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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718999/resilience-is-decreased-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-associated-with-symptoms-and-cortisol-response
#1
S H Park, B D Naliboff, W Shih, A P Presson, E J Videlock, T Ju, L Kilpatrick, A Gupta, E A Mayer, L Chang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs...
July 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715699/gambling-and-negative-life-events-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-uk-men
#2
Amanda Roberts, Stephen Sharman, Jeremy Coid, Raegan Murphy, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Sean Cowlishaw, Jason Landon
INTRODUCTION: The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years...
July 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713797/health-related-quality-of-life-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-perspectives-of-health-care-providers
#3
Mar Miserachs, David B Nicholas, Anthony R Otley, Vicky Lee Ng
With improved survival outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation (LT), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome metric. Understanding the elements contributing to HRQoL after LT in children would enable more targeted strategies towards optimizing best outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to explore health care providers (HCP) perceptions about HRQoL after pediatric LT. Thirteen experienced HCP participated in two focus group discussions. Data analysis via a thematic analysis approach revealed 4 major themes: "LT as a facilitator of better HRQoL," "coping and adapting to LT," "living with a transplanted liver," and "the family context...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713319/neuropsychological-predictors-of-trauma-centrality-in-oif-oef-veterans
#4
Roland P Hart, Rohini Bagrodia, Nadia Rahman, Richard A Bryant, Roseann Titcombe-Parekh, Charles R Marmar, Adam D Brown
This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712987/the-tailored-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-improve-surrogate-decision-making
#5
Daniel P Sulmasy, Mark T Hughes, Gayane Yenokyan, Joan Kub, Peter B Terry, Alan B Astrow, Julie A Johnson, Grace Ho, Marie T Nolan
CONTEXT: Patients with terminal illnesses often require surrogate decision makers. Prior research has demonstrated high surrogate stress, and that despite standards promoting substituted judgment, most patients do not want their surrogates to make pure substituted judgments for them. It is not known how best to help loved ones fulfill the surrogate role. OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of an intervention to help surrogate decision makers. METHODS: 166 patients (41% with ALS and 59% with gastrointestinal cancers) and their surrogates at 2 university medical centers were randomized to an intensive nurse-directed discussion of the end of life Decision Control Preferences of the patient (TAILORED) or a discussion of nutrition (CONTROL); 163 completed baseline interviews and underwent the intervention...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712943/sex-and-brain-region-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-and-lead-exposure-on-permissive-and-repressive-post-translational-histone-modifications-from-embryonic-development-through-adulthood
#6
G Varma, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta, J S Schneider
Developmental exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and lead (Pb) can affect brain development and adversely influence behavior and cognition. Epigenetic-based gene regulation is crucial for normal brain development and mis-regulation, in any form, can result in neurodevelopmental disorders. Post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) are an integral and dynamic component of the epigenetic machinery involved in gene regulation. Exposures to Pb and/or PS may alter PTHM profiles, promoting lifelong alterations in brain function observed following Pb±PS exposure...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712889/the-adjustable-transobturator-male-system-in-stress-urinary-incontinence-after-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate
#7
Alexander Friedl, Jenifer Schneeweiss, Kathrin Stangl, Sandra Mühlstädt, Roman Zachoval, Stephan Hruby, Therese Gründler, Danijel Kivaranovic, Paolo Fornara, Lukas Lusuardi, Clemens Brössner
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS) in males with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Materials and methods From a large international prospectively administrated ATOMS-register we identified 49 patients with an ATOMS device due to persistent SUI after TURP. For evaluation males were divided into standard TURP (sTURP) and palliative/post radiation TURP (pTURP). Baseline and follow-up measurements included continence parameters, urodynamics, quality of life surveys (PGI-I, ICIQ-SF) and pain ratings...
