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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791837/phosphorylation-state-of-zfp24-controls-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#1
Benayahu Elbaz, Joshua D Aaker, Sara Isaac, Anna Kolarzyk, Pedro Brugarolas, Amir Eden, Brian Popko
Zinc finger protein ZFP24, formerly known as ZFP191, is essential for oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which ZFP24 controls these processes is unknown. We demonstrate that ZFP24 binds to a consensus DNA sequence in proximity to genes important for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination, and we show that this binding enhances target gene expression. We also demonstrate that ZFP24 DNA binding is controlled by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated ZFP24, which does not bind DNA, is the predominant form in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788868/contribution-of-spinal-cord-oligodendrocytes-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases-and-pain
#2
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Miriam S N Hohmann, Waldiceu A Verri
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory diseases that affect spinal cord or associated spinal nerves represent challenging conditions for management in current medicine because of their complex pathology, poor prognosis, and high morbidity, which strikingly reduces the quality of life of patients. In this sense, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of spinal cord neuroinflammation might contribute to the development of novel therapies. Oligodendrocytes have unique and vital biological properties in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and physiology...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772232/hypomyelination-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-lacking-cd133-prominin-1
#3
Mi-Hyun Choi, Ji Eun Na, Ye Ran Yoon, Im Joo Rhyu, Young-Gyu Ko, Ja-Hyun Baik
The CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that specifically localizes to plasma membrane protrusions. The precise function of CD133 remains unknown, but it is expressed in various progenitor cells including those derived from the neural and hematopoietic system, as well as different tissues. In the adult mouse brain, CD133 is highly expressed in white matter. Here, we performed immunochemical staining and electron microscopy to demonstrate that mice lacking CD133 (CD133-/- ) exhibit decreased myelin in the corpus callosum, the largest white matter tract in the brain...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759026/efficacy-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-transplantation-in-rat-models-with-traumatic-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Haitao Fu, Die Hu, Licheng Zhang, Xuezhen Shen, Peifu Tang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that results in severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction, for which there is currently no available treatments. Following the primary mechanical damage, progressive secondary damage further exacerbates the functional deficit. Demyelination may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCI. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are considered a candidate cellular treatment approach for SCI due to their unique potential. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of OPC transplantation in rat models with traumatic thoracic SCI and 17 studies (20 experiments, 402 rats) were identified...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#5
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743549/human-cortex-spheroid-with-a-functional-blood-brain-barrier-for-high-throughput-neurotoxicity-screening-and-disease-modeling
#6
Goodwell Nzou, R T Wicks, E E Wicks, S A Seale, C H Sane, A Chen, S V Murphy, J D Jackson, A J Atala
The integral selectivity characteristic of the blood brain barrier (BBB) limits therapeutic options for many neurologic diseases and disorders. Currently, very little is known about the mechanisms that govern the dynamic nature of the BBB. Recent reports have focused on the development and application of human brain organoids developed from neuro-progenitor cells. While these models provide an excellent platform to study the effects of disease and genetic aberrances on brain development, they may not model the microvasculature and BBB of the adult human cortex...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740943/vanishing-white-matter-a-leukodystrophy-due-to-astrocytic-dysfunction
#7
Marianna Bugiani, Caroline Vuong, Marjolein Breur, Marjo S van der Knaap
VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739868/the-dorsal-wave-of-neocortical-oligodendrogenesis-begins-embryonically-and-requires-multiple-sources-of-sonic-hedgehog
#8
Caitlin C Winkler, Odessa R Yabut, Santiago P Fregoso, Hector G Gomez, Brett E Dwyer, Samuel J Pleasure, Santos J Franco
Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. Compared to neurons and astrocytes, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to an oligodendrocyte fate. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis. Using genetic lineage-tracing in mice of both sexes, we demonstrate that the majority of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex derive from Emx1+ dorsal forebrain progenitors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732611/jmy-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-modulation-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#9
Maria M Azevedo, Helena S Domingues, Fabrice P Cordelières, Paula Sampaio, Ana I Seixas, João B Relvas
During central nervous system development, oligodendrocytes form structurally and functionally distinct actin-rich protrusions that contact and wrap around axons to assemble myelin sheaths. Establishment of axonal contact is a limiting step in myelination that relies on the oligodendrocyte's ability to locally coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements with myelin production, under the control of a transcriptional differentiation program. The molecules that provide fine-tuning of actin dynamics during oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment remain largely unidentified...
