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Suzana Gonçalves Carvalho, Larissa Ataíde Siqueira, Marcos Santos Zanini, Ana Paula Dos Santos Matos, Carla Holandino Quaresma, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Juliana Aparecida Severi, Janaina Cecília Oliveira Villanova
Recently, there have been numerous cases of leishmaniasis reported in different Brazilian states. The use of furazolidone (FZD) to treat leishmaniasis has been previously described; however, the drug is associated with adverse effects such as anorexia, weight loss, incoordination, and fatigue in dogs. Thus, in the present study, we prepared and evaluated inclusion complexes between FZD and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to guarantee increased drug solubility and reduce the toxicity associated with high doses. The FZD:β-CD complexes were prepared by two different techniques (kneading and lyophilization) prior to incorporation in an oral pharmaceutical dosage form...
June 15, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Kazuya Fukumoto, Gaku Sakamoto, Shijie Jin, Asako Toyama, Tian Wang, Akio Suzumura, Jun Sato
Psychological stresses such as social loss and separation during childhood induce hardship, referred to as emotional pain. These experiences are well-documented risk factors for the development of physical pain in adulthood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms of this exacerbation of pain are largely unknown, and consequently there is no effective pharmacotherapy. In this study, we sought to determine whether infant maternal separation (MS) contributes to aggravation of neuropathic pain in adult mice...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Salma Ladhani, Brianna Empringham, Kuan-Wen Wang, Carol Portwine, Laura Banfield, Russell J de Souza, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common paediatric cancer. Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (SALL) are at risk of obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is important to address obesity in this population as this may help mitigate future cardiometabolic comorbidities. In this systematic review, we aim to assess current treatment strategies including lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery to manage overweight and obesity in SALL...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
M Cordina, K Hämeen-Anttila, J Lauri, S Tabone, H Enlund
BACKGROUND: Health and medication literacy may be important factors in the outcomes of medical treatment. Similarly, shared decision making or lack of it may influence patient's behavior and adherence to medications. OBJECTIVES: To describe health and medication literacy as well as factors associated with poor medication literacy in two different populations and secondly, to describe desire to participate in decisions concerning medications; and to assess the role of poor medication literacy in decision making...
June 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Thiago Augusto Almeida, Edna Afonso Reis, Isabela Vaz Leite Pinto, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Micheline Rosa Silveira, Marina Guimarães Lima, Adriano Max Moreira Reis
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for the older adults are those with an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio when more effective and safe therapeutic alternatives are available and is an important public health problem. PURPOSE: To analyze the factors associated with the use of PIM by the older adults and to investigate the agreement of PIM use frequency using the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults - 2015 AGS Beers Criteria, the Brazilian consensus on potentially inappropriate medication for older adults (BCPIM) and the European union list of potentially inappropriate medications - EU (7)-PIM List...
June 15, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Babak Tofighi, Ana Abrantes, Michael D Stein
The burden of alcohol and drug use disorders (substance use disorders [SUDs]) has intensified efforts to expand access to cost-effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacotherapies. This article provides an overview of technology-based interventions (eg, computer-based and Web-based interventions, text messaging, interactive voice recognition, smartphone apps, and emerging technologies) that are extending the reach of effective addiction treatments both in substance use treatment and primary care settings...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
Annie Lévesque, Bernard Le Foll
Cannabis (marijuana) is a drug product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa. Cannabinoid is a general term for all chemical constituents of the cannabis plant. Legalization of marijuana in numerous US states, the availability of cannabis of higher potency, and the emergence of synthetic cannabinoids may have contributed to increased demand for related medical services. The most effective available treatments for cannabis use disorder are psychosocial approaches. There is no pharmacotherapy approved treatment...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
Stephen R Holt, Daniel G Tobin
Alcohol use disorder is a common, destructive, and undertreated disease. As understanding of alcohol use disorder has evolved, so has our ability to manage patients with pharmacotherapeutic agents in addition to nondrug therapy, including various counseling strategies. Providers now have a myriad of medications, both approved and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, to choose from and can personalize care based on treatment goals, comorbidities, drug interactions, and drug availability. This review explores these treatment options and offers the prescriber practical advice regarding when each option may or may not be appropriate for a specific patient...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
E Jennifer Edelman, Benjamin J Oldfield, Jeanette M Tetrault
Primary care is an important setting for delivering evidence-based treatment to address substance use disorders. To date, effective approaches to treat, care largely incorporate pharmacotherapy with counseling-based interventions and rely on multidisciplinary teams. There is strong support for primary care-based approaches to address alcohol and opioid use disorder with growing data focused on people living with human immunodeficiency virus and those experiencing incarceration. Future work should focus on the implementation of these effective approaches to decrease health disparities among people with substance use and to identify optimal approaches to address substance use in primary care and specialty settings...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
Zoe M Weinstein, Sarah E Wakeman, Seonaid Nolan
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent and are a large driver of costly inpatient medical care; however, historically the substance use disorder has gone unaddressed during an inpatient stay. Inpatient addiction consult services are an important intervention to use the reachable moment of hospitalization to engage patients and initiate addiction treatment. Addiction consultation involves taking an addiction-specific history, motivational interviewing, withdrawal symptom management, and initiation of long-term pharmacotherapy...
