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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346405/oxytocin-alters-cell-fate-selection-of-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#1
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335358/sox2-is-essential-for-oligodendroglial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-postnatal-brain-myelination-and-cns-remyelination
#2
Sheng Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhu, Xuehong Gui, Christopher Croteau, Lanying Song, Jie Xu, Aijun Wang, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#3
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#4
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323026/the-contribution-of-oligodendrocytes-and-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-to-central-nervous-system-repair-in-multiple-sclerosis-perspectives-for-remyelination-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodencrocytes (OLs) are the main glial cells of the central nervous system involved in myelination of axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is an imbalance between demyelination and remyelination processes, the last one performed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and OLs, resulting into a permanent demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal loss. In MS lesions, astrocytes and microglias play an important part in permeabilization of blood-brain barrier and initiation of OPCs proliferation. Migration and differentiation of OPCs are influenced by various factors and the process is finalized by insufficient acummulation of OLs into the MS lesion...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315225/fm19g11-and-ependymal-progenitor-stem-cell-combinatory-treatment-enhances-neuronal-preservation-and-oligodendrogenesis-after-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Ana Alastrue-Agudo, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Eric López Mocholi, Francesca De Giorgio, Slaven Erceg, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. We have previously shown that individual therapeutic strategies, transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord after injury (epSPCi) or FM19G11 pharmacological treatment, induce moderate functional recovery after SCI. Here, the combination of treatments has been assayed for functional and histological analysis. Immediately after severe SCI, one million epSPCi were intramedullary injected, and the FM19G11 compound or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (as the vehicle control) was administrated via intrathecal catheterization...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303112/biomimetic-hydrogels-direct-spinal-progenitor-cell-differentiation-and-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Sydney A Geissler, Alexandra L Sabin, Rachel R Besser, Olivia M Gooden, Bryce D Shirk, Quan M Nguyen, Zin Z Khaing, Christine E Schmidt
Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation [1]. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#8
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295693/novel-homeodomain-transcription-factor-nkx2-2-in-the-brain-tumor-development
#9
Mubeena Pm Mariyath, Mehdi Hayat Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mohd Tayyab, Nabeela Khanam, Asif Ali
BACKGROUND: Complex central nervous system (CNS) is made of neuronal cells and glial cells. Cells of central nervous system are able to regenerate after injury and during repairing. Sonic hedgehog pathway initiated by Shh-N a glycoprotein plays vital role in CNS patterning growth, development and now tumorigenesis. Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor is an effecter molecule, which is positively regulated by Shh during normal growth. Nkx2.2 is essential for V3 domain specification during neural tube patterning at embryonic stage...
January 1, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288597/fractionation-enhances-acute-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-radiation-sensitivity-and-leads-to-long-term-depletion
#10
Sage Begolly, John A Olschowka, Tanzy Love, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used to treat central nervous system (CNS) cancers and metastases. While IR promotes remission, frequent side effects including impaired cognition and white matter loss occur following treatment. Fractionation is used to minimize these CNS late side effects, as it reduces IR effects in differentiated normal tissue, but not rapidly proliferating normal or tumor tissue. However, side effects occur even with the use of fractionated paradigms. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a proliferative population within the CNS affected by radiation...
