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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220151/prioritizing-zoonotic-diseases-in-ethiopia-using-a-one-health-approach
#1
Emily G Pieracci, Aron J Hall, Radhika Gharpure, Abraham Haile, Elias Walelign, Asefa Deressa, Getahun Bahiru, Meron Kibebe, Henry Walke, Ermias Belay
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the second largest human population in Africa and the largest livestock population on the continent. About 80% of Ethiopians are dependent on agriculture and have direct contact with livestock or other domestic animals. As a result, the country is vulnerable to the spread of zoonotic diseases. As the first step of the country's engagement in the Global Health Security Agenda, a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop was held to identify significant zoonotic diseases of mutual concern for animal and human health agencies...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215694/comparisons-of-the-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-live-a16r-attenuated-spore-and-ava-like-anthrax-vaccine-in-mice
#2
Jin Lv, Ying-Ying Zhang, Xun Lu, Hao Zhang, Lin Wei, Jun Gao, Bin Hu, Wen-Wei Hu, Dun-Zhong Hu, Na Jia, Xin Feng
The live attenuated anthrax vaccine and anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) are two main types of anthrax vaccines currently used in human. However, the immunoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we compared humoral and cellular immunity induced by live A16R spore vaccine and A16R strain derived AVA-like vaccine in mice peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Both A16R spores and AVA-like vaccines induced a sustained IgG antibody response with IgG1/IgG2b subtype dominance. However, A16R spores vaccine induced higher titer of IgG2a compared with AVA-like vaccine, indicating a stronger Th1 response to A16R spores...
February 16, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214340/molecular-tiling-on-the-surface-of-a-bacterial-spore-the-exosporium-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis-group
#3
Cassandra Terry, Shuo Jiang, David S Radford, Wan Qiang, Svetomir Tzokov, Anne Moir, Per A Bullough
Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium form highly resistant spores, which in the case of some pathogens act as the infectious agents. An exosporium forms the outermost layer of some spores; it plays roles in protection, adhesion, dissemination, host targeting in pathogens, and germination control. The exosporium of the Bacillus cereus group, including the anthrax pathogen, contains a 2D-crystalline basal layer, overlaid by a hairy nap. BclA and related proteins form the hairy nap, and require ExsFA (BxpB) for their localisation on the basal layer...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198803/corrigendum-in-vivo-dynamics-of-active-edema-and-lethal-factors-during-anthrax
#4
Clémence Rougeaux, François Becher, Eric Ezan, Jean-Nicolas Tournier, Pierre L Goossens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192089/dynamic-phenylalanine-clamp-interactions-define-single-channel-polypeptide-translocation-through-the-anthrax-toxin-protective-antigen-channel
#5
Koyel Ghosal, Jennifer M Colby, Debasis Das, Stephen T Joy, Paramjit S Arora, Bryan A Krantz
Anthrax toxin is an intracellularly acting toxin where sufficient detail is known about the structure of its channel, allowing for molecular investigations of translocation. The toxin is comprised of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The toxin's translocon, PA, translocates the large enzymes, LF and EF, across the endosomal membrane into the host cell's cytosol. Polypeptide clamps located throughout the PA channel catalyze the translocation of LF and EF. Here we show that the central peptide clamp, the ϕ clamp, is a dynamic site that governs the overall peptide translocation pathway...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151653/full-sequence-amino-acid-scanning-of-%C3%AE-defensin-rtd-1-yields-a-potent-anthrax-lethal-factor-protease-inhibitor
#6
Yilong Li, Andrew Gould, Teshome Aboye, Tao Bi, Leonard Breindel, Alexander Shekhtman, Julio A Camarero
θ-Defensin RTD-1 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease (IC50 = 390 ± 20 nM, Ki = 365 ± 20 nM) and a weak inhibitor of other mammalian metalloproteases such as TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) (Ki = 4.45 ± 0.48 μM). Using full sequence amino acid scanning in combination with a highly efficient "one-pot" cyclization-folding approach, we obtained an RTD-1-based peptide that was around 10 times more active than wild-type RTD-1 in inhibiting LF protease (IC50 = 43 ± 3 nM, Ki = 18 ± 1 nM)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147208/systemic-granulomatous-and-haemorrhagic-syndrome-in-new-zealand-dairy-cattle
#7
T G Rawdon, K N Buckle, K E Lawrence, K G Thompson, A F Julian, B L Vaatstra, A C Johnstone, J F Weston, R A Fairley
CASE HISTORY: Cases were obtained through passive surveillance reporting by veterinary pathologists, via the Ministry for Primary Industries Exotic Pest and Disease Hotline. They included ill or dead cows that had evidence of frank haemorrhage, petechial haemorrhages on mucous membranes, wasting or dermatitis of unknown cause, and were reported between 2009-2014. Affected cows (n=16) were from nine seasonally calving dairy farms, aged ≥3 years, and were predominantly in their mid-to-late non-lactating period...
