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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782142/projection-based-3d-printing-of-cell-patterning-scaffolds-with-multi-scale-channels
#1
Dai Xue, Yancheng Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Deqing Mei, Yue Wang, Shaochen Chen
To fully actualize artificial, cell-laden biological models in tissue engineering, such as 3D organoids and organs-on-a-chip systems, cells need to be patterned such that they can precisely mimic natural microenvironments in vitro. Despite increasing interest in this area, patterning cells at multiscales (~10 μm - 10 mm) remains a significant challenge in bioengineering. Here we report a projection-based 3D printing system that achieves rapid and high-resolution fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds featuring intricate channels for multi-scale cell patterning...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#2
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781638/a-model-based-test-for-treatment-effects-with-probabilistic-classifications
#3
Daniel R Cavagnaro, Clintin P Davis-Stober
Within modern psychology, computational and statistical models play an important role in describing a wide variety of human behavior. Model selection analyses are typically used to classify individuals according to the model(s) that best describe their behavior. These classifications are inherently probabilistic, which presents challenges for performing group-level analyses, such as quantifying the effect of an experimental manipulation. We answer this challenge by presenting a method for quantifying treatment effects in terms of distributional changes in model-based (i...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780976/modeling-individual-cyclic-variation-in-human-behavior
#4
Emma Pierson, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780848/controlled-human-hookworm-infection-accelerating-human-hookworm-vaccine-development
#5
David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Maria Zumer, Naji Younes, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Rojelio Mejia, David I Pritchard, John M Hawdon, Jeffrey M Bethony
Background: Controlled human hookworm infection (CHHI) is a central component of a proposed hookworm vaccination-challenge model (HVCM) to test the efficacy of candidate vaccines. Critical to CHHI is the manufacture of Necator americanus infective larvae ( Na L3) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and the determination of an inoculum of Na L3 that is safe and reliably induces patent infection. Methods: cGMP-grade Na L3 were produced for a phase 1 trial in 20 healthy, hookworm-naïve adults in the United States, who received either 25 or 50 Na L3...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779896/all-optical-electrophysiology-for-high-throughput-functional-characterization-of-a-human-ipsc-derived-motor-neuron-model-of-als
#6
Evangelos Kiskinis, Joel M Kralj, Peng Zou, Eli N Weinstein, Hongkang Zhang, Konstantinos Tsioras, Ole Wiskow, J Alberto Ortega, Kevin Eggan, Adam E Cohen
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons are an attractive substrate for modeling disease, yet the heterogeneity of these cultures presents a challenge for functional characterization by manual patch-clamp electrophysiology. Here, we describe an optimized all-optical electrophysiology, "Optopatch," pipeline for high-throughput functional characterization of human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures. We demonstrate the method in a human iPSC-derived motor neuron (iPSC-MN) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779554/virtual-mentorship-network-to-address-the-rural-shortage-of-mental-health-providers
#7
Heidi Keeler, Tara Sjuts, Kosuke Niitsu, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Paul Force-Emery Mackie, Howard Liu
INTRODUCTION: The process of identifying effective responses to the challenges of placing and retaining a rural behavioral health workforce remains elusive. The Virtual Mentorship Network was developed to test the feasibility of using distance technology to connect rural students interested in mental health careers with mentors. METHODS: In Year 1, college and high school students were virtually mentored using a near-peer approach both live and asynchronously as a cohort over 7 months...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779546/state-legislative-approach-to-enumerating-behavioral-health-workforce-shortages-lessons-learned-in-new-mexico
#8
Deborah B Altschul, Caroline A Bonham, Martha J Faulkner, Amy W Farnbach Pearson, Jessica Reno, Wayne Lindstrom, Shelley M Alonso-Marsden, Annette Crisanti, Julie G Salvador, Richard Larson
Nationally, the behavioral health workforce is in crisis because of a lack of resources, culturally responsive services, quality clinical supervision, sufficient training in evidence-based practices, and targeted recruitment and retention. Disparities in access to behavioral health care are particularly significant in New Mexico, where 25% of the population live in rural areas, and behavioral health shortages are among the highest in the nation. Additionally, as a Medicaid expansion state, New Mexico providers experience increased demand for services at a time when the state is challenged with limited workforce capacity...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779058/genetics-of-resistant-hypertension-the-missing-heritability-and-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Samantha K Teixeira, Alexandre C Pereira, Jose E Krieger
