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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214862/differential-clonal-expansion-in-an-invading-cell-population-clonal-advantage-or-dumb-luck
#1
Donald F Newgreen, Dongcheng Zhang, Bevan L Cheeseman, Benjamin J Binder, Kerry A Landman
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling and clonal labelling experiments applied to the developmental model system of the forming enteric nervous system, we describe how cells which are qualitatively identical may consistently produce clones of dramatically different sizes: most clones are very small while a few clones we term "superstars" contribute most of the cells to the final population...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214717/an-interactive-medical-image-segmentation-framework-using-iterative-refinement
#2
Pratik Kalshetti, Manas Bundele, Parag Rahangdale, Dinesh Jangra, Chiranjoy Chattopadhyay, Gaurav Harit, Abhay Elhence
Segmentation is often performed on medical images for identifying diseases in clinical evaluation. Hence it has become one of the major research areas. Conventional image segmentation techniques are unable to provide satisfactory segmentation results for medical images as they contain irregularities. They need to be pre-processed before segmentation. In order to obtain the most suitable method for medical image segmentation, we propose MIST (Medical Image Segmentation Tool), a two stage algorithm. The first stage automatically generates a binary marker image of the region of interest using mathematical morphology...
February 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214530/automaton-model-of-protein-dynamics-of-conformational-and-functional-states
#3
REVIEW
Andrei Khrennikov, Ekaterina Yurova
In this conceptual paper we propose to explore the analogy between ontic/epistemic description of quantum phenomena and interrelation between dynamics of conformational and functional states of proteins. Another new idea is to apply theory of automata to model the latter dynamics. In our model protein's behavior is modeled with the aid of two dynamical systems, ontic and epistemic, which describe evolution of conformational and functional states of proteins, respectively. The epistemic automaton is constructed from the ontic automaton on the basis of functional (observational) equivalence relation on the space of ontic states...
February 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214527/a%C3%A2-mathematical-model-of-low-grade-gliomas-treated-with-temozolomide-and-its-therapeutical-implications
#4
M U Bogdańska, M Bodnar, J Belmonte-Beitia, M Murek, P Schucht, J Beck, V M Pérez-García
Low grade gliomas (LGGs) are infiltrative and incurable primary brain tumours with typically slow evolution. These tumours usually occur in young and otherwise healthy patients, bringing controversies in treatment planning since aggressive treatment may lead to undesirable side effects. Thus, for management decisions it would be valuable to obtain early estimates of LGG growth potential. Here we propose a simple mathematical model of LGG growth and its response to chemotherapy which allows the growth of LGGs to be described in real patients...
February 15, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#5
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213793/automation-of-peak-tracking-analysis-of-stepwise-perturbed-nmr-spectra
#6
Tommaso Banelli, Marco Vuano, Federico Fogolari, Andrea Fusiello, Gennaro Esposito, Alessandra Corazza
We describe a new algorithmic approach able to automatically pick and track the NMR resonances of a large number of 2D NMR spectra acquired during a stepwise variation of a physical parameter. The method has been named Trace in Track (TINT), referring to the idea that a gaussian decomposition traces peaks within the tracks recognised through 3D mathematical morphology. It is capable of determining the evolution of the chemical shifts, intensity and linewidths of each tracked peak.The performances obtained in term of track reconstruction and correct assignment on realistic synthetic spectra were high above 90% when a noise level similar to that of experimental data were considered...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213725/toward-a-unique-definition-of-the-mutation-rate
#7
Qi Zheng
In around 1943, while writing a classic paper with Luria, Delbrück envisioned two kinds of mutation rates: One was expressed as mutations per bacterium per unit time, the other as mutations per bacterium per division cycle. Due to minor mathematical errors, the precise connection between the two concepts remained elusive for Delbrück. As a result, researchers and educators alike are still grappling with the definition of the mutation rate. Within the context of microbial mutation, the current author proposes an idealized model to bring new clarity to the distinction between the two forms of the mutation rate that Delbrück once attempted to define and characterize...
