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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#1
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444204/murine-models-of-sepsis-and-trauma-can-we-bridge-the-gap
#2
Julie A Stortz, Steven L Raymond, Juan C Mira, Lyle L Moldawer, Alicia M Mohr, Philip A Efron
Sepsis and trauma are both leading causes of death in the United States and represent major public health challenges. Murine models have largely been used in sepsis and trauma research to better understand the pathophysiological changes that occur after an insult and to develop potential life-saving therapeutic agents. Mice are favorable subjects for this type of research given the variety of readily available strains including inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. In addition, they are relatively easy to maintain and have a high fecundity...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441746/high-performance-prediction-of-human-estrogen-receptor-agonists-based-on-chemical-structures
#3
Yuki Asako, Yoshihiro Uesawa
Many agonists for the estrogen receptor are known to disrupt endocrine functioning. We have developed a computational model that predicts agonists for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain in an assay system. Our model was entered into the Tox21 Data Challenge 2014, a computational toxicology competition organized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. This competition aims to find high-performance predictive models for various adverse-outcome pathways, including the estrogen receptor...
April 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441088/video-enabled-cue-exposure-based-intervention-improves-postdischarge-drinking-outcomes-among-alcohol-dependent-men-a-prospective-study-at-a-government-addiction-treatment-setting-in-india
#4
Prasanthi Nattala, Pratima Murthy, Kit Sang Leung, Sreevani Rentala, Jayashree Ramakrishna
Returning to alcohol use following inpatient treatment occurs due to various real life cues/triggers. It is a challenge to demonstrate to patients how to deal with these triggers during inpatient treatment. Aims of the current study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention (VE-CEI) in influencing treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence, (b) to identify postdischarge predictors of intervention failure (returning to ≥50% of baseline alcohol consumption quantity/day)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440659/alleviation-of-multiple-asthmatic-pathologic-features-with-orally-available-and-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-modulators
#5
Gloria S Forkuo, Amanda N Nieman, Nina Y Yuan, Revathi Kodali, Olivia B Yu, Nicolas M Zahn, Rajwana Jahan, Guanguan Li, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Margaret L Guthrie, Michael M Poe, Benjamin D Hartzler, Ted William Harris, Gene T Yocum, Charles W Emala, Douglas A Steeber, Douglas C Stafford, James M Cook, Leggy A Arnold
We describe pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of two novel oral drug candidates for asthma. Phenolic α4β3γ2 GABAAR selective compound 1 and acidic α5β3γ2 selective GABAAR positive allosteric modulator compound 2 relaxed airway smooth muscle ex vivo and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. Importantly, compound 2 relaxed acetylcholine contracted human tracheal airway smooth muscle strips. Oral treatment of compound 1 and 2 decreased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mice, thus exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440543/registered-nurses-perceptions-regarding-nurse-led-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-hhohho-region-swaziland
#6
A H Mavhandu-Mudzusi, P T Sandy, A Hettema
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence globally. It faces a critical shortage of health workers for addressing the HIV pandemic. To curb this human resource challenge, Swaziland adopted a nurse-driven model for antiretroviral therapy delivery in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization on task shifting. OBJECTIVE: The study explored the perceptions of registered nurses on the nurse-led antiretroviral therapy initiation programme in the Hhohho region of Swaziland (NARTIS)...
April 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440278/an-insider-s-perspective-bacteroides-as-a-window-into-the-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Aaron G Wexler, Andrew L Goodman
Over the last decade, our appreciation for the contribution of resident gut microorganisms-the gut microbiota-to human health has surged. However, progress is limited by the sheer diversity and complexity of these microbial communities. Compounding the challenge, the majority of our commensal microorganisms are not close relatives of Escherichia coli or other model organisms and have eluded culturing and manipulation in the laboratory. In this Review, we discuss how over a century of study of the readily cultured, genetically tractable human gut Bacteroides has revealed important insights into the biochemistry, genomics and ecology that make a gut bacterium a gut bacterium...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439937/maternal-nutrient-restriction-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-leads-to-impaired-right-ventricular-function-in-young-adult-baboons
#8
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Hillary F Huber, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
Maternal nutrient restriction induces IUGR increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years- human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle (RV) remains poorly studied...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439755/what-do-key-stakeholders-think-about-hiv-self-testing-in-canada-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#9
N Pant Pai, M Smallwood, D Gulati, N Lapczak, A Musten, C Gaydos, C Johnston, M Steben, T Wong, N Engel, J Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing presents an empowering alternative to facility-based testing for reaching undiagnosed HIV infected individuals, but is not currently available in Canada. We surveyed stakeholders (clinical providers, public health professionals, researchers) engaged in HIV testing initiatives nationwide to identify the concerns, opportunities and challenges to implementing HIV self-testing in Canada. An online cross-sectional survey was disseminated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Centre for REACH 2...
April 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439146/domestic-and-international-climate-migration-from-rural-mexico
#10
Raphael J Nawrotzki, Daniel M Runfola, Lori M Hunter, Fernando Riosmena
Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico...