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Blood pressure regulation in humans has long been known to be a genetically determined trait. The identification of causal genetic modulators for this trait has been unfulfilling at the least. Despite the recent advances of genome-wide genetic studies, loci associated with hypertension or blood pressure still explain a very low percentage of the overall variation of blood pressure in the general population. This has precluded the translation of discoveries in the genetics of human hypertension to clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778888/rapid-phenotyping-of-cancer-stem-cells-using-multichannel-nanosensor-arrays
#10
Yingying Geng, Hira L Goel, Ngoc B Le, Tatsuyuki Yoshii, Rubul Mout, Gulen Y Tonga, John J Amante, Arthur M Mercurio, Vincent M Rotello
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to multidrug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis, making them prime therapeutic targets. Their ability to differentiate and lose stem cell properties makes them challenging to study. Currently, there is no simple assay that can capture and trace the dynamic phenotypic changes on the CSC surface. Here, we report rapid discrimination of breast CSCs from non-CSCs using a nanoparticle-fluorescent-protein based sensor. This nanosensor was employed to discriminate CSCs from non-CSCs, as well CSCs that had differentiated in vitro in two breast cancer models...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778525/mucus-penetrating-nanoparticles-promising-drug-delivery-systems-for-the-photodynamic-therapy-of-intestinal-cancer
#11
Juliane Anderski, Laura Mahlert, Dennis Mulac, Klaus Langer
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an auspicious therapy approach for the treatment of cancer. Despite its numerous benefits, the drug delivery of the used photosensitizer (PS) to target locations inside the human body remains a main therapy challenge, since the standard intravenous PS injection often causes systemic side-effects. To circumvent this therapy drawback, the oral application represents a promising administration alternative. Especially for the treatment of intestinal cancer it offers the possibility of a local treatment with a reduced likelihood for adverse drug reactions...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777986/predicting-of-the-refractive-index-of-haemoglobin-using-the-hybrid-ga-svr-approach
#12
Tajudeen A Oyehan, Ibrahim O Alade, Aliyu Bagudu, Kazeem O Sulaiman, Sunday O Olatunji, Tawfik A Saleh
The optical properties of blood play crucial roles in medical diagnostics and treatment, and in the design of new medical devices. Haemoglobin is a vital constituent of the blood whose optical properties affect all of the optical properties of human blood. The refractive index of haemoglobin has been reported to strongly depend on its concentration which is a function of the physiology of biological cells. This makes the refractive index of haemoglobin an essential non-invasive bio-marker of diseases. Unfortunately, the complexity of blood tissue makes it challenging to experimentally measure the refractive index of haemoglobin...
April 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777040/obe022-an-oral-and-selective-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-receptor-antagonist-as-an-effective-and-safe-modality-for-the-treatment-of-preterm-labor
#13
Oliver Pohl, Andre Chollet, Sung Hye Kim, Lucia Riaposova, Francois Spezia, Frederic Gervais, Philippe Guillaume, Philippe Lluel, Murielle Meen, Frederique Lemaux, Vasso Terzidou, Phillip R Bennett, Jean-Pierre Gotteland
Preterm birth is the major challenge in obstetrics affecting ~10% of pregnancies. Pan-prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (NSAID) prevent preterm labor and prolong pregnancy but raise concerns about fetal renal and cardiovascular safety. We conducted preclinical studies examining the tocolytic effect and fetal safety of the oral prodrug candidate OBE022 and its parent OBE002, both potent and highly selective antagonist of the contractile PGF2α prostaglandin receptor (FP). Efficacy of OBE022 and OBE002, alone and in combination with other tocolytics, was assessed in human tissues and pregnant animal models for inhibition of uterine contraction and delay of parturition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776835/the-combination-of-mannitol-and-temozolomide-increases-the-effectiveness-of-stem-cell-treatment-in-a-chronic-stroke-model
#14
Chunggab Choi, Hye Min Kim, Jeeheun Shon, Jiae Park, Hyeong-Taek Kim, Suk Ho Kang, Seung-Hun Oh, Nam Keun Kim, Ok Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant challenge to the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in chronic stroke. Various methods have been developed to increase BBB permeability, but these are associated with adverse effects and are, therefore, not clinically applicable. We recently identified that combination drug treatment of mannitol and temozolomide improved BBB permeability in vitro. Here, we investigated whether this combination could increase the effectiveness of stem cell treatment in an animal model of chronic ischemic stroke...