July 13, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712421/number-of-recent-stressful-life-events-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-moderation-by-lifetime-depressive-disorder
#8
Jessica Berntson, Jay S Patel, Jesse C Stewart
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. METHODS: Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712041/nightmares-in-the-general-population-identifying-potential-causal-factors
#9
Stephanie Rek, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nightmares are inherently distressing, prevent restorative sleep, and are associated with a number of psychiatric problems, but have rarely been the subject of empirical study. Negative affect, linked to stressful events, is generally considered the key trigger of nightmares; hence nightmares have most often been considered in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many individuals with heightened negative affect do not have nightmares. The objective of this study was to identify mechanistically plausible factors, beyond negative affect, that may explain why individuals experience nightmares...
July 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711798/psychotic-like-experiences-and-happiness-in-the-english-general-population
#10
Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes but how they affect happiness in individuals with PLE is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between PLEs and happiness, and the factors that may influence this association. METHODS: Nationally representative data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey including adults aged ≥ 16 years was analyzed. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to assess past 12-month PLE...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708241/religious-development-in-african-american-adolescents-growth-patterns-that-offer-protection
#11
Daniel B Lee, Enrique W Neblett
Although religiosity promotes resilient outcomes in African American (AA) adolescents, there is a lack of research that examines the protective role of religious development in the context of stressful life events (SLEs). In 1,595 AA adolescents, a cohort-sequential design was used from ages 12 to 18 to examine subtypes of religiosity, as well as distinct developmental patterns within subtypes. The protective role of religious development was also examined in the context of SLEs. The study findings indicated two subtypes of religiosity-extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity-as well as low and high developmental patterns in the identified subtypes...
July 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707425/experiential-acceptance-and-trait-mindfulness-as-predictors-of-analogue-post-traumatic-stress
#12
Paul A Boelen, Lonneke I M Lenferink
OBJECTIVES: Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. This study was a preliminary attempt to examine (1) associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative, but not necessarily traumatizing, life events ('analogue' PTS), (2) the role of these variables in the context of neuroticism as well as worry and rumination - two other regulatory strategies associated with PTS, and (3) the impact of pre-trauma tendencies towards experiential acceptance and mindfulness on analogue PTS...
July 14, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705731/do-glucocorticoids-mediate-the-link-between-environmental-conditions-and-telomere-dynamics-in-wild-vertebrates-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Frédéric Angelier, David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Olivier Chastel
Following the discoveries of telomeres and of their implications in terms of health and ageing, there has been a growing interest into the study of telomere dynamics in wild vertebrates. Telomeres are repeated sequences of non-coding DNA located at the terminal ends of chromosomes and they play a major role in maintaining chromosome stability. Importantly, telomeres shorten over time and shorter telomeres seem to be related with lower survival in vertebrates. Because of this potential link with longevity, it is crucial to understand not only the ecological determinants of telomere dynamics but also the regulatory endocrine mechanisms that may mediate the effect of the environment on telomeres...
