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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132838/therapeutic-effects-of-diosgenin-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Weili Liu, Mei Zhu, Zhongwang Yu, Dou Yin, Fengfeng Lu, Yingyan Pu, Chao Zhao, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Currently, there is no drug available to cure this kind of disease. Diosgenin is a plant-derived steroid saponin. A previous study in our lab revealed that diosgenin can promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and accelerate remyelination. In the present study, we found that diosgenin dose-dependently alleviated the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced central nervous system inflammation and demyelination...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130544/identification-of-gene-expression-signatures-across-different-types-of-neural-stem-cells-with-the-monte-carlo-feature-selection-method
#3
Lei Chen, JiaRui Li, Yu-Hang Zhang, KaiYan Feng, ShaoPeng Wang, YunHua Zhang, Tao Huang, Xiangyin Kong, Yu-Dong Cai
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are a group of multi-potent, self-renewing progenitor cells that contribute to the generation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes. Three subtypes of NSCs can be isolated based on the stages of the NSC lineage, including quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs), activated neural stem cells (aNSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although it is widely accepted that these three groups of NSCs play different roles in the development of the nervous system, their molecular signatures are poorly understood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110207/ameliorating-effect-of-osteopontin-on-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#4
Neda Mazaheri, Maryam Peymani, Hamid Galehdari, Kamran Ghaedi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107990/long-lasting-masculinizing-effects-of-postnatal-androgens-on-myelin-governed-by-the-brain-androgen-receptor
#5
Charly Abi Ghanem, Cindy Degerny, Rashad Hussain, Philippe Liere, Antoine Pianos, Sophie Tourpin, René Habert, Wendy B Macklin, Michael Schumacher, Abdel M Ghoumari
The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107512/american-strain-of-zika-virus-causes-more-severe-microcephaly-than-an-old-asian-strain-in-neonatal-mice
#6
Feng Zhang, Hong-Jiang Wang, Qin Wang, Zhong-Yu Liu, Ling Yuan, Xing-Yao Huang, Guanghui Li, Qing Ye, Haozhen Yang, Lei Shi, Yong-Qiang Deng, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu
Zika virus (ZIKV) has evolved from an overlooked mosquito-borne flavivirus into a global health threat due to its astonishing causal link to microcephaly and other disorders. ZIKV has been shown to infect neuronal progenitor cells of the fetal mouse brain, which is comparable to the first-trimester human fetal brain, and result in microcephaly. However, whether there are different effects between the contemporary ZIKV strain and its ancestral strain in the neonatal mouse brain, which is comparable with the second-trimester human fetal brain, is unclear...
October 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103804/fibrinogen-activates-bmp-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-inhibits-remyelination-after-vascular-damage
#7
Mark A Petersen, Jae Kyu Ryu, Kae-Jiun Chang, Ainhoa Etxeberria, Sophia Bardehle, Andrew S Mendiola, Wanjiru Kamau-Devers, Stephen P J Fancy, Andrea Thor, Eric A Bushong, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Catriona A Syme, Michael D Wu, Pamela E Rios Coronado, Anke Meyer-Franke, Stephanie Yahn, Lauriane Pous, Jae K Lee, Christian Schachtrup, Hans Lassmann, Eric J Huang, May H Han, Martina Absinta, Daniel S Reich, Mark H Ellisman, David H Rowitch, Jonah R Chan, Katerina Akassoglou
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption alters the composition of the brain microenvironment by allowing blood proteins into the CNS. However, whether blood-derived molecules serve as extrinsic inhibitors of remyelination is unknown. Here we show that the coagulation factor fibrinogen activates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and suppresses remyelination. Fibrinogen induces phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and inhibits OPC differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) while promoting an astrocytic fate in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095924/distinct-ng2-proteoglycan-dependent-roles-of-resident-microglia-and-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-during-myelin-damage-and-repair
#8
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
We used a bone marrow transplantation approach to distinguish the activities of bone marrow-derived macrophages from the activities of central nervous system-resident microglia in phenomena associated with axon demyelination and remyelination. We transplanted wild type or germline NG2 null beta-actin-EGFP expressing bone marrow into irradiated wild type or NG2 null recipient mice, followed by analysis of lysolecithin-induced spinal cord demyelination and remyelination and quantification of Iba-1+/ F4/80+/ EGFP+ macrophages and Iba-1+/ F4/80+/ EGFP- microglia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#9
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083317/combined-delivery-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neuroepithelial-cells-promote-tissue-repair-in-an-animal-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Tobias Führmann, Priya Anandakumaran, Samantha Payne, Malgosia Pakulska, Balazs V Varga, Andras Nagy, Charles Tator, Molly S Shoichet
The lack of tissue regeneration after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models is largely attributed to the local inhibitory microenvironment. To overcome this inhibitory environment while promoting tissue regeneration, we investigated the combined delivery of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs). ChABC was delivered to the injured spinal cord at the site of injury by affinity release from a crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogel by injection into the intrathecal space...
