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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102752/the-importance-of-conditional-probability-in-diagnostic-reasoning-and-clinical-decision-making-a-primer-for-the-eye-care-practitioner
#1
Paul G Sanfilippo, Alex W Hewitt, David A Mackey
PURPOSE: To outline and detail the importance of conditional probability in clinical decision making and discuss the various diagnostic measures eye care practitioners should be aware of in order to improve the scope of their clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a review of the importance of conditional probability in diagnostic testing for the eye care practitioner. RESULTS: Eye care practitioners use diagnostic tests on a daily basis to assist in clinical decision making and optimizing patient care and management...
January 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102344/predicting-drug-combination-index-and-simulating-the-network-regulation-dynamics-by-mathematical-modeling-of-drug-targeted-egfr-erk-signaling-pathway
#2
Lu Huang, Yuyang Jiang, Yuzong Chen
Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101675/operative-planning-aid-for-optimal-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-entry-points-in-pediatric-cases
#3
Zsolt Zador, David J Coope, Abteen Mostofi, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
OBJECT: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) uses anatomical spaces of the ventricular system to reach the third ventricle floor and create an alternative pathway for cerebrospinal fluid flow. Optimal ETV trajectories have been previously proposed in the literature, designed to grant access to the third ventricle floor without a displacement of eloquent periventricular structures. However, in hydrocephalus, there is a significant variability to the configuration of the ventricular system, implying that the optimal ETV trajectory and cranial entry point needs to be planned on a case-by-case basis...
January 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101271/the-impact-of-an-interactive-statistics-module-on-novices-development-of-scientific-process-skills-and-attitudes-in-a-first-semester-research-foundations-course
#4
Lynnsay A Marsan, Christina E D'Arcy, Jeffrey T Olimpo
Evidence suggests that incorporating quantitative reasoning exercises into existent curricular frameworks within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is essential for novices' development of conceptual understanding and process skills in these domains. Despite this being the case, such studies acknowledge that students often experience difficulty in applying mathematics in the context of scientific problems. To address this concern, the present study sought to explore the impact of active demonstrations and critical reading exercises on novices' comprehension of basic statistical concepts, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and interpretation of research findings...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100829/a-mathematical-model-of-tumour-angiogenesis-growth-regression-and-regrowth
#5
Guillermo Vilanova, Ignasi Colominas, Hector Gomez
Cancerous tumours have the ability to recruit new blood vessels through a process called angiogenesis. By stimulating vascular growth, tumours get connected to the circulatory system, receive nutrients and open a way to colonize distant organs. Tumour-induced vascular networks become unstable in the absence of tumour angiogenic factors (TAFs). They may undergo alternating stages of growth, regression and regrowth. Following a phase-field methodology, we propose a model of tumour angiogenesis that reproduces the aforementioned features and highlights the importance of vascular regression and regrowth...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100675/protein-synthesis-inhibition-and-gadd34-control-ifn-%C3%AE-heterogeneous-expression-in-response-to%C3%A2-dsrna
#6
Alexandre Dalet, Rafael J Argüello, Alexis Combes, Lionel Spinelli, Sebastien Jaeger, Mathieu Fallet, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Andreia Mendes, Jessica Perego, Marisa Reverendo, Voahirana Camosseto, Marc Dalod, Tobias Weil, Manuel A Santos, Evelina Gatti, Philippe Pierre
In innate immune responses, induction of type-I interferons (IFNs) prevents virus spreading while viral replication is delayed by protein synthesis inhibition. We asked how cells perform these apparently contradictory activities. Using single fibroblast monitoring by flow cytometry and mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that type-I IFN production is linked to cell's ability to enter dsRNA-activated PKR-dependent translational arrest and then overcome this inhibition by decreasing eIF2α phosphorylation through phosphatase 1c cofactor GADD34 (Ppp1r15a) expression...
January 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100504/a-new-microscope-for-the-kidney-mathematics
#7
Anita T Layton
N/A.
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100179/exploring-surface-cleaning-strategies-in-hospital-to-prevent-contact-transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Hao Lei, Rachael M Jones, Yuguo Li
BACKGROUND: Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. METHODS: In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment...
January 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099421/estimation-of-adult-and-neonatal-rbc-lifespans-in-anemic-neonates-using-rbcs-labeled-at-several-discrete-biotin-densities
#9
Denison J Kuruvilla, John A Widness, Demet Nalbant, Robert L Schmidt, Donald M Mock, Guohua An, Peter Veng-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. METHODS: RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099240/inter-relationship-of-soft-contact-lens-diameter-base-curve-radius-and-fit
#10
Graeme Young, Lee Hall, Anna Sulley, Kathrine Osborn-Lorenz, James S Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the inter-relationship of soft contact lens base curve radius (BC), diameter, and lens fit using a mathematical model. METHODS: A spreadsheet mathematical model was used to evaluate theoretical fitting characteristics for various combinations of soft lens BC and diameter. The designs were evaluated using ocular topography data collected from 163 UK subjects. The model evaluated lens tightness (edge strain) and on-eye diameter (horizontal corneal overlap) and assumed that acceptable values fell within the range 0 to 6% and 0...
