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Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Helen E Hermes, Donato Teutonico, Thomas G Preuss, Sebastian Schneckener
The environmental fates of pharmaceuticals and the effects of crop protection products on non-target species are subjects that are undergoing intense review. Since measuring the concentrations and effects of xenobiotics on all affected species under all conceivable scenarios is not feasible, standard laboratory animals such as rabbits are tested, and the observed adverse effects are translated to focal species for environmental risk assessments. In that respect, mathematical modelling is becoming increasingly important for evaluating the consequences of pesticides in untested scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Tomáš Glomb, Adam Mertel, Zdeněk Pospíšil, Zdeněk Stachoň, Aleš Chalupa
Early in the Ptolemaic era, Egyptian cults, particularly those of Isis and Sarapis, spread successfully to ports across the ancient Aegean Sea. Leading researchers in the field claim that the spread of these cults was influenced by multiple factors, ones that were mainly economic or political in character. However, the question of which factors had more weight or impact than others in the process of the early spread of Egyptian cults has not yet been answered in academic discussion. This could be related to the fact that the issue of the spread of religious innovations in the ancient Mediterranean has been addressed mainly by established historiographical methods such as the collection and critical analysis of archaeological and literary sources...
2018: PloS One
Georgios D Sideridis, Cengiz Zopluoglu
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate various analytical means to detect academic cheating in an experimental setting. The omega index was compared and contrasted given a gold criterion of academic cheating which entailed a discrepant score between two administrations using an experimental study with real test takers. Participants were 164 elementary school students who were administered a mathematics exam followed by an equivalent mock exam under conditions of strict and relaxed, invigilation, respectively...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Xiao-Jiang Yang, Rui-Jun Tian, Xing Su, Shan-Bo Hu, Wei Lei, Yang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Amounts of clinic research have been performed to investigate the increment of cross-sectional area in single-door cervical laminoplasty (SDCL). However, no one has taken the effects of surgery drill into consideration. METHODS: A mathematical model was built to investigate the relation of actual laminoplasty opening size (LOS), the transverse canal diameter (TCD), and the increment of cross-sectional area in SDCL). The model was based on geometric analysis on deformation of spinal canal; the relation was derived and characterized as: (Equation is included in full-text article...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dnyandeo Pawar, B V Bhaskara Rao, S N Kale
A porous graphene-coated optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (G-FPI) and Fe3O4-graphene nanocomposite coated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FG-FPI) have been investigated and compared for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. The sensor probes were subjected to ammonia concentrations varying from 1.5 ppm to 150 ppm. An increased sensitivity was observed for FG-FPI (36 pm ppm-1) when compared with that of G-FPI (25 pm ppm-1). The observed sensor detection limits for FG-FPI and G-FPI were around 7 and 10 ppb, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Yu S Vinnik, R A Pakhomova, L V Kochetova, E A Voronova, V V Kozlov, A K Kirichenko
AIM: To develop predictive model for hepatic insufficiency in obstructive jaundice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Obstructive jaundice was modeled by the author's method on 48 mini pigs, while morpho-functional features of erythrocytes were studied by using of INTEGRA Aura atomic force microscope (NT-MDT, Zelenograd, Russia). Histological specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Discriminant analysis was used to create predictive model for hepatic insufficiency...
2018: Khirurgiia
Kaoru Ohashi, Masashi Fujii, Shinsuke Uda, Hiroyuki Kubota, Hisako Komada, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Wataru Ogawa, Shinya Kuroda
Insulin plays a central role in glucose homeostasis, and impairment of insulin action causes glucose intolerance and leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A decrease in the transient peak and sustained increase of circulating insulin following an infusion of glucose accompany T2DM pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this abnormal temporal pattern of circulating insulin concentration remains unknown. Here we show that changes in opposite direction of hepatic and peripheral insulin clearance characterize this abnormal temporal pattern of circulating insulin concentration observed in T2DM...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Nicola J Pitchford, Elizabeth Kamchedzera, Paula J Hubber, Antonie L Chigeda
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Paul E Smaldino, Thomas J Flamson, Richard McElreath
Human sociality depends upon the benefits of mutual aid and extensive communication. However, diverse norms and preferences complicate mutual aid, and ambiguity in meaning hinders communication. Here we demonstrate that these two problems can work together to enhance cooperation through the strategic use of deliberately ambiguous signals: covert signaling. Covert signaling is the transmission of information that is accurately received by its intended audience but obscured when perceived by others. Such signals may allow coordination and enhanced cooperation while also avoiding the alienation or hostile reactions of individuals with different preferences...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peyman Tavallali, Hana Koorehdavoudi, Joanna Krupa
Intrinsic Frequency (IF) has recently been introduced as an ample signal processing method for analyzing carotid and aortic pulse pressure tracings. The IF method has also been introduced as an effective approach for the analysis of cardiovascular system dynamics. The physiological significance, convergence and accuracy of the IF algorithm has been established in prior works. In this paper, we show that the IF method could be derived by appropriate mathematical approximations from the Navier-Stokes and elasticity equations...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alberto Vergara-Fernández, Sergio Revah, Patricio Moreno-Casas, Felipe Scott
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous contaminants that can be found both in outdoor and indoor air, posing risks to human health and the ecosystems. The treatment of air contaminated with VOCs in low concentrations can be effectively performed using biofiltration, especially when VOCs are hydrophilic. However, the performance of biofilters inoculated with bacteria has been found to be low with sparsely water soluble molecules when compared to biofilters where fungi develop. Using conceptual and mathematical models, this review presents an overview of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that explain the differences in the performance of fungal and bacterial biofilters...
