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N L Mukarati, O Ndumnego, H van Heerden, D N Ndhlovu, G Matope, A Caron, M de Garine-Wichatitsky, D M Pfukenyi
Anthrax is an important disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis affecting both domestic and wild animals at the wildlife/livestock interface, defined here as a physical space in which wild and domestic species overlap in range and potentially interact. In endemic regions, sporadic anthrax outbreaks occur, causing significant deaths of both wildlife and livestock and sporadically, humans. However, it may also occur as isolated outbreaks with a few animals affected. Such isolated anthrax outbreaks maybe missed...
June 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Jianjun Li, Yongzhen Wu, Chunjie Yang, Ruifeng Zhu, Kai Zhao
This work was devoted to the synthesis and performance report of an optical sensing platform for dipicolinate (DPA), which was known as a biomarker for Bacillus anthracis spores. This DPA optical sensing platform (denoted as EuBTC@RB) was composed of luminescent rare earth MOF and rhodamine-derived sensing probe. Its structure was discussed and confirmed by means of XRD, IR, TGA, absorption, emission and excitation spectra. EuBTC@RB showed two sensing channels for DPA, including colorimetric sensing and ratiometric fluorescent sensing...
June 2, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ruihua Li, Ju Liu, Shipo Wu, Xiaodong Zai, Yaohui Li, Qiaoling Yang, Lihua Hou, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Adenoviral vectors (AdV) are considered promising candidates for vaccine applications. A prominent group of toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in the Adenovirus (Ad)-induced adaptive immune response, yet there is little information regarding the role of TLR4 in AdV-induced immune responses in recent literature. We investigated the function of TLR4 in both adaptive and innate immune responses to an AdV-based anthrax vaccine. By immunizing wild-type and TLR4 knockout (TLR4-KO) mice, we revealed the requirement of TLR4 in AdV-induced innate responses...
June 7, 2018: Immunology
Qingmei Jia, Marcus A Horwitz
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a Tier I bioterrorism agent. In the 1900s, several vaccines were developed against tularemia including the killed "Foshay" vaccine, subunit vaccines comprising F. tularensis protein(s) or lipoproteins(s) in an adjuvant formulation, and the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS); none were licensed in the U.S.A. or European Union. The LVS vaccine retains toxicity in humans and animals-especially mice-but has demonstrated efficacy in humans, and thus serves as the current gold standard for vaccine efficacy studies...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Khanppnavar Basavraj, Datta Saumen
BACKGROUND: The nucleotidyl cyclase toxin ExoY is an important virulence determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that causes severe acute and chronic infections in immune-compromised individuals. Additionally, this unique T3SS effector shows a striking preference for cUMP, a newly identified non-canonical secondary messenger. Thereby, ExoY is also considered as a potential tool to study unexplored cUMP signaling pathways. METHODS: The crystal structure of ExoY was determined at 2...
May 30, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fang-Yi Su, Jasmin Chen, Hye-Nam Son, Abby M Kelly, Anthony J Convertine, T Eoin West, Shawn J Skerrett, Daniel M Ratner, Patrick S Stayton
Pulmonary intracellular infections, such as tuberculosis, anthrax, and tularemia, have remained a significant challenge to conventional antibiotic therapy. Ineffective antibiotic treatment of these infections can lead not only to undesired side effects, but also to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Aminoglycosides (e.g., streptomycin) have long been part of the therapeutic regiment for many pulmonary intracellular infections. Their bioavailability for intracellular bacterial pools, however, is limited by poor membrane permeability and rapid elimination...
May 31, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Sagah Ahmed, Elaine Bromberek, Joelle Borhart
Exaggerated arthropod bite reactions causing hemorrhagic or necrotic bullous lesions can mimic other serious conditions such as cutaneous anthrax, brown recluse spider bite, and tularemia. A 55- year-old, healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a 3.5-centimeter painless, collapsed hemorrhagic bulla at the left costal margin. She was afebrile and had no systemic symptoms. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable. She was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and mupirocin ointment. The area denuded two days later and the lesion completely healed...
February 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Keith Ireton, Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla
Many microbial pathogens co-opt or pertub host membrane trafficking pathways. This review covers recent examples in which microbes interact with host exocytosis, the fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane. The bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus subvert recycling endosomal pathways of exocytosis in order to induce their entry into human cells. By contrast, entry of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi or the virus adenovirus into host cells involves exploitation of lysosomal exocytosis...
