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Pharmacotherapie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450547/aflibercept-action-in-a-rabbit-model-of-chronic-retinal-neovascularization-reversible-inhibition-of-pathologic-leakage-with-dose-dependent-duration
#1
Jingtai Cao, Thomas C MacPherson, Bibiana V Iglesias, Yang Liu, Natasha Tirko, George D Yancopoulos, Stanley J Wiegand, Carmelo Romano
Purpose: We establish and characterize the chronic retinal neovascularization (RNV) induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-α-aminoadipic acid (AAA) in a rabbit model and investigate the extent and duration of inhibitory actions induced by IVT aflibercept on the RNV. Methods: Rabbits received a single IVT injection of AAA, with weekly follow-up fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). After 10 weeks, they received a single IVT aflibercept or control injection...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449331/lipid-lowering-therapy-with-ezetimibe-decreases-spontaneous-atherothrombotic-occlusions-in-a-rabbit-model-of-plaque-erosion-a-role-of-serum-oxysterols
#2
Katsuya Honda, Tetsuya Matoba, Yoshibumi Antoku, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Ikuyo Ichi, Kaku Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kensuke Egashira
OBJECTIVE: Plaque erosion is increasing its importance as one of the mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in this statin era. However, the clinical efficacy of currently used lipid-lowering agents in the prevention of thrombotic complications associated with plaque erosion has not been clarified. Therefore, we examined the therapeutic effects of ezetimibe or rosuvastatin monotherapy on spontaneous atherothrombotic occlusion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Femoral arteries of Japanese white rabbits, fed a high-cholesterol diet, were injured by balloon catheter, and then angiotensin II was continuously administrated...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449138/driving-with-drug-resistant-and-controlled-seizures-from-a-patient-s-perspective-assessment-of-attitudes-and-practices
#3
Lakshman Arcot Jayagopal, Kaeli K Samson, Olga Taraschenko
BACKGROUND: Driving restrictions in epilepsy are intended to safeguard public and personal safety; however, these limitations inhibit socialization, restrict employment, and reduce self-esteem in patients with seizures. A large proportion of patients with seizures continue to drive, and factors leading to noncompliance with driving regulations are poorly understood. Thus, the patients' perspective on driving safety is not incorporated into the existing counseling tools on driving safety in epilepsy...
February 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448843/cenicriviroc-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#4
Frank Tacke
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has an increasing prevalence worldwide. At present, no specific pharmacotherapy is approved for NAFLD. Simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to liver fibrosis that is associated with mortality in NAFLD. The recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages via chemokine receptor CCR2 as well as of lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells via CCR5 promote the progression of NASH to fibrosis. Areas covered: I summarize preclinical and clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc (CVC, also TBR-652 or TAK-652) for the treatment of NASH and fibrosis...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447783/representation-of-black-patients-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#5
REVIEW
Lonnie T Sullivan, Tiffany Randolph, Peter Merrill, Larry R Jackson, Chidiebube Egwim, Monique A Starks, Kevin L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Black individuals have a disproportionately higher burden of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) relative to other racial and ethnic populations. We conducted a systematic review to determine the representation, enrollment trends, and outcomes of black patients in historic and contemporary randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for HFrEF. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for RCTs of patients with chronic HFrEF that evaluated therapies that significantly improved clinical outcomes...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447003/a-study-on-the-genetic-polymorphisms-of-cyp3a5-among-the-orang-asli-in-malaysia-using-next-generation-sequencing-platform
#6
Geik Yong Ang, Choo Yee Yu, Richard Johari James, Aminuddin Ahmad, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Fadzilah Mohd Nor, Syahrul Azlin Shaari, Adzrool Idzwan Ismail, Lay Kek Teh, Mohd Zaki Salleh
CYP3A5 is the predominant subfamily of biotransformation enzymes in the liver and the genetic variations in CYP3A5 are an important determinant of interindividual and interethnic differences in CYP3A-mediated drug disposition and response. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia using next generation sequencing platform. Genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples of the three main Orang Asli tribes and whole-genome sequencing was performed...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446727/natural-terpenoids-against-female-breast-cancer-a-5-year-recent-research
#7
Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Sadrine Tchoukouegno Ngeu, Marie Alfrede Mvondo, Job Tchoumtchoua, Charline Florence Awounfack, Liselotte Krenn, Dieudonne Njamen
BACKGROUND: The approval of Taxol® in 1993 marked the great entrance of terpenoids in the anti-cancer area and this drug is still highly important in the treatment of refractory ovarian, breast and other cancers. Over decades, other prominent natural terpenoids have become indispensable for the modern pharmacotherapy of breast cancer. However, given the rapid evolution of drug resistance, effective treatments for advanced breast cancers requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy represent a major unmet clinical need...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445407/practical-outpatient-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Youngjung Kim, Laura M Hack, Elizabeth S Ahn, Jungjin Kim
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444700/pharmacotherapies-for-fatigue-in-chronic-liver-disease-cld-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#9
Andem Effiong, Prerna Kumari
BACKGROUND: This is the protocol for a systematic review (and meta-analysis) of an intervention. The primary objective of this systematic review will be to assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological therapies (pharmacotherapies) for the management of fatigue in adults with CLD of any etiology. The effects of pharmacological therapies on fatigue in CLD will be compared against those of placebo, no intervention, or non-pharmacological interventions. Specifically, this review will examine whether pharmacological therapies improve CLD-associated fatigue, and if they do, what key elements are associated with their effectiveness...
February 14, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444289/knowledge-attitude-and-behaviors-of-health-professionals-towards-smoking-cessation-in-primary-healthcare-settings
#10
Abdullah Matouq, Yousef Khader, Albaraa Khader, Anas Al-Rabadi, Mousa Al Omari, Ibrahim Iblan, Nihaya Al-Sheyab
This study aimed to assess the behaviors of multiple health professionals in primary healthcare settings in Jordan towards smoking cessation counseling and to determine the barriers to effective smoking cessation behaviors. A survey of 456 health professionals in primary healthcare settings was conducted. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. About half of health professionals reported that they usually ask patients about smoking status and advise them to stop smoking (51.4% and 50...
February 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444243/implementing-pharmacogenomics-decision-support-across-seven-european-countries-the-ubiquitous-pharmacogenomics-u-pgx-project
#11
Kathrin Blagec, Rudolf Koopmann, Mandy Crommentuijn-van Rhenen, Inge Holsappel, Cathelijne H van der Wouden, Lidija Konta, Hong Xu, Daniela Steinberger, Enrico Just, Jesse J Swen, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Matthias Samwald
Clinical pharmacogenomics (PGx) has the potential to make pharmacotherapy safer and more effective by utilizing genetic patient data for drug dosing and selection. However, widespread adoption of PGx depends on its successful integration into routine clinical care through clinical decision support tools, which is often hampered by insufficient or fragmented infrastructures. This paper describes the setup and implementation of a unique multimodal, multilingual clinical decision support intervention consisting of digital, paper-, and mobile-based tools that are deployed across implementation sites in seven European countries participating in the Ubiquitous PGx (U-PGx) project...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443722/characterizing-treatment-utilization-patterns-for-trigeminal-neuralgia-in-the-united-states
#12
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442055/incidence-of-statin-drug-interactions-in-croatian-community-pharmacy
#13
I Samardzic, I Benkovic, V Bacic Vrca
Statins are among the most frequently issued drugs that patients usually need to take for a lifetime. They are often an integral part of a polytherapeutic approach in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. As such, they might often interact with drugs prescribed for treating acute and chronic conditions. A pharmacist is the final professional control before a drug reaches the patient and his role in preventing drug-drug interactions is crucial. The objective of this research was to analyse the incidence and relevance of potential drug interactions with statins in community pharmacy...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441650/incidence-prevalence-and-clinical-correlates-of-antidepressant-emergent-mania-in-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Michele Fornaro, Annalisa Anastasia, Stefano Novello, Andrea Fusco, Marco Solmi, Francesco Monaco, Nicola Veronese, Domenico De Berardis, Andrea de Bartolomeis
BACKGROUND: Treatment-emergent mania (TEM) represents a common phenomenon inconsistently reported across primary studies, warranting further assessment. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were conducted. Major electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2017 to assess the incidence and prevalence rates and clinical features associated with manic switch among bipolar depressed patients receiving antidepressants, using meta-regression and subgroup analysis...
