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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940645/lineage-tracing-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#1
Emily G Baxi, Joseph DeBruin, Jing Jin, Hayley J Strasburger, Matthew D Smith, Jennifer L Orthmann-Murphy, Jason T Schott, Amanda N Fairchild, Dwight E Bergles, Peter A Calabresi
The regeneration of oligodendrocytes is a crucial step in recovery from demyelination, as surviving oligodendrocytes exhibit limited structural plasticity and rarely form additional myelin sheaths. New oligodendrocytes arise through the differentiation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the CNS. Although there has been detailed investigation of the behavior of these progenitors in white matter, recent studies suggest that disease burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more strongly correlated with gray matter atrophy...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935237/prickle1-as-positive-regulator-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#2
Rina Zilkha-Falb, Michael Gurevich, Erez Hanael, Anat Achiron
Spontaneous neural repair from endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) niches occurs in response to central nervous system (CNS) injuries to only a limited extent. Uncovering the mechanisms that control neural repair and can be further manipulated to promote NSCs towards oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) and myelinating oligodendrocytes is a major objective. In the current study, we describe high throughput transcriptional changes in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ)-NSCs during differentiation in vitro...
September 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930691/dna-methylome-analysis-identifies-transcription-factor-based-epigenomic-signatures-of-multilineage-competence-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Tsukasa Sanosaka, Takuya Imamura, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, MuhChyi Chai, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Nobuyuki Fujii, Kazuho Ikeo, Kinichi Nakashima
Regulation of the epigenome during in vivo specification of brain stem cells is still poorly understood. Here, we report DNA methylome analyses of directly sampled cortical neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at different development stages, as well as those of terminally differentiated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We found that sequential specification of cortical NS/PCs is regulated by two successive waves of demethylation at early and late development stages, which are responsible for the establishment of neuron- and glia-specific low-methylated regions (LMRs), respectively...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899916/gd1a-overcomes-inhibition-of-myelination-by-fibronectin-via-activation-of-protein-kinase-a-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Jing Qin, Arend H Sikkema, Kristine van der Bij, Jenny C de Jonge, Karin Klappe, Vera Nies, Johan W Jonker, Jan Willem Kok, Dick Hoekstra, Wia Baron
Remyelination failure by oligodendrocytes contributes to the functional impairment that characterizes the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Since incomplete remyelination will irreversibly damage axonal connections, treatments effectively promoting remyelination are pivotal in halting disease progression. Our previous findings suggest that fibronectin aggregates, as an environmental factor, contribute to remyelination failure by perturbing oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation. Here, we aim at elucidating whether exogenously added gangliosides, i...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899915/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-ng2-positive-cells-impairs-remyelination-in-mice
#5
Diara A Santiago González, Veronica T Cheli, Norma N Zamora, Tenzing N Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
Exploring the molecular mechanisms that drive the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the remyelination process is essential to develop new therapeutic tools to intervene in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for OPC development during remyelination, we have generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse in which the L-VGCC isoform Cav1.2 was deleted in NG2 positive OPCs (Cav1.2(KO))...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887084/tethered-growth-factors-on-biocompatible-scaffolds-improve-stemness-of-cultured-rat-and-human-neural-stem-cells-and-growth-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#6
Lisamarie Moore, Nolan B Skop, Deborah E Rothbard, Lucas R Corrubia, Steven W Levison
Currently, there is no widely accepted technique to efficiently and reproducibly grow stem and progenitor cells in vitro. Stem cells require contact with extracellular matrices as well as signals from growth factors to proliferate and to retain their stemness. We have developed a novel tissue culture platform (StemTrix cultureware) that transforms standard tissue culture plasticware into a multi-functional chitosan-based scaffold that supports the expansion of neural stem cells. The StemTrix scaffold is comprised of chitosan with immobilized heparin which in turn tethers heparin-binding growth factors...