February 1, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146366/cdc-s-evolving-approach-to-emergency-response
#8
Stephen C Redd, Thomas R Frieden
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) transformed its approach to preparing for and responding to public health emergencies following the anthrax attacks of 2001. The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, an organizational home for emergency response at CDC, was established, and 4 programs were created or greatly expanded after the anthrax attacks: (1) an emergency management program, including an Emergency Operations Center; (2) increased support of state and local health department efforts to prepare for emergencies; (3) a greatly enlarged Strategic National Stockpile of medicines, vaccines, and medical equipment; and (4) a regulatory program to assure that work done on the most dangerous pathogens and toxins is done as safely and securely as possible...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#9
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128281/targeted-delivery-of-an-adp-ribosylating-bacterial-toxin-into-cancer-cells
#10
N-I Zahaf, A E Lang, L Kaiser, C D Fichter, S Lassmann, A McCluskey, A Augspach, K Aktories, G Schmidt
The actin cytoskeleton is an attractive target for bacterial toxins. The ADP-ribosyltransferase TccC3 from the insect bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescence modifies actin to force its aggregation. We intended to transport the catalytic part of this toxin preferentially into cancer cells using a toxin transporter (Protective antigen, PA) which was redirected to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) or to human EGF receptors 2 (HER2), which are overexpressed in several cancer cells. Protective antigen of anthrax toxin forms a pore through which the two catalytic parts (lethal factor and edema factor) or other proteins can be transported into mammalian cells...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117174/stability-and-pre-formulation-development-of-a-plant-produced-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#11
R Mark Jones, Michael Burke, Devon Dubose, Jessica A Chichester, Slobodanka Manceva, April Horsey, Stephen J Streatfield, Jeff Breit, Vidadi Yusibov
Second generation anthrax vaccines focus on the use of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) to elicit a strong, toxin neutralizing antibody responses in immunized subjects. The main difference between the rPA vaccines compared to the current licensed vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA), is the rPA vaccines are highly purified preparations of only rPA. These second generation rPA vaccines strive to elicit strong immune responses with substantially fewer doses than AVA while provoking less side effects. Many of the rPA candidates have shown to be effective in pre-clinical studies, but most of the second generation molecules have stability issues which reduce their efficacy over time...
January 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117152/resuspension-of-biological-particles-from-indoor-surfaces-effects-of-humidity-and-air-swirl
#12
Parichehr Salimifard, Donghyun Rim, Carlos Gomes, Paul Kremer, James D Freihaut
Human exposure to airborne particles can lead to adverse health outcomes such as respiratory and allergic symptoms. Understanding the transport mechanism of respirable particles in occupied spaces is a first step towards assessing inhalation exposure. Several studies have contributed to the current knowledge of particle resuspension from indoor surfaces; however, few published studies are available on resuspension of biological particles from indoor surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of humidity and air swirl on resuspension of biological particles from floor and duct surfaces...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115677/modeling-the-ecological-niche-of-bacillus-anthracis-to-map-anthrax-risk-in-kyrgyzstan
#13
Jason K Blackburn, Saitbek Matakarimov, Sabira Kozhokeeva, Zhyldyz Tagaeva, Lindsay K Bell, Ian T Kracalik, Asankadyr Zhunushov
Anthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115202/secondary-structure-preferences-of-the-anthrax-toxin-protective-antigen-translocase
#14
Debasis Das, Bryan A Krantz
In order for many proteins to move across hydrophobic membrane bilayers, they must be unfolded and translocated by a membrane-embedded channel. These translocase channels interact with the substrate proteins they translocate via hydrophobic pore loops and cleft structures, called clamps. The molecular basis for how clamps facilitate unfolding and translocation is poorly understood. Anthrax toxin is comprised of three proteins, a translocase channel forming subunit, called protective antigen (PA), and two substrate proteins, called lethal factor (LF) and edema factor...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103792/diagnosis-implications-of-the-whole-genome-sequencing-in-a-large-lebanese-family-with-hyaline-fibromatosis-syndrome
#15
Zahraa Haidar, Ramzi Temanni, Eliane Chouery, Puthen Jitesh, Wei Liu, Rashid Al-Ali, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Nadine Jalkh, Soha Haddad, Wassim Haidar, Lotfi Chouchane, André Mégarbané