February 14, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438514/antiarrhythmic-drugs-clinical-use-and-clinical-decision-making-a-consensus-document-from-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-ehra-and-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-working-group-on-cardiovascular-pharmacology-endorsed-by-the-heart-rhythm-society-hrs
#15
Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Antoni Martinez-Rubio, Stefan Agewall, Giuseppe Boriani, Martin Borggrefe, Fiorenzo Gaita, Isabelle van Gelder, Bulent Gorenek, Juan Carlos Kaski, Keld Kjeldsen, Gregory Y H Lip, Bela Merkely, Ken Okumura, Jonathan P Piccini, Tatjana Potpara, Birgitte Klindt Poulsen, Magdi Saba, Irina Savelieva, Juan L Tamargo, Christian Wolpert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438460/practical-dietary-recommendations-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults
#16
Elena S George, Adrienne Forsyth, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno Ryan, Siddharth Sood, Stuart K Roberts, Audrey C Tierney
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437813/follicular-dendritic-cell-sarcoma-of-the-porta-hepatis
#17
Jay A Patel, James B Piper, Brant G Wang
Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm which commonly involves the lymph nodes and less commonly involves extranodal organs such as the liver. Most cases of FDC sarcoma are idiopathic, however some cases are associated with other disease states. Management of FDC sarcoma is primarily focused on surgical resection of the mass, and secondarily focused on radiotherapy, chemotherapy and/or biologic pharmacotherapy. We report the case of a patient who was found to have FDC sarcoma presenting as an obstructing mass of the porta hepatis, a manifestation which does not appear to be reported in the literature...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436437/treatment-of-tobacco-dependence-in-uk-hospitals-an-observational-study
#18
John Hutchinson, Zaheer Mangera, Laura Searle, Anna Lewis, Sanjay Agrawal
Over a million smokers are admitted to hospitals in the UK each year. The extent to which tobacco dependence is identified and addressed in this population is unclear. Data on 14,750 patients from 146 hospitals collected for the British Thoracic Society smoking cessation audit were analysed to determine smoking prevalence, attempts to ask smokers about quitting, and referrals to smoking cessation services. Associations with hospital organisational factors were assessed by logistic regression. Overall hospital smoking prevalence was 25%...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436156/cytochrome-p450-genetic-variation-associated-with-tamoxifen-biotransformation-in-american-indian-and-alaska-native-people
#19
Burhan A Khan, Renee Robinson, Alison E Fohner, LeeAnna I Muzquiz, Brian D Schilling, Julie A Beans, Matthew J Olnes, Laura Trawicki, Holly Frydenlund, Cindi Laukes, Patrick Beatty, Brian Phillips, Deborah Nickerson, Kevin Howlett, Denise A Dillard, Timothy A Thornton, Kenneth E Thummel, Erica L Woodahl
Despite evidence that pharmacogenetics can improve tamoxifen pharmacotherapy, there are few studies with American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) people. We examined variation in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9) and tamoxifen biotransformation in AIAN patients with breast cancer (n = 42) from the Southcentral Foundation in Alaska and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana. We tested for associations between CYP diplotypes and plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and metabolites...
February 13, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433953/affordable-care-act-impact-on-medicaid-coverage-of-smoking-cessation-treatments
#20
Sara B McMenamin, Sara W Yoeun, Helen A Halpin
INTRODUCTION: Four sections of the Affordable Care Act address the expansion of Medicaid coverage for recommended smoking-cessation treatments for: (1) pregnant women (Section 4107), (2) all enrollees through a financial incentive (1% Federal Medical Assistance Percentage increase) to offer comprehensive coverage (Section 4106), (3) all enrollees through Medicaid formulary requirements (Section 2502), and (4) Medicaid expansion enrollees (Section 2001). The purpose of this study is to document changes in Medicaid coverage for smoking-cessation treatments since the passage of the Affordable Care Act and to assess how implementation has differentially affected Medicaid coverage policies for: pregnant women, enrollees in traditional Medicaid, and Medicaid expansion enrollees...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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