September 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884727/-disturbance-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-main-hypothesis-of-the-disease
#7
N S Kolomeets
Increasing evidence coming from neuroimaging, molecular genetic and post-mortem studies have implicated oligodendrocyte abnormalities and compromised myelin integrity in schizophrenia. Activity-dependent myelination in adult brain is considered to be an important mechanism of neural circuit's plasticity due to the presence of a large population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the adult CNS. Growing evidence for impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been reported in the brain of schizophrenia subjects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877447/limiting-oxidative-stress-following-neurotrauma-with-a-combination-of-ion-channel-inhibitors
#8
Hannah R Milbourn, Lillian M Toomey, Nikolas Gavriel, Chloe G G Gray, Alexander H Gough, Marcus K Giacci, Melinda Fitzgerald
Following injury to the central nervous system, secondary degeneration is mediated by Ca2+ imbalances and overproduction of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, and is associated with myelin deficits and loss of function. Preventing intracellular Ca2+ influx at the acute phase of injury is a potential strategy for limiting these deficits and preserving function. The use of single ion channel inhibitors has had little success in attenuating morphological and functional deficits, potentially due to the many pathways by which calcium can traverse the cell membrane...
June 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875931/transient-hypothyroidism-favors-oligodendrocyte-generation-providing-functional-remyelination-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#9
Sylvie Remaud, Fernando C Ortiz, Marine Perret-Jeanneret, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot, Jean-David Gothié, Csaba Fekete, Zsuzsanna Kvárta-Papp, Balázs Gereben, Dominique Langui, Catherine Lubetzki, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Bernard Zalc, Barbara Demeneix
In the adult brain, both neurons and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural stem cells located within the Sub-Ventricular Zone (SVZ). Physiological signals regulating neuronal versus glial fate are largely unknown. Here we report that a thyroid hormone (T3)-free window, with or without a demyelinating insult, provides a favorable environment for SVZ-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. After demyelination, oligodendrocytes derived from these newly-formed progenitors provide functional remyelination, restoring normal conduction...
September 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872660/fabricating-plga-microparticles-with-high-loads-of-the-small-molecule-antioxidant-n-acetylcysteine-that-rescue-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-oxidative-stress
#10
Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), encompassing all oxygen radical or non-radical oxidizing agents, play key roles in disease progression. Controlled delivery of antioxidants is therapeutically relevant in such oxidant-stressed environments. Encapsulating small hydrophilic molecules into hydrophobic polymer microparticles via traditional emulsion methods has long been a challenge due to rapid mass transport of small molecules out of particle pores. We have developed a simple alteration to the existing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) drug encapsulation method that dramatically improves loading efficiency: doping external water phases with drug to mitigate drug diffusion out of the particle during fabrication...
September 5, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864570/isolation-propagation-and-differentiation-of-radial-glia-like-neural-progenitor-cells-in-adherent-cultures
#11
Balazs Varga, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the isolation of radial glia-like neural progenitors (RGLs) from embryonic and adult mouse brain. Their propagation as an adherent monolayer is greatly supported by use of the AK-cyclo(RGDfC) adhesive peptide-conjugate that allows the application of fully defined culture conditions in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the only growth factor supplement. RGL cells maintained that way can be efficiently differentiated into the three major CNS cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862639/oligodendroglia-metabolic-supporters-of-neurons
#12
Thomas Philips, Jeffrey D Rothstein
Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that populate the entire CNS after they have differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. From birth onward, oligodendrocytes initiate wrapping of neuronal axons with a multilamellar lipid structure called myelin. Apart from their well-established function in action potential propagation, more recent data indicate that oligodendrocytes are essential for providing metabolic support to neurons. Oligodendrocytes transfer energy metabolites to neurons through cytoplasmic "myelinic" channels and monocarboxylate transporters, which allow for the fast delivery of short-carbon-chain energy metabolites like pyruvate and lactate to neurons...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856805/reactive-astrocyte-cox2-pge2-production-inhibits-oligodendrocyte-maturation-in-neonatal-white-matter-injury
#13
Lawrence R Shiow, Geraldine Favrais, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Laure Schang, Sara Cipriani, Christian Andres, Jaclyn N Wright, Hiroko Nobuta, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, David H Rowitch
Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851597/intraspinal-tlr4-activation-promotes-iron-storage-but-does-not-protect-neurons-or-oligodendrocytes-from-progressive-iron-mediated-damage
#14
Evan Z Goldstein, Jamie S Church, Nicole Pukos, Manoj K Gottipati, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Iron is essential for basic cellular functions but in excess is highly toxic. For this reason, free iron and iron storage are controlled in the periphery by elaborate regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, iron regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well defined. Given that excess iron is present after trauma, hemorrhagic stroke and neurodegeneration, understanding normal iron regulation and promoting iron uptake in CNS pathology is crucial. Peripherally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation promotes iron sequestration by macrophages...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844283/all-wrapped-up-environmental-effects-on-myelination
#15
REVIEW
Thomas A Forbes, Vittorio Gallo
To date, studies have demonstrated the dynamic influence of exogenous environmental stimuli on multiple regions of the brain. This environmental influence positively and negatively impacts programs governing myelination, and acts on myelinating oligodendrocyte (OL) cells across the human lifespan. Developmentally, environmental manipulation of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) has profound effects on the establishment of functional cognitive, sensory, and motor programs. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) myelin remains an adaptive entity in adulthood, sensitive to environmentally induced structural changes...