July 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
Jan Jaracz, Edyta Tetera- Rudnicka, Magdalena Bierejszyk, Kaja Witczyk, Agnieszka Raczyńska, Wojciech Nowak, Anna Pisarczyk, Krzysztof Woźniak, Wojciech Czernaś, Adam Moniakowski, Krystyna Jaracz
BACKGROUND: The concomitant use of two or more mood stabilisers (MS), second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), lamotrigine as well as antidepressants, is frequently reported in the treatment of bipolar patients The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of pharmacological treatment with special regard to polypharmacy defined as two or more psychiatric drugs taken at the same time in the same patients with bipolar disorder discharged from psychiatric units in Poland. METHOD: Pharmacotherapy of 127 consecutive patients (57 females and 70 males) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BP) at the point of discharge from five psychiatric regional hospitals/units in Poland, was evaluated in 2015/2016 on the basis of medical files...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sern Wei Yeoh, Alex C N Holmes, Michael M Saling, Ian P Everall, Amanda J Nicoll
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection experience a range of symptoms including depression, fatigue and neurocognitive deficits, impairing quality of life. Depression, in particular, may be reactive to increased psychosocial stress, and the physical symptoms of advanced HCV or associated comorbidities. However, even patients at an early stage of HCV infection, with minimal hepatic inflammation or comorbidities, report more depressive symptoms and fatigue than the general population. Similarly, specific neurocognitive deficits occur in early stage HCV infection and are independent of the presence of depression or encephalopathy...
June 21, 2018: Hepatology International
Sunyoung Park, Hyera Ryu, Ji-Yoon Lee, Aruem Choi, Dai-Jin Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Aims: The present study investigated neural connectivity associated with treatment responses in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) coherence analyses. Methods: We included 30 patients with IGD and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs). Of the IGD patients, 18 completed an outpatient treatment that included pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for 6 months. Resting-state EEG coherence and self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate clinical and psychological features pre- and post-treatment, and data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Eric Augier, Estelle Barbier, Russell S Dulman, Valentina Licheri, Gaëlle Augier, Esi Domi, Riccardo Barchiesi, Sean Farris, Daniel Nätt, R Dayne Mayfield, Louise Adermark, Markus Heilig
Alcohol addiction leads to increased choice of alcohol over healthy rewards. We established an exclusive choice procedure in which ~15% of outbred rats chose alcohol over a high-value reward. These animals displayed addiction-like traits, including high motivation to obtain alcohol and pursuit of this drug despite adverse consequences. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-3 was selectively decreased within the amygdala of alcohol-choosing rats, whereas a knockdown of this transcript reversed choice preference of rats that originally chose a sweet solution over alcohol...
June 22, 2018: Science
Glen A Cook, Paola Sandroni
Primary headache syndromes and chronic pain syndromes are common in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). There is overlap in potential mechanisms for migraine, chronic pain, and POTS symptomatology. Management of chronic pain and headaches in POTS requires a judicious use of pharmacotherapies that takes into account patient comorbidities and co-existing symptoms. Patient-centric, non-pharmacologic modalities include physical exercise, cognitive behavioral therapies, and treatment of sleep disorders...
June 12, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Himadri Singh, Vijayalakhsmi Venkatesan
Obesity is a prominent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Management of type 2 diabetes requires weight management in addition to glycemic parameters. For obese type 2 diabetes patients, metformin, Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors or Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists should be prescribed as the first priority for controlling both hyperglycemia and body weight or fat distribution. The Combination of these drugs with sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin may also be required in chronic cases...
June 20, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Moritz Haaf, Gregor Leicht, Stjepan Curic, Christoph Mulert
BACKGROUND: The basic mechanism of pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia has barely changed in the last 60 years. Currently used medications allow the effective treatment of positive symptoms via antagonistic effects at dopamine receptors whereas the effect on negative and cognitive symptoms is most often negligible. METHODS: The observation that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as ketamine transiently induce schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms has led to a paradigm shift from dopaminergic to glutamatergic dysfunction in pharmacological models of schizophrenia...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Andrew M Kiselica, Amy Duhig, Ivan Montoya, Phil Skolnick, Jennifer Floyd, Cigi Byars
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) as described/defined in DSM 5, is characterized by impaired control of marijuana use and related personal, health, and legal consequences. CUD is a serious public health problem, affecting nearly 6 million individuals in the United States. There are no FDA approved medications to treat this disorder. The lack of available treatment options contributes to uncertainties by drug sponsors about formulary and reimbursement decision-making for CUD pharmacotherapies...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Joy E Kirkpatrick, Keith L Kirkwood, Patrick M Woster
Periodontal disease (PD) afflicts 46% of Americans with no effective adjunctive therapies available. While most pharmacotherapy for PD targets bacteria, the host immune response is responsible for driving tissue damage and bone loss in severe disease. Herein, we establish that the histone demethylase KDM4B is a potential drug target for the treatment of PD. Immunohistochemical staining of diseased periodontal epithelium revealed an increased abundance of KDM4B that correlates with inflammation. In murine calvarial sections exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (Aa-LPS), immunohistochemical staining revealed a significant increase in KDM4B protein expression...
June 21, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
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