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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778768/prevalence-of-g6pd-deficiency-and-associated-haematological-parameters-in-children-from-botswana
#1
Thato Motshoge, Grace Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, Sajini Souda, Charles Waithaka Muthoga, Naledi Mutukwa, Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Lesego Gabaitiri, Simon Chihanga, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Shimeles Hamda, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies Ntebela, Elias Peloewetse, Loeto Mazhani, Jeffrey M Pernica, John Read, Isaac K Quaye, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequency of G6PD deficiency is imperative...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778128/the-relationship-between-glycaemic-control-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-nigerian-type-2-diabetic-patients
#2
Babalola Ishmael Afolabi, Bolanle Olubunmi Ibitoye, Rosemary Temidayo Ikem, Adeleye Dorcas Omisore, Bukunmi Michael Idowu, David Olubukunmi Soyoye
BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and dyslipidaemia. Prevention or management of these risk factors with glycaemic control, weight reduction and low serum lipid levels respectively have been reported to reduce the risk of NAFLD or slow its progression. Since ultrasound (USS) is a safe and reliable method of identifying fatty changes in the liver, this study was done to determine the relationship between glycaemic control and ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD in T2DM...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777986/predicting-of-the-refractive-index-of-haemoglobin-using-the-hybrid-ga-svr-approach
#3
Tajudeen A Oyehan, Ibrahim O Alade, Aliyu Bagudu, Kazeem O Sulaiman, Sunday O Olatunji, Tawfik A Saleh
The optical properties of blood play crucial roles in medical diagnostics and treatment, and in the design of new medical devices. Haemoglobin is a vital constituent of the blood whose optical properties affect all of the optical properties of human blood. The refractive index of haemoglobin has been reported to strongly depend on its concentration which is a function of the physiology of biological cells. This makes the refractive index of haemoglobin an essential non-invasive bio-marker of diseases. Unfortunately, the complexity of blood tissue makes it challenging to experimentally measure the refractive index of haemoglobin...
April 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776919/behaviour-modification-interventions-to-optimise-red-blood-cell-transfusion-practices-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Lesley J J Soril, Thomas W Noseworthy, Laura E Dowsett, Katherine Memedovich, Hannah M Holitzki, Diane L Lorenzetti, Henry Thomas Stelfox, David A Zygun, Fiona M Clement
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of behaviour modification interventions to promote restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS: Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2018. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised studies examining an intervention to modify healthcare providers' RBC transfusion practice in any healthcare setting were included...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776414/glp-i-secretion-in-healthy-and-diabetic-wistar-rats-in-response-to-aqueous-extract-of-momordica-charantia
#5
Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Haseeb A Khan, Abdullah S Alhomida, Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh, Bilal Ahmad Paray
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major global health disorders increasing at an alarming rate in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (AEMC) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), tissue glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma concentrations of insulin and GLP-1 hormone (glucagon-like peptide 1) in healthy and diabetic wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (both normal and diabetic) were treated with AEMC by gavaging (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 28 days)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776358/associations-between-local-descriptive-norms-for-overweight-obesity-and-insufficient-fruit-intake-individual-level-diet-and-10-year-change-in-body-mass-index-and-glycosylated-haemoglobin-in-an-australian-cohort
#6
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Descriptive norms (what other people do) relate to individual-level dietary behaviour and health outcome including overweight and obesity. Descriptive norms vary across residential areas but the impact of spatial variation in norms on individual-level diet and health is poorly understood. This study assessed spatial associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (spatially-specific local prevalence), and individual-level dietary intakes (fruit, vegetable and sugary drinks) and 10-year change in body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c )...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775674/the-prognostic-value-of-the-frontal-qrs-t-angle-is-comparable-to-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-regarding-long-term-mortality-in-people-with-diabetes-a-population-based-study
#7
O May, C B Graversen, M Ø Johansen, H Arildsen
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a well known prognostic marker in diabetes. A large angle between the QRS- and the T-wave vector (QRS-T angle) in the electrocardiogram (ECG) has recently been introduced as another marker of poor prognosis. AIM: To assess and compare the long-term predictive power of the frontal plane QRS-T angle with CAN in people with diabetes. METHODS: In 1992-93 people with diabetes in the municipality of Horsens, Denmark, were identified by the prescription method andan age and gender stratified sample of 240 individuals with diabetes were randomly selected...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775472/spatial-pattern-and-determinants-of-anaemia-in-ethiopia