March 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Ina Koch, Tim Schäfer
This review comprises theoretical approaches and recent developments to describe the super-secondary and quaternary structure topology of a protein in a mathematically unique way. Based on the advances in experimental exploration of proteins and protein complexes, new extended abstract descriptions that include, for example, ligand information have been developed. A special focus concerns protein complexes and their description at secondary structure level as well as at quaternary structure level. Here, we give and discuss their unique graph-theoretic description and visualization...
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Caetano Souto-Maior, Gabriel Sylvestre, Fernando Braga Stehling Dias, M Gabriela M Gomes, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
Infection is a complex and dynamic process involving a population of invading microbes, the host and its responses, aimed at controlling the situation. Depending on the purpose and level of organization, infection at the organism level can be described by a process as simple as a coin toss, or as complex as a multi-factorial dynamic model; the former, for instance, may be adequate as a component of a population model, while the latter is necessary for a thorough description of the process beginning with a challenge with an infectious inoculum up to establishment or elimination of the pathogen...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Georg Jäger, Sebastian Zug, António Casimiro
The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application's fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system's safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
D B Krupp, Thomas R Cook
Inequality is widely believed to incite conflict, but the evidence is inconsistent. We argue that the spatial scale of competition-the extent to which individuals compete locally, with their interaction partners, or globally, with the entire population-can help settle the question. We built a mathematical model of the evolution of conflict under inequality and tested its predictions in an experimental game with 1,205 participants. We found that inequality increases conflict, destroys wealth, and engenders risk taking...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
María Lovato, José Real Buffelli, Mariana Abrile, Carlos Martín
The application of conventional physicochemical and microbiological techniques for the removal of organic pollutants has limitations for its utilization on wastewaters as landfill leachates because of their high concentration of not easily biodegradable organic compounds. The use of ozone-based technologies is an alternative and complementary treatment for this type of wastewaters. This paper reports the study of the degradation of landfill leachates from different stages of a treatment plant using ozone and ozone + UV...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nicole A Hynson, Kiana L Frank, Rosanna A Alegado, Anthony S Amend, Mohammad Arif, Gordon M Bennett, Andrea J Jani, Matthew C I Medeiros, Yuriy Mileyko, Craig E Nelson, Nhu H Nguyen, Olivia D Nigro, Sladjana Prisic, Sangwoo Shin, Daisuke Takagi, Samuel T Wilson, Joanne Y Yew
Despite increasing acknowledgment that microorganisms underpin the healthy functioning of basically all multicellular life, few cross-disciplinary teams address the diversity and function of microbiota across organisms and ecosystems. Our newly formed consortium of junior faculty spanning fields such as ecology and geoscience to mathematics and molecular biology from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa aims to fill this gap. We are united in our mutual interest in advancing a new paradigm for biology that incorporates our modern understanding of the importance of microorganisms...
March 2018: MSystems
A N Gorban, I Y Tyukin
The concentrations of measure phenomena were discovered as the mathematical background to statistical mechanics at the end of the nineteenth/beginning of the twentieth century and have been explored in mathematics ever since. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it became clear that the proper utilization of these phenomena in machine learning might transform the curse of dimensionality into the blessing of dimensionality This paper summarizes recently discovered phenomena of measure concentration which drastically simplify some machine learning problems in high dimension, and allow us to correct legacy artificial intelligence systems...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Miguel Ángel Lozada Aguilar, Andrei Khrennikov, Klaudia Oleschko
As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper , we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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