. This study aims to establish an optimal imaging strategy for this subgroup of trauma patients...
December 6, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923725/long-term-results-of-secondary-alveolar-bone-grafting-using-a-technique-to-harvest-pure-calvarial-cancellous-bone-evaluation-based-on-plain-radiography-and-computed-tomography
#19
Kihwan Han, Woonhyeok Jeong, Hyeonjung Yeo, Jaehoon Choi, Junhyung Kim, Daegu Son, Sangho Oh, Changhyun Kim
BACKGROUND: We introduce a method to extract the maximum amount of cancellous bone from the calvarium and analyze the outcomes using plain radiography and computed tomography. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafts using a maximal harvesting technique for calvarial cancellous bone. Bone survival was determined based on Enemark's grading system using plain radiographs. Alveolar thickness and height were analyzed by computed tomography and compared with radiographic measurements...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922877/diagnostic-accuracy-of-central-venous-catheter-confirmation-by-bedside-ultrasound-versus-chest-radiography-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Enyo A Ablordeppey, Anne M Drewry, Alexander B Beyer, Daniel L Theodoro, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller, Christopher R Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed...
December 5, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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