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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913589/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#1
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane, which can mediate some of these signals...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#2
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905992/variable-sensitivity-to-complement-dependent-cytotoxicity-in-murine-models-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#3
Yiting Liu, Danielle E Harlow, Katherine S Given, Gregory P Owens, Wendy B Macklin, Jeffrey L Bennett
BACKGROUND: Studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), have demonstrated that autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) induce astrocyte damage through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In developing experimental models of NMO using cells, tissues or animals from mice, co-administration of AQP4-IgG and normal human serum, which serves as the source of human complement (HC), is required. The sensitivity of mouse CNS cells to HC and CDC in these models is not known...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890389/heparanase-confers-a-growth-advantage-to-differentiating-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-formation
#5
Anqi Xiong, Soumi Kundu, Maud Forsberg, Yuyuan Xiong, Tobias Bergström, Tanja Paavilainen, Lena Kjellén, Jin-Ping Li, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), ubiquitous components of mammalian cells, play important roles in development and homeostasis. These molecules are located primarily on the cell surface and in the pericellular matrix, where they interact with a multitude of macromolecules, including many growth factors. Manipulation of the enzymes involved in biosynthesis and modification of HSPG structures alters the properties of stem cells. Here, we focus on the involvement of heparanase (HPSE), the sole endo-glucuronidase capable of cleaving of HS, in differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the cells of the neural lineage...
November 23, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888476/histological-detection-of-dynamic-glial-responses-in-the-dysmyelinating-tabby-jimpy-mutant-brain
#6
Masanao Ikeda, M Ibrahim Hossain, Li Zhou, Masao Horie, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Arata Horii, Hirohide Takebayashi
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths surrounding the axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Jimpy (jp) mutant mice are dysmyelinating disease models that show developmental abnormalities in myelinated OLs in the CNS. The causative gene in jp mice is the proteolipid protein (PLP) located on the X chromosome. Mutations in the jp allele result in exon 5 skipping and expression of abnormal PLP containing a C-terminal frame shift. Many lines of evidence suggest that abnormal PLP in OLs results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death...
November 25, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888226/single-cell-sequencing-maps-gene-expression-to-mutational-phylogenies-in-pdgf-and-egf-driven-gliomas
#7
Sören Müller, Siyuan John Liu, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Martina Malatesta, Alex A Pollen, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Gary Kohanbash, Manish Aghi, Arnold R Kriegstein, Daniel A Lim, Aaron Diaz
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors are frequently amplified and/or possess gain-of-function mutations in GBM However, clinical trials of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy, in part due to intra-tumor heterogeneity. To assess the effect of clonal heterogeneity on gene expression, we derived an approach to map single-cell expression profiles to sequentially acquired mutations identified from exome sequencing...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879672/electric-signals-regulate-the-directional-migration-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-opcs-via-%C3%AE-1-integrin
#8
Bangfu Zhu, Matthew Nicholls, Yu Gu, Gaofeng Zhang, Chao Zhao, Robin J M Franklin, Bing Song
The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865736/ips-derived-neural-progenitor-cells-from-ppms-patients-reveal-defect-in-myelin-injury-response
#9
Alexandra M Nicaise, Erin Banda, Rosa M Guzzo, Kristen Russomanno, Wanda Castro-Borrero, Cory M Willis, Kasey M Johnson, Albert C Lo, Stephen J Crocker
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) currently lacking any effective treatment. Promoting endogenous brain repair offers a potential strategy to halt and possibly restore neurologic function in PPMS. To understand how the microenvironment within white matter lesions plays a role in repair we have focused on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) since these are found in lesions in PPMS and have been found to influence oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation (OPCs)...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#10
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861886/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-directly-utilize-lactate-for-promoting-cell-cycling-and-differentiation
#11
Yoshinori Ichihara, Toru Doi, Youngjae Ryu, Motoshi Nagao, Yasuhiro Sawada, Toru Ogata
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) undergo marked morphological changes to become mature oligodendrocytes, but the metabolic resources for this process have not been fully elucidated. Although lactate, a metabolic derivative of glycogen, has been reported to be consumed in oligodendrocytes as a metabolite, and to ameliorate hypomyelination induced by low glucose conditions, it is not clear about the direct contribution of lactate to cell cycling and differentiation of OPCs, and the source of lactate for remyelination...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860545/mechanisms-and-medicines-for-remyelination
#12
Mark Bothwell