October 30, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081882/derivation-of-telencephalic-oligodendrocyte-progenitors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Tamara Major, Ann Powers, Viviane Tabar
Oligodendrocytes are the main myelinating cell of the adult CNS and are vulnerable to injury in diverse disorders such as spinal cord injury, stroke, trauma, pharmacological and radiation toxicity, as well as neuroinflammation. Human pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and provide a promising treatment strategy for exogenous myelin repair through transplantation. This unit describes a protocol for the step-wise differentiation of forebrain late oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from human pluripotent stem cells in defined chemical in vitro culture conditions...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076551/tgf-%C3%AE-pro-oligodendrogenic-effects-on-adult-svz-progenitor-cultures-and-its-interaction-with-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#12
Laura I Gómez Pinto, Debora Rodríguez, Ana M Adamo, Patricia A Mathieu
Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. Notch and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β) signaling pathways play critical roles in controlling these cell fate decisions. TGF-β has been previously shown to exert pro-neurogenic effects on hippocampal and subventricular zone (SVZ) NPCs in vitro and to interact with Notch in different cellular types. Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the effect of TGF-β on adult rat brain SVZ NPC glial commitment and its interaction with Notch signaling...
October 27, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074250/esc-derived-thymic-epithelial-cells-expressing-mog-prevents-eae-by-central-and-peripheral-tolerance-mechanisms
#13
Min Su, Yujun Lin, Cheng Cui, Xiaohong Tian, Xiuling Lu, Zhixu He, Laijun Lai
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and is induced by immunization with disease-causative self-antigens such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We have previously reported that transplantation of MOG expressing thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) derived from 129S6SvEv Tac mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) prevented the development of EAE. In this study, we expand our previous studies to show that transplantation of MOG expressing mESC-TEPs derived from C57BL/6 mice also prevents EAE development...
October 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073529/oligodendroglia-lineage-cells-in-brain-plasticity-homeostasis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
F Birey, A G Kokkosis, A Aguirre
Adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are uniformly distributed in both gray and white matter, displaying robust proliferative and migratory potential during health and disease. Recently, developments in new experimental approaches have brought about several novel insights about NG2-glia and myelinating oligodendrocytes, indicating a diverse toolkit of functions in experience-dependent myelination and homeostasis in the adult CNS. In this review, we summarize some of the topical studies that highlight newly emerging findings implicating oligodendroglia-lineage cells in brain plasticity, homeostasis and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066783/canine-dorsal-root-ganglia-satellite-glial-cells-represent-an-exceptional-cell-population-with-astrocytic-and-oligodendrocytic-properties
#15
W Tongtako, A Lehmbecker, Y Wang, K Hahn, W Baumgärtner, I Gerhauser
Dogs can be used as a translational animal model to close the gap between basic discoveries in rodents and clinical trials in humans. The present study compared the species-specific properties of satellite glial cells (SGCs) of canine and murine dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in situ and in vitro using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunostainings. The in situ expression of CNPase, GFAP, and glutamine synthetase (GS) has also been investigated in simian SGCs. In situ, most canine SGCs (>80%) expressed the neural progenitor cell markers nestin and Sox2...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063515/zika-virus-induces-astrocyte-differentiation-in-neural-stem-cells
#16
Olivia V Lossia, Michael J Conway, Maya O Tree, Robert J Williams, Stacy C Goldthorpe, Bhairavi Srinageshwar, Gary L Dunbar, Julien Rossignol
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a rapidly emerging flavivirus that has been associated with a number of congenital neurological manifestations. Here, we show that ZIKV replicated efficiently in mouse neural stem cells (mNSCs). ZIKV infection caused a cytopathic effect without affecting cell viability, yet led to a significant decrease in the number of proteins secreted into mNSC supernatants. A gene expression array of neural stem cell progenitor and differentiation markers suggested that infection reduced the number of neuronal and oligodendrocyte progenitors while increasing the number of astrocyte progenitors...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053779/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Neil J Scolding, Marcelo Pasquini, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046438/on-myelinated-axon-plasticity-and-neuronal-circuit-formation-and-function
#18
REVIEW
Rafael G Almeida, David A Lyons
Studies of activity-driven nervous system plasticity have primarily focused on the gray matter. However, MRI-based imaging studies have shown that white matter, primarily composed of myelinated axons, can also be dynamically regulated by activity of the healthy brain. Myelination in the CNS is an ongoing process that starts around birth and continues throughout life. Myelin in the CNS is generated by oligodendrocytes and recent evidence has shown that many aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination can be modulated by extrinsic signals including neuronal activity...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045809/postnatal-sonic-hedgehog-shh-responsive-cells-give-rise-to-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-during-myelination-and-in-adulthood-contribute-to-remyelination
#19
Maria A Sanchez, Regina C Armstrong
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates a wave of oligodendrocyte production for extensive myelination during postnatal development. During this postnatal period of oligodendrogenesis, we fate-labeled cells exhibiting active Shh signaling to examine their contribution to the regenerative response during remyelination. Bitransgenic mouse lines were generated for induced genetic fate-labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. Shh(CreERT2) mice and Gli1(CreERT2) mice were crossed to either R26(tdTomato) mice to label cells with red fluorescence, or, R26(IAP) mice to label membranes with alkaline phosphatase...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044560/regulating-the-transcriptomes-that-mediate-the-conversion-of-fibroblasts-to-various-nervous-system-neural-cell-types
#20
Niusha Khazaei, Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Nicholas O'Toole, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Our understanding of the mechanism of cell fate transition during the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into various central nervous system (CNS) neural cell types has been limited by the lack of a comprehensive analysis on generated cells, independently and in comparison with other CNS neural cell types. Here, we applied an integrative approach on 18 independent high throughput expression data sets to gain insight into the regulation of the transcriptome during the conversion of fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells, induced neurons, induced astrocytes, and induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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