January 18, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098844/modeling-and-calibration-of-a-novel-one-mirror-galvanometric-laser-scanner
#11
Chengyi Yu, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi
A laser stripe sensor has limited application when a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the object needs to be collected, so a galvanometric laser scanner is designed by using a one-mirror galvanometer element as its mechanical device to drive the laser stripe to sweep along the object. A novel mathematical model is derived for the proposed galvanometer laser scanner without any position assumptions and then a model-driven calibration procedure is proposed. Compared with available model-driven approaches, the influence of machining and assembly errors is considered in the proposed model...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098748/propagation-modeling-and-defending-of-a-mobile-sensor-worm-in-wireless-sensor-and-actuator-networks
#12
Tian Wang, Qun Wu, Sheng Wen, Yiqiao Cai, Hui Tian, Yonghong Chen, Baowei Wang
WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098310/a-computational-model-predicts-genetic-nodes-that-allow-switching-between-species-specific-responses-in-a-conserved-signaling-network
#13
Adriana T Dawes, David Wu, Karley K Mahalak, Edward M Zitnik, Natalia Kravtsova, Haiwei Su, Helen M Chamberlin
Cell signaling networks regulate a variety of developmental and physiological processes, and changes in their response to external stimuli are often implicated in disease initiation and progression. To elucidate how different responses can arise from conserved signaling networks, we have developed a mathematical model of the well-characterized Caenorhabditis vulval development network involving EGF, Wnt and Notch signaling that recapitulates biologically observed behaviors. We experimentally block a specific element of the EGF pathway (MEK), and find different behaviors in vulval development in two Caenorhabditis species, C...
January 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098223/dispersion-of-nonresonant-third-order-nonlinearities-in-silicon-carbide
#14
Francesco De Leonardis, Richard A Soref, Vittorio M N Passaro
In this paper we present a physical discussion of the indirect two-photon absorption (TPA) occuring in silicon carbide with either cubic or wurtzite structure. Phonon-electron interaction is analyzed by finding the phonon features involved in the process as depending upon the crystal symmetry. Consistent physical assumptions about the phonon-electron scattering mechanisms are proposed in order to give a mathematical formulation to predict the wavelength dispersion of TPA and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index n2...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097669/mathematical-modeling-of-rotary-blood-pumps-in-a-pulsatile-in-vitro-flow-environment
#15
Tohid Pirbodaghi
Nowadays, sacrificing animals to develop medical devices and receive regulatory approval has become more common, which increases ethical concerns. Although in vivo tests are necessary for development and evaluation of new devices, nonetheless, with appropriate in vitro setups and mathematical models, a part of the validation process can be performed using these models to reduce the number of sacrificed animals. The main aim of this study is to present a mathematical model simulating the hydrodynamic function of a rotary blood pump (RBP) in a pulsatile in vitro flow environment...
January 18, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097646/visuospatial-training-improves-elementary-students-mathematics-performance
#16
Tom Lowrie, Tracy Logan, Ajay Ramful
BACKGROUND: Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. AIMS: This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. SAMPLE: The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097524/pubovisceralis-muscle-fiber-architecture-determination-comparison-between-biomechanical-modeling-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#17
Sofia Brandão, Marco Parente, Elisabete Silva, Thuane Da Roza, Teresa Mascarenhas, João Leitão, João Cunha, Renato Natal Jorge, Rita Gouveia Nunes
Biomechanical analysis of pelvic floor dysfunction requires knowledge of certain biomechanical parameters, such as muscle fiber direction, in order to adequately model function. Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides an estimate of overall muscle fiber directionality based on the mathematical description of water diffusivity. This work aimed at evaluating the concurrence between pubovisceralis muscle fiber representations obtained from DTI, and the maximum principal stress lines obtained through the finite element method...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096393/utility-value-intervention-with-parents-increases-students-stem-preparation-and-career-pursuit
#18
Christopher S Rozek, Ryan C Svoboda, Judith M Harackiewicz, Chris S Hulleman, Janet S Hyde
During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States' continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school-aged children...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095867/effects-of-ablation-depth-and-repair-time-on-the-corneal-elastic-modulus-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#19
Xiaojun Wang, Xiaona Li, Weiyi Chen, Rui He, Zhipeng Gao, Pengfei Feng
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the cornea should be taken into account in the refractive procedure in order to perform refractive surgery more accurately. The effects of the ablation depth and repair time on the elastic modulus of the rabbit cornea after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are still unclear. METHODS: In this study, LASIK was performed on New Zealand rabbits with different ablation depth (only typical LASIK flaps were created; residual stroma bed was 50 or 30% of the whole cornea thickness respectively)...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095857/real-time-inverse-kinematics-for-the-upper-limb-a-model-based-algorithm-using-segment-orientations
#20
Bence J Borbély, Péter Szolgay
BACKGROUND: Model based analysis of human upper limb movements has key importance in understanding the motor control processes of our nervous system. Various simulation software packages have been developed over the years to perform model based analysis. These packages provide computationally intensive-and therefore off-line-solutions to calculate the anatomical joint angles from motion captured raw measurement data (also referred as inverse kinematics). In addition, recent developments in inertial motion sensing technology show that it may replace large, immobile and expensive optical systems with small, mobile and cheaper solutions in cases when a laboratory-free measurement setup is needed...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
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