Demyelination of central nervous system axons, associated with traumatic injury and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, causes impaired neural transmission and ultimately axon degeneration. Consequently, extensive research has focused on signaling systems that promote myelinating activity of oligodendrocytes or promote production of new oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Many receptor systems, notably including growth factor receptors and G protein-coupled receptors, control myelination...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832161/molecular-analysis-of-stromal-cells-induced-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Ramila Joshi, James Carlton Buchanan, Sailaja Paruchuri, Nathan Morris, Hossein Tavana
Deriving specific neural cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising approach for cell replacement therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. When co-cultured with certain stromal cells, mouse ESCs (mESCs) differentiate efficiently to neural cells. In this study, a comprehensive gene and protein expression analysis of differentiating mESCs is performed over a two-week culture period to track temporal progression of cells from a pluripotent state to specific terminally-differentiated neural cells such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#14
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798140/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-affects-postnatal-myelination-in-mice
#15
Veronica T Cheli, Diara A Santiago González, Tenzing Namgyal Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Vance Handley, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
: To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2(KO)) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797811/il4i1-augments-cns-remyelination-and-axonal-protection-by-modulating-t-cell-driven-inflammation
#16
Konstantina Psachoulia, Kelly A Chamberlain, Dongeun Heo, Stephanie E Davis, Jeremiah D Paskus, Sonia E Nanescu, Jeffrey L Dupree, Thomas A Wynn, Jeffrey K Huang
SEE PLUCHINO AND PERUZZOTTI-JAMETTI DOI101093/AWW266 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Myelin regeneration (remyelination) is a spontaneous process that occurs following central nervous system demyelination. However, for reasons that remain poorly understood, remyelination fails in the progressive phase of multiple sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicates that alternatively activated macrophages in central nervous system lesions are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797401/a-novel-function-of-tbk1-as-a-target-of-cdon-in-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#17
Li-Chun Wang, Timothy E Kennedy, Guillermina Almazan
During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors elaborate multiple branched processes to contact axons and initiate myelination. Using cultured primary rat oligodendrocytes (OLGs), we have recently demonstrated that a cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, Cdon, is important in initiating OLG differentiation and axon myelination by promoting the formation of branched cellular processes; however, the molecular mechanism by which Cdon regulates OLG differentiation is not known...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789624/distinct-capacity-for-differentiation-to-inner-ear-cell-types-by-progenitor-cells-of-the-cochlea-and-vestibular-organs
#18
Will J McLean, Dalton T McLean, Ruth Anne Eatock, Albert S B Edge
Disorders of hearing and balance are most commonly associated with damage to cochlear and vestibular hair cells or neurons. Although these cells are not capable of spontaneous regeneration, progenitor cells in the hearing and balance organs of the neonatal mammalian inner ear have the capacity to generate new hair cells after damage. To investigate whether these cells are restricted in their differentiation capacity, we assessed the phenotypes of differentiated progenitor cells isolated from three compartments of the mouse inner ear - the vestibular and cochlear sensory epithelia and the spiral ganglion - by measuring electrophysiological properties and gene expression...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787864/studying-the-effects-of-semaphorins-on-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells
#19
Yasir Ahmed Syed, Sarah Ali Abdulla, Mark R N Kotter
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. The role of oligodendrocytes in health and disease has been considerably enhanced by the development of methods to isolate and culture oligodendrocytes from central nervous system tissue. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation can be identified by challenging oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) by altering their extracellular environment and intrinsic differentiation pathways. To address these issues, it is imperative to develop an in vitro protocol where pure OPCs are isolated and cultured in the presence of inhibitory developmental and differentiation cues like Semaphorin 3A...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785726/accelerated-generation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-forced-expression-of-sox10-and-olig2
#20
Pengyan Li, Mo Li, Xihe Tang, Shuyan Wang, Y Alex Zhang, Zhiguo Chen
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) hold great promise for treatment of dysmyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. Recent studies on generation of human OPCs mainly use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or neural stem cells (NSCs) as starter cell sources for the differentiation process. However, NSCs are restricted in availability and the present method for generation of oligodendrocytes (OLs) from ESCs often requires a lengthy period of time. Here, we demonstrated a protocol to efficiently derive OPCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by forced expression of two transcription factors (2TFs), Sox10 and Olig2...
October 25, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
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