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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651234/microrna-493-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumorigenesis-through-down-regulation-of-anthrax-toxin-receptor-1-antxr1-and-r-spondin-2-rspo2
#1
Yuqiang Xu, Kuikui Ge, Junhao Lu, Jinjiang Huang, Wei Wei, Qingshan Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known as a highly prevalent cancer with a poor prognosis and short survival time, despite intensive research and clinical efforts. Increasing numbers of studies have reported that microRNAs are involved in the malignant behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via directly targeting multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here, we report that the expression of microRNA-493 (miR-493) is decreased in HCC cell lines and in tumor tissues. Overexpression of miR-493 in HCC cells dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and colony-formation in vitro and inhibited tumor formation of HCC cell xenografts in vivo...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650343/anthrax-toxin-receptor-1-is-the-cellular-receptor-for-seneca-valley-virus
#2
Linde A Miles, Laura N Burga, Eric E Gardner, Mihnea Bostina, John T Poirier, Charles M Rudin
Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for neuroendocrine cancers. It has shown promise as a cancer therapeutic in preclinical studies and early-phase clinical trials. Here, we have identified anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) as the receptor for SVV using genome-wide loss-of-function screens. ANTXR1 is necessary for permissivity in vitro and in vivo. However, robust SVV replication requires an additional innate immune defect. We found that SVV interacts directly and specifically with ANTXR1, that this interaction is required for SVV binding to permissive cells, and that ANTXR1 expression is necessary and sufficient for infection in cell lines with decreased expression of antiviral IFN genes at baseline...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625989/rapid-high-throughput-identification-of-anthrax-causing-and-emetic-bacillus-cereus-group-genome-assemblies-using-btyper-a-computational-tool-for-virulence-based-classification-of-bacillus-cereus-group-isolates-using-nucleotide-sequencing-data
#3
Laura M Carroll, Jasna Kovac, Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
The Bacillus cereus group comprises nine species, several of which are pathogenic. Differentiating between isolates that may cause disease and those that do not is a matter of public health and economic importance, but can be particularly challenging due to the high genomic similarity of the group. To this end, we have developed BTyper, a computational tool that employs a combination of (i) virulence gene-based typing, (ii) multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), (iii) panC clade typing, and (iv) rpoB allelic typing to rapidly classify B...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622090/assembly-and-function-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-s-layer
#4
Dominique Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts...
June 16, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612722/-inkt-cells-potential-therapeutic-targets-to-fight-anthrax
#5
Mathieu Le Gars, Michel Haustant, Maria Klezovich-Benard, Christophe Paget, François Trottein, Pierre L Goossens, Jean-Nicolas Tournier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#6
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603695/the-pag-gene-of-pxo1-is-involved-in-capsule-biosynthesis-of-bacillus-anthracis-pasteur-ii-strain
#7
Xudong Liang, Jin Zhu, Zhongzhi Zhao, Feng Zheng, Huijuan Zhang, Jianchun Wei, Yon Ji, Yinduo Ji
The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and anthrax toxins are major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Genes responsible for capsule biosynthesis are located on pXO2, whereas genes encoding the toxins, which are composed of edema factors, lethal factors, and protective antigens (PA), are located on pXO1. In this study, we found that the pag null mutation not only eliminated the production of the protective antigen, it also eliminated the ability of the B. anthracis Pasteur II strain to form capsules. qPCR analysis revealed that the deletion of pag decreased the transcription levels of the capABCD operon and its regulatory genes acpA and acpB...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596569/targeting-bacillus-anthracis-toxicity-with-a-genetically-selected-inhibitor-of-the-pa-cmg2-protein-protein-interaction
#8
Abigail L Male, Fedor Forafonov, Francesco Cuda, Gong Zhang, Siqi Zheng, Petra C F Oyston, Peng R Chen, E Diane Williamson, Ali Tavassoli
The protein-protein interaction between the human CMG2 receptor and the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is essential for the transport of anthrax lethal and edema toxins into human cells. We used a genetically encoded high throughput screening platform to screen a SICLOPPS library of 3.2 million cyclic hexapeptides for inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction. Unusually, the top 3 hits all contained stop codons in the randomized region of the library, resulting in linear rather than cyclic peptides...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589102/heterogeneous-family-of-cyclomodulins-smart-weapons-that-allow-bacteria-to-hijack-the-eukaryotic-cell-cycle-and-promote-infections
#9
REVIEW
Rachid A El-Aouar Filho, Aurélie Nicolas, Thiago L De Paula Castro, Martine Deplanche, Vasco A De Carvalho Azevedo, Pierre L Goossens, Frédéric Taieb, Gerard Lina, Yves Le Loir, Nadia Berkova
Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573869/obiltoxaximab-adding-to-the-treatment-arsenal-for-bacillus-anthracis-infection