#8
Bedilu Alamirie Ejigu, Eshetu Wencheko, Kiros Berhane
Anaemia is a condition in which the haemoglobin concentration falls below an established cut-off value due to a decrease in the number and size of red blood cells. The current study aimed (i) to assess the spatial pattern and (ii) to identify determinants related to anaemia using the third Ethiopian demographic health survey. To achieve these objectives, this study took into account the sampling weight and the clustered nature of the data. As a result, multilevel modeling has been used in the statistical analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775114/oxygen-dependency-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-indicates-outcome-of-newborn-brain-injury
#9
Gemma Bale, Subhabrata Mitra, Isabel de Roever, Magdalena Sokolska, David Price, Alan Bainbridge, Roxana Gunny, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, Giles S Kendall, Judith Meek, Nicola J Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
There is a need for a method of real-time assessment of brain metabolism during neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor cerebral oxygenation and metabolic changes in 50 neonates with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia treatment. In 24 neonates, 54 episodes of spontaneous decreases in peripheral oxygen saturation (desaturations) were recorded between 6 and 81 h after birth. We observed differences in the cerebral metabolic responses to these episodes that were related to the predicted outcome of the injury, as determined by subsequent magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775089/detection-of-perimacular-red-dots-and-blots-when-screening-for-diabetic-retinopathy-refer-or-not-refer
#10
Anatolie Baltatescu, Elio Striglia, Marina Trento, Aurora Mazzeo, Franco Cavallo, Lorena Charrier, Massimo Porta
PURPOSE: Detection of microaneurysms and/or microhaemorrhages near the fovea when screening for diabetic retinopathy poses a problem because referral to retinal specialists may alarm patients and unnecessarily burden ophthalmologists. METHODS: Six-month prospective study of patients found to have minimal red lesions within one disc diameter of the fovea when screened for diabetic retinopathy. Two 45° digital photographs, one centred on the macula and the other nasal including the optic disc, were taken for each eye...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773697/which-anthropometric-measures-best-indicate-type-2-diabetes-among-russian-somali-and-kurdish-origin-migrants-in-finland-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Natalia Skogberg, Tiina Laatikainen, Annamari Lundqvist, Eero Lilja, Tommi Härkänen, Päivikki Koponen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in detecting type 2 diabetes among Russian, Somali and Kurdish (born in Iraq/Iran) origin migrants and Finns. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study comparing health examination survey data of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants (n=917) aged 30-64 years who took part in the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Survey with the general Finnish population in the Health 2011 Survey (n=887)...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773261/perioperative-transfusion-management-in-gastric-cancer-surgery-analysis-of-the-spanish-subset-of-the-eurecca-oesophago-gastric-cancer-registry
#12
Javier Osorio, Carlos Jericó, Coro Miranda, Elisenda Garsot, Alexis Luna, Mónica Miró, Maite Santamaría, Eva Artigau, Joaquín Rodríguez-Santiago, Sandra Castro, Josep Feliu, Aurora Aldeano, Carles Olona, Dulce Momblan, David Ruiz, Gonzalo Galofré, Inmaculada Pros, Xabier García-Albéniz, Miguel Lozano, Manuel Pera
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated allogenic packed red blood cell (aPRBC) transfusion rates in patients undergoing resection for gastric cancer and the implementation of blood-saving protocols (BSP). METHODS: Retrospective study of all gastric cancer patients operated on with curative intent in Catalonia and Navarra (2011-2013) and included in the Spanish subset of the EURECCA Oesophago-Gastric Cancer Registry. Hospitals with BSP were defined as those with a preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) optimisation circuit associated with restrictive transfusion strategies...
May 14, 2018: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773240/perioperative-risk-factors-that-predict-complications-of-radial-forearm-free-flaps-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-reconstruction
#13
C Wang, G Fu, F Liu, L Liu, M Cao
The aim of the study was to find out what perioperative risk factors predicted complications in patients having reconstructions with radial forearm free flaps (RFFF). We organised a retrospective study of 169 patients (mean (range) age 54 (22-86) years, 100 of whom were female) who had oral and maxillofacial tumours resected, and reconstructed with RFFF, from January 2011-December 2016. We recorded predictive variables, subdivided into: personal and clinical (sex, age, weight, coexisting conditions, history of smoking, radiotherapy, and primary lesions); haemodynamic (perioperative concentrations of haemoglobin and albumin, blood loss, blood transfusion, urinary output (ml), and rate (ml/kg/hour), and infusion rates for crystalloids and colloids (ml/kg/hour, and volumes given intraoperatively and postoperatively for 24hours); and anaesthetic and surgical (American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA) grade, visual analogue pain score (VAS), and duration of tourniquet and operation)...