December 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283444/vasodilator-dysfunction-and-oligodendrocyte-dysmaturation-in-aging-white-matter
#11
Zsolt Bagi, Dieter D Brandner, Phuong Le, David W McNeal, Xi Gong, Huijuan Dou, David J Fulton, Allison Beller, Thuan Ngyuen, Eric B Larson, Thomas J Montine, C Dirk Keene, Stephen A Back
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular brain injury (mVBI) is a common pathologic correlate of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) that leads to white matter injury (WMI). VCID appears to arise from chronic recurrent white matter ischemia that triggers oxidative stress and an increase in total oligodendrocyte lineage cells. We hypothesized that mVBI involves vasodilator dysfunction of white matter penetrating arterioles and aberrant oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) responses to WMI...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#12
Z C Hesp, R Y Yoseph, R Suzuki, C Wilson, A Nishiyama, D M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations (pericytes and glia) also may influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279015/rodent-neural-progenitor-cells-support-functional-recovery-after-cervical-spinal-cord-contusion
#13
John H Brock, Lori Graham, Eileen Staufenberg, Sarah Im, Mark H Tuszynski
Previously others and we have shown that rodent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can support functional recovery following cervical and thoracic transection injuries. To extend these observations to a more clinically relevant model of spinal cord injury, we performed unilateral mid-cervical contusion injuries in Fischer 344 rats. Two-weeks later, E14-derived syngeneic spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells were implanted into the lesion cavity. Control animals received either no grafts or fibroblast grafts...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258846/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-alleviate-brain-white-matter-injury-via-the-enhanced-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#14
Xiaohe Yu, Hongjuan Wu, Yansong Zhao, Yuanyuan Guo, Yuxi Chen, Peng Dong, Qingjie Mu, Xin Wang, Xiaoli Wang
The effects of transplanting bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of white matter damage are not well understood, nor are the underlying mechanisms. Recent studies showed that endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs)can be stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, we explore the effects of BMSCs transplantation on white matter damage and the proliferation of OPCs in transient focal cerebral ischemic rats.BMSCs were transplanted into a group of rats that had undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) 24 hours after reperfusion...
December 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251594/lrp1-regulates-peroxisome-biogenesis-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-oligodendrocytes-and-is-required-for-proper-cns-myelin-development-and-repair
#15
Jing-Ping Lin, Yevgeniya A Mironova, Peter Shrager, Roman J Giger
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1 deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2, yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251113/microarray-expression-profile-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury-after-a2b5-cell-transplantation
#16
Qiang Lyu, Zi-Bin Zhang, Song-Jun Fu, Liu-Lin Xiong, Jing Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause neurological damage, but an effective therapy and the associated mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated. A TBI model was established using the modified Feeney method. A2B5+ cells, an oligodendroglial progenitor, were acquired from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by mouse embryonic fibroblasts and were transplanted into the injured site. The neurological severity score (NSS) was recorded on 3 d, 7 d, 11 d, 15 d, and 19 d. Seven days after transplantation, oligodendrocytes 2 (Olig2) and myelin basic protein (MBP) were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were screened by microarray technology...
October 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249816/novel-schizophrenia-risk-factor-pathways-regulate-fez1-to-advance-oligodendroglia-development
#17
REVIEW
Xianjun Chen, Li Ku, Ruyi Mei, Guanglu Liu, Chongchong Xu, Zhexing Wen, Xiaofeng Zhao, Fei Wang, Lan Xiao, Yue Feng
Neuropsychiatric disorders, represented by schizophrenia, affect not only neurons but also myelinating oligodendroglia (OL), both contribute to the complex etiology. Although numerous susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been identified, their function has been primarily studied in neurons. Whether malfunction of risk genes underlies OL defects in schizophrenia pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the function and regulation of the well-recognized schizophrenia risk factor, Fasciculation and Elongation Protein Zeta-1 (FEZ1), in OL...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#18
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222780/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-cultures-a-model-to-screen-neurotrophic-compounds-for-myelin-repair
#19
Massimo Barbierato, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
The protocol presented in this chapter covers the application of rat cortical oligodendrocyte progenitor cells cultured under conditions of differentiation for the evaluation of agents with potential trophic activity, that is, which are capable of promoting maturation under such conditions. As an example we have chosen a co-ultramicronized N-palmitoylethanolamine/luteolin composite, a formulation described in the literature as possessing anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative actions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216454/fibrinogen-in-the-nervous-system-glia-beware
#20
Erin H Norris, Sidney Strickland
Re-myelination of CNS nerves after injury is ineffective. Here, Petersen et al. (2017) show that the blood clotting protein fibrinogen inhibits nerve repair by preventing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Targeting fibrinogen or its downstream BMP signaling pathway may help with CNS repair.
December 6, 2017: Neuron
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