BACKGROUND: Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a recently introduced alternative term for two disorders that were previously known as juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) and infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH). These two variants are secondary to mutations in the anthrax toxin receptor 2 gene (ANTXR2) located on chromosome 4q21. The main clinical features of both entities include papular and/or nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and osteolytic bone lesions that appear in the first few years of life, and the syndrome typically progresses with the appearance of new lesions...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102766/soluble-p-selectin-rescues-mice-from-anthrax-lethal-toxin-induced-mortality-through-psgl-1-pathway-mediated-correction-of-hemostasis
#16
Der-Shan Sun, Yao-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Pei-Hsun Ho, Yin-Jeh Tzeng, Hsin-Hou Chang
As one of the virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, lethal toxin (LT) induces various pathogenic responses including the suppression of the coagulation system. In this study, we observed that LT markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) levels and microparticle (MP) count in wild-type but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp(-)(-)(-)) or P-sel ligand-1 (PSGL-1, Selplg(-)(-)(-)) knockout mice. Because sP-sel induces a hypercoagulable state through PSGL-1 pathway to generate tissue factor-positive MPs, we hypothesized that the increase in plasma sP-sel levels can be a self-rescue response in hosts against the LT-mediated suppression of the coagulation system...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099607/a-single-black-ulcer-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#17
Michelangelo Vestita, Angela Filoni, Nicola Santoro, Gianpaolo Arcamone, Domenico Bonamonte
Ecthyma gangrenosum is an uncommon dermatological manifestation characterized by round, indurated ulcers with a central necrotic black eschar and surrounding erythema. This report describes the case of a 5-year-old girl, affected by acute lymphocytic leukemia, presenting with a black eschar on her right thigh. Such lesions should always be correctly identified to avoid potentially fatal bacteraemia. Furthermore, because of its similar clinical presentation, cutaneous anthrax must be ruled out.
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093076/genetic-source-tracking-of-an-anthrax-outbreak-in-shaanxi-province-china
#18
Dong-Li Liu, Jian-Chun Wei, Qiu-Lan Chen, Xue-Jun Guo, En-Min Zhang, Li He, Xu-Dong Liang, Guo-Zhu Ma, Ti-Cao Zhou, Wen-Wu Yin, Wei Liu, Kai Liu, Yi Shi, Jian-Jun Ji, Hui-Juan Zhang, Lin Ma, Fa-Xin Zhang, Zhi-Kai Zhang, Hang Zhou, Hong-Jie Yu, Biao Kan, Jian-Guo Xu, Feng Liu, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Anthrax is an acute zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. From 26 July to 8 August 2015, an outbreak with 20 suspected cutaneous anthrax cases was reported in Ganquan County, Shaanxi province in China. The genetic source tracking analysis of the anthrax outbreak was performed by molecular epidemiological methods in this study. METHODS: Three molecular typing methods, namely canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis, were used to investigate the possible source of transmission and identify the genetic relationship among the strains isolated from human cases and diseased animals during the outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077422/antxr2-knock-out-does-not-result-in-the-development-of-hypertension-in-rats
#19
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Jing Li, Lei Yang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Our recent genetic study as well as robust evidences reported by previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16998073, located near gene anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), was significantly associated with hypertension in Asians and Europeans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ANTXR2 is the causal gene of hypertension at the 4q21 locus using an ANTXR2 knock-out model. METHODS: Relative expression of ANTXR2 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
February 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076996/a-serious-case-of-anthrax-associated-with-compartment-syndrome
#20
Seyran Kılınç, Mehmet Vakıf Keskinbıçkı, Murat Şengül, Semra Nergiz, Abdurrahman Örtücü, Okay Bulut
Compartment syndrome linked to skin anthrax is a rare complication that may develop and it should be noted that the disease may progress in spite of medical drug treatment. Our case was a farmer who was exposed after slaughtering a dead animal, a time delay for treatment hided this history and then developed compartment syndrome. In anthrax cases with delayed treatment and aggressive progression, circulation in the extremities should be carefully noted. We believe that the cases with compartment syndrome progressing in spite of medical drug treatment may be assessed for fasciotomy as a treatment approach...
January 11, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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