May 15, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774576/spatial-vision-in-older-adults-perceptual-changes-and-neural-bases
#15
REVIEW
Allison M McKendrick, Yu Man Chan, Bao N Nguyen
PURPOSE: The number of older adults is rapidly increasing internationally, leading to a significant increase in research on how healthy ageing impacts vision. Most clinical assessments of spatial vision involve simple detection (letter acuity, grating contrast sensitivity, perimetry). However, most natural visual environments are more spatially complicated, requiring contrast discrimination, and the delineation of object boundaries and contours, which are typically present on non-uniform backgrounds...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774117/investigation-of-tumor-tumor-interactions-in-a-double-human-cervical-carcinoma-xenograft-model-in-nude-mice
#16
Barbara Mertens, Tatiane Cristina de Araujo Nogueira, Dimitrios Topalis, Ruzena Stranska, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Tumor-tumor distant interactions within one organism are of major clinical relevance determining clinical outcome. To investigate this poorly understood phenomenon, a double human cervical xenograft model in nude mice was developed. A first tumor was induced subcutaneously by injection of human papillomavirus positive cervical carcinoma cells into the mouse lower right flank and 3 weeks later, animals were challenged with the same tumor cell line injected subcutaneously into the upper left flank. These tumors had no direct physical contact and we found no systemic changes induced by the primary tumor affecting the growth of a secondary tumor...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773891/assessing-the-feasibility-of-neutralizing-osteopontin-with-various-therapeutic-antibody-modalities
#17
Vahid Farrokhi, Jeffrey R Chabot, Hendrik Neubert, Zhiyong Yang
Osteopontin is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that is highly implicated in many physiological and pathological processes such as biomineralization, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, cell survival, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antibodies against osteopontin have been actively pursued as potential therapeutics for various diseases by pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of osteopontin inhibition in a variety of preclinical models of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but clinical utility has not yet been demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772901/the-catch-22-of-predicting-herg-blockade-using-publicly-accessible-bioactivity-data
#18
Vishal Babu Siramshetty, Qiaofeng Chen, Prashanth Devarakonda, Robert Preissner
Drug-induced inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encoded potassium ion (K+) channels can lead to fatal cardiotoxicity. Several marketed drugs and promising drug candidates were recalled due to this concern. Diverse modeling methods ranging from molecular similarity assessment to quantitative structure activity relationship analysis employing machine learning techniques have been applied to datasets of varying size and composition (number of blockers and non-blockers). In this study, we highlight the challenges involved in development of a robust classifier for predicting the hERG endpoint using bioactivity data extracted from the public domain...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772553/establishment-of-a-porcine-model-of-indomethacin-induced-intestinal-injury
#19
Dan Yi, Wenkai Liu, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Tao Wu, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
A useful animal model of intestinal injury is pivotal for studying its pathogenesis and developing nutritional interventions (e.g., amino acid supplementation). Here, we propose the use of indomethacin (IDMT) to induce intestinal inflammation in neonatal pigs. Fourteen-day-old piglets fed a milk replacer diet receive intraperitoneal administration of IDMT (5 mg/kg body weight) for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, blood and intestinal samples are obtained for physiological and biochemical analyses. IDMT increases blood DAO activity, I-FABP concentration, neutrophil and eosinophil numbers; intestinal MMP3 mRNA levels, MPO activity, and MDA concentration; but reduces the plasma concentration of citrulline (synthesized exclusively by enterocytes of the small intestine), intestinal GSH-Px activity, and mRNA levels for villin , I-FABP , TRPV6 , AQP10 , and KCNJ13 ...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772254/effect-of-interferon-alpha-and-cyclosporine-treatment-separately-and-in-combination-on-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-replication-in-a-human-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-culture-model
#20
H S Li, Denise I T Kuok, M C Cheung, Mandy M T Ng, K C Ng, Kenrie P Y Hui, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W Chan, John M Nicholls
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged as a coronavirus infection of humans in the past 5 years. Though confined to certain geographical regions of the world, infection has been associated with a case fatality rate of 35%, and this mortality may be higher in ventilated patients. As there are few readily available animal models that accurately mimic human disease, it has been a challenge to ethically determine what optimum treatment strategies can be used for this disease. We used in-vitro and human ex-vivo explant cultures to investigate the effect of two immunomodulatory agents, interferon alpha and cyclosporine, singly and in combination, on MERS-CoV replication...
May 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
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