December 2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438994/latently-and-uninfected-healthcare-workers-exposed-to-tb-make-protective-antibodies-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Hao Li, Xing-Xing Wang, Bin Wang, Lei Fu, Guan Liu, Yu Lu, Min Cao, Hairong Huang, Babak Javid
The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438917/disease-ecology-health-and-the-environment-a-framework-to-account-for-ecological-and-socio-economic-drivers-in-the-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#12
A Garchitorena, S H Sokolow, B Roche, C N Ngonghala, M Jocque, A Lund, M Barry, E A Mordecai, G C Daily, J H Jones, J R Andrews, E Bendavid, S P Luby, A D LaBeaud, K Seetah, J F Guégan, M H Bonds, G A De Leo
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437083/dual-plug-and-display-synthetic-assembly-using-orthogonal-reactive-proteins-for-twin-antigen-immunization
#13
Karl Brune, Can Buldun, Yuanyuan Li, Iona Taylor, Florian Brod, Sumi Biswas, Mark Howarth
Engineering modular platforms to control biomolecular architecture can advance both the understanding and manipulation of biological systems. Icosahedral particles uniformly displaying single antigens stimulate potent immune activation and have been successful in various licensed vaccines. However, it remains challenging to display multiple antigens on a single particle, to induce broader immunity protective across strains or even against distinct diseases. Here we design a dually-addressable synthetic nanoparticle, by engineering the multimerizing coiled-coil IMX313 and two orthogonally-reactive split proteins...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436963/a-sting-activating-nanovaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Min Luo, Hua Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Haocheng Cai, Zhigang Lu, Yang Li, Mingjian Du, Gang Huang, Chensu Wang, Xiang Chen, Matthew R Porembka, Jayanthi Lea, Arthur E Frankel, Yang-Xin Fu, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436876/deeply-learned-view-invariant-features-for-cross-view-action-recognition
#15
Yu Kong, Zhengming Ding, Jun Li, Yun Fu
Classifying human actions from varied views is challenging due to huge data variations in different views. The key to this problem is to learn discriminative view-invariant features robust to view variations. In this work, we address this problem by learning view-specific and view-shared features using novel deep models. View-specific features capture unique dynamics of each view while view-shared features encode common patterns across views. A novel sample-affinity matrix (SAM) is introduced in learning shared features, which accurately balances information transfer within the samples from multiple views and limits the transfer across samples...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436845/drawing-and-recognizing-chinese-characters-with-recurrent-neural-network
#16
Xu-Yao Zhang, Fei Yin, Yan-Ming Zhang, Cheng-Lin Liu, Yoshua Bengio
Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435870/nanoparticles-that-do-not-adhere-to-mucus-provide-uniform-and-long-lasting-drug-delivery-to-airways-following-inhalation
#17
Craig S Schneider, Qingguo Xu, Nicholas J Boylan, Jane Chisholm, Benjamin C Tang, Benjamin S Schuster, Andreas Henning, Laura M Ensign, Ethan Lee, Pichet Adstamongkonkul, Brian W Simons, Sho-Yu S Wang, Xiaoqun Gong, Tao Yu, Michael P Boyle, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) have been widely explored for pulmonary drug delivery because of their perceived benefits in improving particle residence in the lungs. However, retention of particles adhesively trapped in airway mucus may be limited by physiologic mucus clearance mechanisms. In contrast, particles that avoid mucoadhesion and have diameters smaller than mucus mesh spacings rapidly penetrate mucus layers [mucus-penetrating particles (MPP)], which we hypothesized would provide prolonged lung retention compared to MAP...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435678/screening-for-immune-response-against-dengue-virus-in-vietnamese-non-human-primates-implications-for-vaccine-developers
#18
Laura Lazo Vázquez, Edith Suzarte Portal, Jorge Castro Velazco, Phuong Yen, Le Trung Dung, Lázaro Gil González, Iris Valdés Prado, Ernesto Marcos López, Karem Cobas Acosta, Nguyen Dang Hien, Gerardo Guillén Nieto, Lisset Hermida Cruz
One of the major problems faced for the development of a vaccine against Dengue virus is the lack of a suitable animal model. Although non-human primates do not show overt signs of disease, these animals develop viremia after the infection and are the best model to evaluate vaccine candidates against this pathogen. However, for that purpose, the screening of all animals is mandatory to discard those with previous natural immunity. The most common technique used in the screening is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435673/primate-autoimmune-disease-models-lost-for-translation
#19
Bert A 't Hart
Replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3R's) are the leading principles in translational research with animals. To be useful a model should also be clinically Relevant (the 4th R). Work in a non-human primate model of multiple sclerosis, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, reveals an inherent conflict among these 4R principles. The impossibility to harmonize all 4R's forms a major challenge when the model is applied in preclinical drug development.
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435015/using-classification-models-for-the-generation-of-disease-specific-medications-from-biomedical-literature-and-clinical-data-repository
#20
Liqin Wang, Peter J Haug, Guilherme Del Fiol
OBJECTIVE: Mining disease-specific associations from existing knowledge resources can be useful for building disease-specific ontologies and supporting knowledge-based applications. Many association mining techniques have been exploited. However, the challenge remains when those extracted associations contained much noise. It is unreliable to determine the relevance of the association by simply setting up arbitrary cut-off points on multiple scores of relevance; and it would be expensive to ask human experts to manually review a large number of associations...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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