February 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213682/mathematical-modelling-of-cytokines-mmps-and-fibronectin-fragments-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#8
Michelle Baker, Bindi S Brook, Markus R Owen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which causes pain and stiffness in joints. OA progresses through excessive degradation of joint cartilage, eventually leading to significant joint degeneration and loss of function. Cytokines, a group of cell signalling proteins, present in raised concentrations in OA joints, can be classified into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory groups. They mediate cartilage degradation through several mechanisms, primarily the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of collagen-degrading enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213583/why-work-with-undergraduate-researchers-differences-in-research-advisors-motivations-and-outcomes-by-career-stage
#9
Charles N Hayward, Sandra L Laursen, Heather Thiry
Undergraduate research is often hailed as a solution to increasing the number and quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates needed to fill the high-tech jobs of the future. Student benefits of research are well documented but the emerging literature on advisors' perspectives is incomplete: only a few studies have included the graduate students and postdocs who often serve as research advisors, and not much is known about why research advisors choose to work with undergraduate researchers...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213581/a-program-aimed-toward-inclusive-excellence-for-underrepresented-undergraduate-women-in-the-sciences
#10
Laura A Katz, Kathryn M Aloisio, Nicholas J Horton, Minh Ly, Sara Pruss, Kate Queeney, Cate Rowen, Patricia Marten DiBartolo
Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College's Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared Scholars' outcomes over time with those of underrepresented students before program launch and to relevant peer comparison groups. Since its launch, AEMES Scholars have achieved significantly higher gateway life sciences course grade point averages (GPAs), rates of persistence in life and natural sciences, and participation in natural sciences advanced research relative to baseline...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213276/engineering-approaches-in-sirna-delivery
#11
Anna Angela Barba, Sara Cascone, Diego Caccavo, Gaetano Lamberti, Gianluca Chiarappa, Michela Abrami, Gabriele Grassi, Mario Grassi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Stefano Guido, Valerio Brucato, Francesco Carfì Pavia, Giulio Ghersi, Vincenzo La Carrubba, Roberto Andrea Abbiati, Davide Manca
siRNAs are very potent drug molecules, able to silence genes involved in pathologies development. siRNAs have virtually an unlimited therapeutic potential, particularly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, their use in clinical practice is limited because of their unfavorable properties to interact and not to degrade in physiological environments. In particular they are large macromolecules, negatively charged, which undergo rapid degradation by plasmatic enzymes, are subject to fast renal clearance/hepatic sequestration, and can hardly cross cellular membranes...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213205/sensory-trigeminal-ulf-tens-stimulation-reduces-hrv-response-to-experimentally-induced-arithmetic-stress-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Monaco Annalisa, Cattaneo Ruggero, Ortu Eleonora, Constantinescu Marian Vladimir, Pietropaoli Davide
Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213179/the-dispersion-releaser-technology-is-an-effective-method-for-testing-drug-release-from-nanosized-drug-carriers
#13
Christine Janas, Marc-Philip Mast, Li Kirsamer, Carlo Angioni, Fiona Gao, Werner Mäntele, Jennifer Dressman, Matthias G Wacker
The dispersion releaser (DR) is a dialysis-based setup for the analysis of the drug release from nanosized drug carriers. It is mounted into dissolution apparatus2 of the United States Pharmacopoeia. The present study evaluated the DR technique investigating the drug release of the model compound flurbiprofen from drug solution and from nanoformulations composed of the drug and the polymer materials poly (lactic acid), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or Eudragit(®)RSPO. The drug loaded nanocarriers ranged in size between 185...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213163/active-compound-diffusivity-of-particle-size-reduced-s-aromaticum-and-c-cassia-fused-starch-edible-films-and-the-shelf-life-of-mutton-capra-aegagrus-hircus-meat
#14
C Chandra Mohan, K Radha Krishnan, S Babuskin, K Sudharsan, Vajiha Aafrin, U Lalitha Priya, P Mariyajenita, K Harini, D Madhushalini, M Sukumar
In the present study, mathematical models were used to examine the effect of active compound diffusion from edible film (supplemented with S. aromaticum and C. cassia) on the microbial, physical and chemical quality of mutton stored at 4 and 10°C. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol release from edible film into liquid was found to be 80% and 75% of the equilibrium concentration. Active compound release into meat was 42-51% for cinnamaldehyde and 38-48% for eugenol, in storage temperatures of 4-15°C. Developed mathematical models showed the diffusivity of cinnamaldehyde (0...
