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Nuriye Dinckan, Renqian Du, Zeynep C Akdemir, Yavuz Bayram, Shalini N Jhangiani, Harsha Doddapaneni, Jianhong Hu, Donna M Muzny, Yeliz Guven, Oya Aktoren, Hulya Kayserili, Eric Boerwinkle, Richard A Gibbs, Jennifer E Posey, James R Lupski, Zehra O Uyguner, Ariadne Letra
Tooth development is regulated by multiple genetic pathways, which ultimately drive the complex interactions between the oral epithelium and mesenchyme. Disruptions at any time point during this process may lead to failure of tooth development, also known as tooth agenesis (TA). TA is a common craniofacial abnormality in humans and represents the failure to develop one or more permanent teeth. Many genes and potentially subtle variants in these genes contribute to the TA phenotype. We report the clinical and genetic impact of a rare homozygous ANTXR1 variant (c...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Ana Kasradze, Diana Echeverria, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Christian Bautista, Nicholas Heyer, Paata Imnadze, Veriko Mitrskhulava
INTRODUCTION: Anthrax is endemic in the country of Georgia. The most common cutaneous anthrax form accounts for 95% of anthrax cases and often is self-resolving. Humans are infected from processing contaminated animal products, contacting sick animals, or by insect bites. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the burden of human cutaneous anthrax and associated risk factors using the national surveillance data. METHODS: We extracted all human cutaneous anthrax cases from Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015...
2018: PloS One
Calvin J Young, Kaitlin Richard, Ananya Beruar, Suet Y Lo, Stefan Siemann
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of proteins critical to the maintenance of host signaling pathways during anthrax infections. Although zinc is typically regarded as the native metal ion in vivo, LF is highly tolerant to metal substitution, with its replacement by copper yielding an enzyme (CuLF) 4.5-fold more active than the native zinc protein (at pH 7). The current study demonstrates that by careful choice of the buffer, ionic strength, pH and substrate, the activity ratio of CuLF and native LF can be increased to >40-fold...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Janet Z Liu, Syed R Ali, Ethan Bier, Victor Nizet
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has been a focus of study in host-pathogen dynamics since the nineteenth century. While the interaction between anthrax and host macrophages has been extensively modeled, comparatively little is known about the effect of anthrax on the immune function of neutrophils, a key frontline effector of innate immune defense. Here we showed that depletion of neutrophils significantly enhanced mortality in a systemic model of anthrax infection in mice. Ex vivo, we found that freshly isolated human neutrophils can rapidly kill anthrax, with specific inhibitor studies showing that phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contribute to this efficient bacterial clearance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Robert S Gainer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Adva Mechaly, Einat Vitner, Haim Levy, Shay Weiss, Elad Bar-David, David Gur, Michal Koren, Hila Cohen, Ofer Cohen, Emanuelle Mamroud, Morly Fisher
Multiplexed detection technologies are becoming increasingly important given the possibility of bioterrorism attacks, where the range of suspected pathogens can vary considerably. In this work, we describe the use of Luminex MagPlex magnetic microspheres for the construction of two multiplexed diagnostic suspension arrays, enabling the antibody-based detection of bacterial pathogens and their related disease biomarkers directly from blood cultures.The first 4-plex diagnostic array enabled the detection of both anthrax and plague infections using soluble disease biomarkers, including PA (Protective Antigen) and anthrax capsular antigen for anthrax detection and the capsular F1 and LcrV antigens for plague detection...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ke Luan, Ruiqian Meng, Changfu Shan, Jing Cao, Jianguo Jia, Wei-Sheng Liu, Yu Tang
Rapid, sensitive and selective quantitative detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acid (DPA) as biomarker of anthrax spores is in great demand since anthrax spores are lethal to human beings and animals highly and also the potential biological warfare agents. Herein, we prepared a ratiometric fluorescence lanthanide functionalized micelle nanoprobe by "one-pot" self-assembly, with an amphiphilic ligand containing β-diketone derivative which can "immobilize" terbium ions through the coordination interaction and a fluorophore as fluorescence reference (FR)...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Haiyan Wang, Jessica Ettedgui, Jacob Forstater, Joseph W F Robertson, Joseph E Reiner, Huisheng Zhang, Siping Chen, John J Kasianowicz
Nanometer-scale pores have been developed for the detection, characterization, and quantification of a wide range of analytes (e.g., ions, polymers, proteins, anthrax toxins, neurotransmitters, and synthetic nanoparticles) and for DNA sequencing. We describe the key requirements that made this method possible and how the technique evolved. Finally, we show that, despite sound theoretical work, which advanced both the conceptual framework and quantitative capability of the method, there are still unresolved questions that need to be addressed to further improve the technique...
January 30, 2018: ACS Sensors
Pieter Johan Steenkamp, Henriette van Heerden, Ockert Louis van Schalkwyk
The spores of the soil-borne bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, anthrax spores can survive for many years in the soil. Anthrax is known to be endemic in the northern part of Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa (SA), with occasional epidemics spreading southward. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are ecologically suitable for the harboring of B. anthracis spores within the KNP. Anthrax surveillance data and selected environmental variables were used as inputs to the maximum entropy (Maxent) species distribution modeling method...