July 10, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701594/coronary-artery-bypass-graft-patients-perception-about-the-risk-factors-of-illness-educational-necessities-of-second-prevention
#14
Ali Soroush, Saeid Komasi, Mozhgan Saeidi, Behzad Heydarpour, Danilo Carrozzino, Mario Fulcheri, Paolo Marchettini, Massimo Rabboni, Angelo Compare
BACKGROUND: Patients' beliefs about the cause of cardiac disease (perceived risk factors) as part of the global psychological presentation are influenced by patients' health knowledge. Hence, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between actual and perceived risk factors, identification of underestimated risk factors, and indication of underestimation of every risk factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data of 313 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients admitted to one hospital in the west of Iran were collected through a demographic interview, actual risk factors' checklist, open single item of perceived risk factors, and a life stressful events scale...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700601/new-regression-formula-to-estimate-the-prenatal-crown-formation-time-of-human-deciduous-central-incisors-derived-from-a-roman-imperial-sample-velia-salerno-italy-i-ii-cent-ce
#15
Alessia Nava, Luca Bondioli, Alfredo Coppa, Christopher Dean, Paola Francesca Rossi, Clément Zanolli
The characterization and quantification of human dental enamel microstructure, in both permanent and deciduous teeth, allows us to document crucial growth parameters and to identify stressful events, thus contributing to the reconstruction of the past life history of an individual. Most studies to date have focused on the more accessible post-natal portion of the deciduous dental enamel, even though the analysis of prenatal enamel is pivotal in understanding fetal growth, and reveals information about the mother's health status during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698238/protective-factors-for-social-emotional-well-being-of-refugee-children-in-the-first-three-years-of-settlement-in-australia
#16
Karen Zwi, Lisa Woodland, Katrina Williams, Pamela Palasanthiran, Santuri Rungan, Adam Jaffe, Susan Woolfenden
AIM: This longitudinal study investigated protective factors for social-emotional well-being in refugee children in Australia. METHODS: Newly arrived refugee children aged 4-15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and assessments were conducted at two points, at years 2 and 3 postarrival. Social-emotional well-being was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Protective factors were assessed by structured interview and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS); scores <150 reflect fewer stressful life events in the previous year...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696435/a-direct-test-of-the-diathesis-stress-model-for-depression
#17
L Colodro-Conde, B Couvy-Duchesne, G Zhu, W L Coventry, E M Byrne, S Gordon, M J Wright, G W Montgomery, P A F Madden, S Ripke, L J Eaves, A C Heath, N R Wray, S E Medland, N G Martin
The diathesis-stress theory for depression states that the effects of stress on the depression risk are dependent on the diathesis or vulnerability, implying multiplicative interactive effects on the liability scale. We used polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (MDD) calculated from the results of the most recent analysis from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a direct measure of the vulnerability for depression in a sample of 5221 individuals from 3083 families. In the same we also had measures of stressful life events and social support and a depression symptom score, as well as DSM-IV MDD diagnoses for most individuals...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696432/cross-disorder-risk-gene-cacna1c-differentially-modulates-susceptibility-to-psychiatric-disorders-during-development-and-adulthood
#18
N Dedic, M L Pöhlmann, J S Richter, D Mehta, D Czamara, M W Metzger, J Dine, B T Bedenk, J Hartmann, K V Wagner, A Jurik, L M Almli, A Lori, S Moosmang, F Hofmann, C T Wotjak, G Rammes, M Eder, A Chen, K J Ressler, W Wurst, M V Schmidt, E B Binder, J M Deussing
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C, the α1C subunit of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel Cav1.2, rank among the most consistent and replicable genetics findings in psychiatry and have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. However, genetic variants of complex diseases often only confer a marginal increase in disease risk, which is additionally influenced by the environment. Here we show that embryonic deletion of Cacna1c in forebrain glutamatergic neurons promotes the manifestation of endophenotypes related to psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline, impaired synaptic plasticity, reduced sociability, hyperactivity and increased anxiety...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696430/neuropathology-of-suicide-recent-findings-and-future-directions
#19
P-E Lutz, N Mechawar, G Turecki
Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in most societies. Suicidal behaviour is complex and heterogeneous, likely resulting from several causes. It associates with multiple factors, including psychopathology, personality traits, early-life adversity and stressful life events, among others. Over the past decades, studies in fields ranging from neuroanatomy, genetics and molecular psychiatry have led to a model whereby behavioural dysregulation, including suicidal behaviour (SB), develops as a function of biological adaptations in key brain systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695369/associations-between-social-support-from-family-friends-and-teachers-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#20
Patrick Pössel, Shelby M Burton, Bridget Cauley, Michael G Sawyer, Susan H Spence, Jeanie Sheffield
Approximately 20% of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Family, friends, and teachers are crucial sources of social support for adolescents, but it is unclear whether social support impacts adolescents directly (principle-effect model) or by moderating the effect of stress (stress-buffer model) and whether each source of social support remains meaningful when their influence is studied simultaneously. To help fill this gap, we followed 1452 Australian students (average age at enrollment = 13.1, SD = 0...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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