February 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213145/how-are-you-feeling-a-personalized-methodology-for-predicting-mental-states-from-temporally-observable-physical-and-behavioral-information
#15
Suppawong Tuarob, Conrad S Tucker, Soundar Kumara, C Lee Giles, Aaron L Pincus, David E Conroy, Nilam Ram
It is believed that anomalous mental states such as stress and anxiety not only cause suffering for the individuals, but also lead to tragedies in some extreme cases. The ability to predict the mental state of an individual at both current and future time periods could prove critical to healthcare practitioners. Currently, the practical way to predict an individual's mental state is through mental examinations that involve psychological experts performing the evaluations. However, such methods can be time and resource consuming, mitigating their broad applicability to a wide population...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213060/prediction-of-cesarean-delivery-in-the-term-nulliparous-woman-results-from-the-prospective-multi-center-genesis-study
#16
Naomi Burke, Gerard Burke, Fionnuala Breathnach, Fionnuala Mcauliffe, John J Morrison, Michael Turner, Samina Dornan, John R Higgins, Amanda Cotter, Michael Geary, Peter Mcparland, Sean Daly, Fiona Cody, Pat Dicker, Elizabeth Tully, Fergal D Malone
BACKGROUND: In contemporary practice many nulliparous women require intervention during childbirth such as operative vaginal delivery or Cesarean delivery (CD). Despite the knowledge that the rising CD rate is associated with increasing maternal age, obesity and larger infant birthweight, we lack a reliable method to predict the requirement for such potentially hazardous obstetric procedures during labor and delivery. This issue is important as there are higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with unplanned CD performed in labor compared to scheduled Cesarean deliveries...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212817/in-vivo-toxicity-of-copper-oxide-lead-oxide-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-acting-in-different-combinations-and-its-attenuation-with-a-complex-of-innocuous-bio-protectors
#17
Ilzira A Minigalieva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir G Panov, Larisa I Privalova, Anatoly N Varaksin, Vladimir B Gurvich, Marina P Sutunkova, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Irene E Valamina, Ilya V Zubarev, Oleg H Makeyev, Ekaterina Y Meshtcheryakova, Svetlana V Klinova
Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24hrs to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212502/a-new-mechanism-shapes-the-na%C3%A3-ve-cd8-t-cell-repertoire-the-selection-for-full-diversity
#18
Pedro Gonçalves, Marco Ferrarini, Carmen Molina-Paris, Grant Lythe, Florence Vasseur, Annik Lim, Benedita Rocha, Orly Azogui
During thymic T cell differentiation, TCR repertoires are shaped by negative, positive and agonist selection. In the thymus and in the periphery, repertoires are also shaped by strong inter-clonal and intra-clonal competition to survive death by neglect. Understanding the impact of these events on the T cell repertoire requires direct evaluation of TCR expression in peripheral naïve T cells. Several studies have evaluated TCR diversity, with contradictory results. Some of these studies had intrinsic technical limitations since they used material obtained from T cell pools, preventing the direct evaluation of clone sizes...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212412/a-mathematical-model-of-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#19
Wenrui Hao, Shihua Gong, Shuonan Wu, Jinchao Xu, Michael R Go, Avner Friedman, Dai Zhu
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta, such that the diameter exceeds 3 cm. The natural history of AAA is progressive growth leading to rupture, an event that carries up to 90% risk of mortality. Hence there is a need to predict the growth of the diameter of the aorta based on the diameter of a patient's aneurysm at initial screening and aided by non-invasive biomarkers. IL-6 is overexpressed in AAA and was suggested as a prognostic marker for the risk in AAA. The present paper develops a mathematical model which relates the growth of the abdominal aorta to the serum concentration of IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212386/comparison-of-theoretical-and-experimental-values-for-plant-uptake-of-pesticide-from-soil
#20
Jeong-In Hwang, Sung-Eun Lee, Jang-Eok Kim
Pesticides that persist in soils may be taken up by the roots of plants. One way to assess plant uptake is to theoretically predict the extent of plant uptake using a mathematical model. In this study, a model was developed to predict plant uptake of pesticide residues in soils using various parameters, such as pesticide mobility within soil, plant transpiration stream, root-soil transfer rate, plant growth, and pesticide dissipation in either soils or plants. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the modeled concentrations with measured uptake concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CP) in lettuce, grown on treated soils with concentrations of approximately 10 and 20 mg kg-1 CP...
2017: PloS One
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