May 14, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772872/spatial-analysis-for-the-epidemiological-study-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-systematic-literature-search
#14
Carlos Mena, Cesar Sepúlveda, Eduardo Fuentes, Yony Ormazábal, Iván Palomo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death and disability in de world, and the detection of populations at risk as well as localization of vulnerable areas is essential for adequate epidemiological management. Techniques developed for spatial analysis, among them geographical information systems and spatial statistics, such as cluster detection and spatial correlation, are useful for the study of the distribution of the CVDs. These techniques, enabling recognition of events at different geographical levels of study (e...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772111/clomiphene-citrate-and-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-are-both-effective-in-restoring-testosterone-in-hypogonadism-a-short-course-randomised-study
#15
Mohamad Habous, Simone Giona, Alaa Tealab, Mohammed Aziz, Ben Williamson, Mohammed Nassar, Zeyad Abdelrahman, Abdallah Remeah, Mohamed Abdelkader, Saleh Binsaleh, Gordon Muir
OBJECTIVES: To compare serum testosterone response and symptom improvement in hypogonadal men in response to treatment by one of three options: clomiphene citrate(CC), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or combination of both therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 282 hypogonadal adult, willing to preserve their fertility, were randomised in three arms treated respectively with: 50 mg of (CC) (n=95), 5000IU of hCG injections twice a week(n=94) or combination of both therapy(n=94)...
May 17, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771998/risk-factors-for-inappropriate-blood-requisition-among-hospitals-in-tanzania
#16
Wilhellmuss I Mauka, Tara B Mtuy, Michael J Mahande, Sia E Msuya, Innocent B Mboya, Abdul Juma, Rune N Philemon
BACKGROUND: Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770221/risperidone-induced-type-2-diabetes-presenting-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#17
Clarissa Ern Hui Fang, Mohammed Faraz Rafey, Aine Cunningham, Sean F Dinneen, Francis M Finucane
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2 ). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769501/thyroid-status-in-children-with-transfusion-dependent-hb-e-%C3%AE-thalassaemia
#18
T Sharmin, A H Mollah, A A Morshed, M K Chowdhury
Despite improved haematological care, multi-endocrine dysfunction is a common complication in thalassemia. Iron overload is thought to be the most likely mechanism in thyroid dysfunction in these patients. Moreover, chronic tissue hypoxia might havedirect toxic effect on thyroid gland resulting in hypothyroidism. This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid status of children with Hb-E β-thalassemia. This cross sectional analytic study was conducted among thepatients with Hb-E β-thalassemia attending both in-patient & out-patient department of Paediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2012 to March 2013...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768976/predictors-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-resistance-and-coronary-artery-aneurysm-in-patients-with-kawasaki-disease
#19
Nattika Chantasiriwan, Suchaya Silvilairat, Krit Makonkawkeyoon, Yupada Pongprot, Rekwan Sittiwangkul
BACKGROUND: Patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) who have intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance are at increased risk for development of coronary artery abnormalities. Although in Japan several risk scoring systems are able to predict patients with IVIG-resistant (KD), they do not accurately predict non-responders in other regions. AIM: The objectives of this study were to determine the predictors of IVIG resistance and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) and to develop risk scoring systems for predicting IVIG-resistant KD in the Thai population...
May 17, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767836/how-do-we-manage-iron-deficiency-after-blood-donation
#20
REVIEW
Joseph E Kiss, Ralph R Vassallo
Blood donors and the RBCs and other components they willingly provide are essential in the delivery of healthcare in all parts of the world. Nearly 70% of donated blood comes from repeat or committed donors. The amount of iron removed in the 10 min or so it takes to withdraw a unit of blood (500 ml, plus 25 ml for testing) requires over 24 weeks to replace on a "standard" diet, i.e., without added iron in the form of supplements The cumulative effect of repeat blood donations without adequate iron replacement or a longer wait between donations results in iron deficiency (ID) in many donors, low haemoglobin deferral (~8% of donation attempts), and frank anaemia in some...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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