2018: PloS One
Bobby Brooke Herrera, Wen-Yang Tsai, Charlotte A Chang, Donald J Hamel, Wei-Kung Wang, Yichen Lu, Souleymane Mboup, Phyllis J Kanki
Recent studies on the role of T cells in Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have shown that T cell responses to Asian ZIKV infection are important for protection, and that previous Dengue virus (DENV) exposure amplifies the protective T cell response to Asian ZIKV. Human T cell responses to African ZIKV infection, however, remain unexplored. Here, we utilized the modified anthrax toxin delivery system to develop a flavivirus ELISPOT. Using human ZIKV and DENV samples from Senegal, West Africa, our results demonstrate specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to nonstructural protein 3 (NS3)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sangjin Park, Soo Youn Jun, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gi Mo Jung, Jee Soo Son, Seong Tae Jeong, Seong Jun Yoon, Sang Yup Lee, Sang Hyeon Kang
The recombinant phage endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 were developed using genetic information from bacteriophages AP50 and B4 and were produced by microbial cultivation followed by chromatographic purification. Subsequently, appropriate formulations were developed that provided an acceptable stability of the recombinant endolysins. The bacteriolytic properties of the formulated endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 against several bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus genus including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) strains were examined...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elibariki Reuben Mwakapeje, Sol Høgset, Robert Fyumagwa, Hezron Emmanuel Nonga, Robinson Hammerthon Mdegela, Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Anthrax outbreaks in Tanzania have been reported from the human, livestock and wildlife sectors over several years, and is among the notifiable diseases. Despite frequent anthrax outbreaks, there is no comprehensive dataset indicating the magnitude and distribution of the disease in susceptible species. This study is a retrospective review of anthrax outbreaks from the human, livestock, and wildlife surveillance systems from 2006 to 2016. The objectives were to identify hotspot districts, describe anthrax epidemiology in the hotspot areas, evaluate the efficiency of the anthrax response systems and identify potential areas for further observational studies...
January 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Giovanna Lacava, Andrea Amaroli, Luigi Marchetti, Roberta Censi, Piera Di Martino, Dimitrios Agas
BACKGROUND: During last years, DNA vaccine immunogenicity has been optimized by the employment of co-stimulatory molecules and molecular adjuvants. It has been reported that plasmid (pATRex), encompassing the DNA sequence for the von Willebrand A (vWA/A) domain of the Anthrax Toxin Receptor-1 (ANTXR-1, alias TEM8, Tumor Endothelial Marker 8), acts as strong immune adjuvant by inducing formation of insoluble intracellular aggregates. Markedly, we faced with upsetting findings regarding the safety of pATRex as adjuvant since the aggregosome formation prompted to osteopenia in mice...
January 5, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Sivan Alkalay, Sarit Sternberg, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Ronen Hazan
The new highly effective Bacillus anthracis phages Negev_SA, Carmel_SA, and Tavor_SA were isolated from soil samples, and their complete genomes were sequenced and analyzed. The isolated phages have potential use in future phage therapy treatment against anthrax.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Jose Manuel Ramos, Laura Prieto-Pérez, Abraham Tesfamariam, Seble Balcha, Gabre Tissiano, Alfonso Cabello, Juan Cuadros, Natalia Rodríguez-Valero, Pablo Barreiro, Francisco Reyes, Miguel Górgolas
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study describes the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in eight patients (six female and two male, age range 1 - 56 years) admitted to the rural General Hospital of Gambo, West Arsi Province of Ethiopia from 2010-2013...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Royi Zidon, Shimon Garti, Wayne M Getz, David Saltz
Partial seasonal migration is ubiquitous in many species. We documented this phenomenon in plains zebra (Equus burchelli) in Etosha National Park, Namibia (ENP), and provided a cost-benefit analysis as it relates to the spatial distribution of water, vegetation and endemic anthrax. This analysis draws upon two years of ENP zebra movement data that reveal two sub-populations: migrators and non-migrators. Migrators are shown to be behaviorally dominant in the way they utilize space and use water holes. We raise the possibility that the co-existence of these two groups reflects an evolutionary process, and the size of each group maintains evolutionary equilibrium...
August 2017: Ecosphere
Marc Caldwell, Terri Hathcock, Kenny V Brock
In this study, equine source polyclonal anti-Bacillus anthracis immunoglobulins were generated and utilized to demonstrate passive protection of mice in a lethal challenge assay. Four horses were hyper-immunized with B. anthracis Sterne strain for approximately one year. The geometric mean anti-PA titer in the horses at maximal response following immunization was 1:77,936 (Log2 mean titer 16.25, SEM ± 0.25 95% CI [15.5 -17.0]). The geometric mean neutralizing titer at maximal response was 1:128 (Log2 mean titer 7, SEM ± 0...
2017: PeerJ
Sarsenbay K Abdrakhmanov, Yersyn Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, Fedor I Korennoy, Bolat Sh Karatayev, Aizada A Mukhanbetkaliyeva, Aruzhan S Abdrakhmanova
An analysis of the anthrax epidemic situation among livestock animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan over the period 1933-2016 is presented. During this time, 4,064 anthrax outbreaks (mainly in cattle, small ruminants, pigs and horses) were recorded. They fall into five historical periods of increase and decrease in the annual anthrax incidence (1933-1953; 1954-1968; 1969-1983; 1984- 2001; and 2002-2016), which has been associated with changes in economic activity and veterinary surveillance. To evaluate the temporal trends of incidence variation for each of these time periods, the following methods were applied: i) spatio-temporal analysis using a space-time cube to assess the presence of hotspots (i...
November 13, 2017: Geospatial Health
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review focuses on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security, specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discusses other naturally emerging infections of public health significance, Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of pharmacists in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
February 2018: Pharmacotherapy
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