May 24, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Bobby Brooke Herrera, Donald J Hamel, Philip Oshun, Rolake Akinsola, Alani S Akanmu, Charlotte A Chang, Philomena Eromon, Onikepe Folarin, Kayode T Adeyemi, Christian T Happi, Yichen Lu, Folasade Ogunsola, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) caused more than 11,000 deaths during the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa without approved vaccines or immunotherapeutics. Despite its high lethality in some individuals, EBOV infection can produce little to no symptoms in others. A better understanding of the immune responses in individuals who experienced minimally symptomatic and asymptomatic infection could aid the development of more effective vaccines and antivirals against EBOV and related filoviruses...
May 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ganesh Ingavle, Les Baillie, Nathan Davies, Nigel Beaton, Yishan Zheng, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Susan Sandeman
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Blake Farrow, Sung A Hong, Errika C Romero, Bert Lai, Matthew B Coppock, Kaycie M Deyle, Amethist S Finch, Dimitra N Stratis-Cullum, Heather D Agnew, Sung Yang, James R Heath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Stella Hartmann, Renae Lopez Cruz, Saleem Alameh, Chi-Lee C Ho, Amy Rabideau, Bradley L Pentelute, Kenneth A Bradley, Mikhail Martchenko
Exploiting the host endocytic trafficking pathway is a common mechanism by which bacterial exotoxins gain entry to exert virulent effects upon the host cells. A previous study identified a small-molecule, 1-(2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)-3-[(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl)oxy]-2-propanol, that blocks the process of anthrax lethal toxin (LT) cytotoxicity. Here, we report the characterization of the bioactivity of this compound, which we named RC1. We found that RC1 protected host cells independently of LT concentration and also blocked intoxication by other bacterial exotoxins, suggesting that the target of the compound is a host factor...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Saugata Majumder, Shreya Das, Vikas Somani, Shivakiran S Makam, Kingston J Joseph, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Anthrax infection is primarily initiated by B. anthracis endospores that on entry into the host germinate to vegetative cells and cause severe bacteremia and toxaemia employing an array of host colonisation factors and the lethal tripartite toxin. The protective efficacy of conventional protective antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines is improved by co-administration with inactivated spores or its components. In the present study, using structural vaccinology rationale we synthesized a bivalent protein r-PB encompassing toxin (PAIV) and spore components (BclACTD) and characterized its protective efficacy against B...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Z F Dembek, T Chekol, A Wu
During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Colin J Carlson, Wayne M Getz, Kyrre L Kausrud, Carrie A Cizauskas, Jason K Blackburn, Fausto A Bustos Carrillo, Rita Colwell, W Ryan Easterday, Holly H Ganz, Pauline L Kamath, Ole A Økstad, Wendy C Turner, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Nils C Stenseth
Environmentally transmitted diseases are comparatively poorly understood and managed, and their ecology is particularly understudied. Here we identify challenges of studying environmental transmission and persistence with a six-sided interdisciplinary review of the biology of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Anthrax is a zoonotic disease capable of maintaining infectious spore banks in soil for decades (or even potentially centuries), and the mechanisms of its environmental persistence have been the topic of significant research and controversy...
May 6, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Brennan T Chang, Austin C Kaidi, Marcus A Horwitz
Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis are the causative agents of Tier 1 Select Agents anthrax, plague, and tularemia, respectively. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against plague and tularemia and the licensed anthrax vaccine is suboptimal. Here we report F. tularensis LVS ΔcapB (Live Vaccine Strain with a deletion in capB)- and attenuated multi-deletional Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-vectored vaccines against all three aforementioned pathogens. We show that LVS ΔcapB- and Lm-vectored vaccines express recombinant B...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Kasradze, Diana Echeverria, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Christian Bautista, Nicholas Heyer, Paata Imnadze, Veriko Mirtskhulava
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192031.].
2018: PloS One
K E Lekota, A Hassim, P Rogers, E H Dekker, R Last, L de Klerk-Lorist, H van Heerden
OBJECTIVES: Anthrax is a disease with an age old history in Africa caused by the Gram-positive endospore forming soil bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Epizootics of wild ungulates occur annually in the enzootic region of Pafuri, Kruger National Park (KNP) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Rigorous routine surveillance and diagnostics in KNP, has not revealed these rare isolates since the 1990s, despite unabated annual outbreaks. In 2011 a cheetah was diagnosed as anthrax positive from a private game reserve in Limpopo Province and reported to State Veterinary Services for further investigation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
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