September 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836401/purinergic-receptor-expression-and-potential-association-with-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-development
#16
Shirin Kashfi, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Javan
OBJECTIVES: Due to recent progress in production of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hESC-OPCs) for ameliorating myelin disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of purinergic signaling in OPCs development, we avaluated the profile of purinergic receptors expression during development of OPCs from hESC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, we used reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain more information about potential roles of purinergic receptors during in vitro production of hESC-OPCs...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834740/pericytes-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-differentiation-during-cns-remyelination
#17
Alerie Guzman De La Fuente, Simona Lange, Maria Elena Silva, Ginez A Gonzalez, Herbert Tempfer, Peter van Wijngaarden, Chao Zhao, Ludovica Di Canio, Andrea Trost, Lara Bieler, Pia Zaunmair, Peter Rotheneichner, Anna O'Sullivan, Sebastien Couillard-Despres, Oihana Errea, Maarja A Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Liqun He, Annika Keller, Luis F Bátiz, Christer Betsholtz, Ludwig Aigner, Robin J M Franklin, Francisco J Rivera
The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs) proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs) rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834391/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-preclinical-efficacy-and-safety-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Nathan C Manley, Catherine A Priest, Jerrod Denham, Edward D Wirth, Jane S Lebkowski
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) remains an important research focus for regenerative medicine given the potential for severe functional deficits and the current lack of treatment options to augment neurological recovery. We recently reported the preclinical safety data of a human embryonic cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) therapy that supported initiation of a Phase I clinical trial for patients with sensorimotor complete thoracic SCI. To support the clinical use of this OPC therapy for cervical injuries, we conducted preclinical efficacy and safety testing of the OPCs in a nude rat model of cervical SCI...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829410/live-imaging-of-primary-cerebral-cortex-cells-using-a-2d-culture-system
#19
Bruna Soares Landeira, Jéssica Alves de Medeiros Araújo, Timm Schroeder, Ulrich Müller, Marcos R Costa
During cerebral cortex development, progenitor cells undergo several rounds of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions to generate new progenitors or postmitotic neurons. Later, some progenitors switch to a gliogenic fate, adding to the astrocyte and oligodendrocyte populations. Using time-lapse video-microscopy of primary cerebral cortex cell cultures, it is possible to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the mode of cell division and cell cycle parameters of progenitor cells. Similarly, the fate of postmitotic cells can be examined using cell-specific fluorescent reporter proteins or post-imaging immunocytochemistry...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828543/expression-of-unconventional-myosin-vi-in-oligodendrocytes
#20
Reiji Yamazaki, Tomoko Ishibashi, Hiroko Baba, Yoshihide Yamaguchi
Myelin is a specialized multilamellar structure involved in various functions of the nervous system. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for myelin formation in the central nervous system. Motor proteins play important roles in differentiation and myelin formation of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Recently, we revealed that one of the unconventional myosins, myosin ID (Myo1d), is expressed in mature oligodendrocytes and is required for myelin-like membrane formation in vitro. Previously, Cahoy et al. (J Neurosci 28:264-278, 2008) reported that another unconventional myosin VI (Myo6) is upregulated in transcriptome data of differentiated oligodendrocytes...
August 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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