May 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722306/dissecting-the-multifactorial-nature-of-demyelinating-disease
#10
REVIEW
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4) is a surface component of two key cell types (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and myeloid cells) present in lysolecithin-induced lesions in mouse spinal cord. Two types of CSPG4 manipulations have been used to study the roles of these cells in myelin damage and repair: (1) OPC and myeloid-specific ablation of CSPG4, and (2) transplantation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled progenitors to distinguish between bone marrow-derived macrophages and resident microglia...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720228/characterization-of-a-murine-mixed-neuron-glia-model-and-cellular-responses-to-regulatory-t-cell-derived-factors
#11
Marie Dittmer, Andrew Young, Thomas O'Hagan, George Eleftheriadis, Peter Bankhead, Yvonne Dombrowski, Reinhold J Medina, Denise C Fitzgerald
One of the unmet clinical needs in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is to provide therapies that actively enhance the process of myelin regeneration (remyelination) in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, play a central role in remyelination and originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently showed that depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) impairs remyelination in vivo, and that Treg-secreted factors directly enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690837/neutralization-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-following-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-attenuates-the-loss-of-mature-oligodendrocytes
#12
Johanna Flygt, Karsten Ruscher, Amanda Norberg, Anis Mir, Hermann Gram, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in injury to the components of the white matter tracts, causing post-injury cognitive deficits. The myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are vulnerable to TBI although may plausibly be replaced by proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of the complex inflammatory response, and when neutralized in experimental TBI behavioral outcome was improved. To evaluate the role of IL-1β on OL cell death and OPC proliferation, 116 adult male mice subjected to sham injury or the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model of traumatic axonal injury, were analyzed at 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689424/conditional-deletion-of-id2-or-notch1-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-does-not-ameliorate-disease-outcome-in-sod1-g93a-mice
#13
Caroline Eykens, Annelies Nonneman, Cathy Jensen, Antonio Iavarone, Philip Van Damme, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Wim Robberecht
Oligodendrocytes are essential for structural and trophic support of motor axons. Their impairment has been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells fail to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and thereby jeopardize the health of motor neurons. Here, we report that oligodendrocytic ablation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) or Notch receptor 1 (Notch1), 2 negative master modulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, fails to alleviate oligodendrocyte dysfunction or alter disease outcome in a murine model of ALS...
April 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685289/remyelination-in-the-medulla-oblongata-of-adult-mouse-brain-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Daishi Hiratsuka, Eriko Furube, Katsutoshi Taguchi, Masaki Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Morita, Seiji Miyata
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is primarily used as an animal model of autoimmune demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. In this study, we found the proliferative rate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the medulla elevated twofold above control levels during EAE and new generation of mature oligodendrocytes was increased as well. Although astrocytes showed hypertrophic reactive phenotype, a new generation of them was rare. Astrocyte- and tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs), multipotent NSCs, did not augment their low proliferative rate...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#15
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664021/a-tlr-akt-foxo3-immune-tolerance-like-pathway-disrupts-the-repair-capacity-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#16
Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L Marks, Edward N Harris, Bruce Baggenstoss, Paul H Weigel, Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#17
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627379/the-antipsychotic-drug-quetiapine-stimulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-modulating-the-cell-cycle
#18
Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
Recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine. To explore the mechanisms of quetiapine in oligodendrocyte development, we examined the effects of quetiapine on cell cycle progression...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623612/the-stem-cell-factor-sox2-is-a-positive-timer-of-oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-postnatal-murine-spinal-cord
#19
Sheng Zhang, Abeer Rasai, Yan Wang, Jie Xu, Peter Bannerman, Daffcar Erol, Danayit Tsegaye, Aijun Wang, Athena Soulika, Xiangjiang Zhan, Fuzheng Guo
Myelination in the central nervous system takes place predominantly during the postnatal development of humans and rodents by myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently reported that Sox2 is essential for developmental myelination in the murine brain and spinal cord. It is still controversial regarding the role of Sox2 in oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Analyses of a series of cell- and stage-specific Sox2 mutants reveal that Sox2 plays a biphasic role in regulating oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622601/dual-role-of-the-rna-helicase-ddx5-in-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-myelin-basic-protein-in-oligodendrocytes
#20
Peter Hoch-Kraft, Robin White, Stefan Tenzer, Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers, Jacqueline Trotter, Constantin Gonsior
In the central nervous system, oligodendroglial expression of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) is crucial for the assembly and structure of the myelin sheath. MBP synthesis is tightly regulated in space and time, particularly on the post-transcriptional level. We have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 (alias p68) in a complex with Mbp mRNA in oligodendroglial cells. Expression of DDX5 is highest in progenitor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, where it localizes to heterogeneous populations of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes associated with Mbp mRNA in the cell body and processes...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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