#10
Audrey W Hou, Amanda M Morrill
OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and efficacy of obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of Bacillus anthracis inhalational anthrax in adult and pediatric patients. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE (1946 to May, week 1, 2017) and EMBASE (1980 to 2017, week 19) search was performed using the search terms obiltoxaximab OR ETI-204 OR Anthim AND anthrax. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language clinical studies in both animal and human models assessing the safety and efficacy of obiltoxaximab were included...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570540/recombinant-protein-expression-crystallization-and-biophysical-studies-of-a-bacillus-conserved-nucleotide-pyrophosphorylase-bcmazg
#11
Meong Il Kim, Choongdeok Lee, Minsun Hong
To overcome safety restrictions and regulations when studying genes and proteins from true pathogens, their homologues can be studied. Bacillus anthracis is an obligate pathogen that causes fatal inhalational anthrax. Bacillus cereus is considered a useful model for studying B. anthracis due to its close evolutionary relationship. The gene cluster ba1554 - ba1558 of B. anthracis is highly conserved with the bc1531- bc1535 cluster in B. cereus, as well as with the bt1364-bt1368 cluster in Bacillus thuringiensis, indicating the critical role of the associated genes in the Bacillus genus...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545305/clostridium-difficile-toxins-a-and-b-receptors-pores-and-translocation-into-cells
#12
Kathleen E Orrell, Zhifen Zhang, Seiji N Sugiman-Marangos, Roman A Melnyk
The most potent toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria contain enzymatic moieties that must reach the cytosol of target cells to exert their full toxicity. Toxins such as anthrax, diphtheria, and botulinum toxin all use three well-defined functional domains to intoxicate cells: a receptor-binding moiety that triggers endocytosis into acidified vesicles by binding to a specific host-cell receptor, a translocation domain that forms pores across the endosomal membrane in response to acidic pH, and an enzyme that translocates through these pores to catalytically inactivate an essential host cytosolic substrate...
May 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533492/anti-tumor-activity-of-anthrax-toxin-variants-that-form-a-functional-translocation-pore-by-intermolecular-complementation
#13
Shihui Liu, Qian Ma, Rasem Fattah, Thomas H Bugge, Stephen H Leppla
Anthrax lethal toxin is a typical A-B type protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. Lethal factor (LF) is the catalytic A-subunit, a metalloprotease having MEKs as targets. LF relies on the cell-binding B-subunit, protective antigen (PA), to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. PA binds to cell surface toxin receptors and is activated by furin protease to form an LF-binding-competent oligomer-PA pre-pore, which converts to a functional protein-conductive pore in the acidic endocytic vesicles, allowing translocation of LF into the cytosol...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509866/hdac8-prevents-anthrax-lethal-toxin-induced-cell-cycle-arrest-through-silencing-pten-in-human-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#14
Soon-Duck Ha, Woohyun Cho, Sung Ouk Kim
Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a cytotoxic virulence factor that causes cell cycle arrest and cell death in various cell types. However, susceptibility to the cytotoxic effects varies depending on cell types. In proliferating monocytes, LeTx has only transient cytotoxic effects due to activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mediated adaptive responses. To date, the mechanism of LeTx in activating PI3K-AKT signaling axis is unknown. This study shows that the histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is involved in activating PI3K-AKT signaling axis through down-regulating the phosphatase and tensin homolog 1 (PTEN) in human monocytic THP-1 cells...
May 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506101/evaluation-of-personal-inhalable-aerosol-samplers-with-different-filters-for-use-during-anthrax-responses
#15
Sergey A Grinshpun, Angela M Weber, Michael Yermakov, Reshmi Indugula, Yousef Elmashae, Tiina Reponen, Laura Rose
Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504191/lethal-factor-antibodies-contribute-to-lethal-toxin-neutralization-in-recipients-of-anthrax-vaccine-precipitated
#16
Eric K Dumas, Lori Garman, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Shyamal Choudhari, William D Picking, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498841/awareness-and-attitudes-towards-anthrax-and-meat-consumption-practices-among-affected-communities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#17
Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495766/ten-genome-sequences-of-human-and-livestock-isolates-of-bacillus-anthracis-from-the-country-of-georgia
#18
Ekaterine Khmaladze, Giorgi Dzavashvili, Gvantsa Chanturia, Mikeljon P Nikolich, Patrick S G Chain, Shannon L Johnson, Paata Imnadze
Bacillus anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax, is a proven biological weapon, and is endemic in Georgia, where human and animal cases are reported annually. Here, we present whole-genome sequences of 10 historical B. anthracis strains from Georgia.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#19
REVIEW
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442608/unexpected-relations-of-historical-anthrax-strain
#20
M H Antwerpen, J W Sahl, D Birdsell, T Pearson, M J Pearce, C Redmond, H Meyer, P S Keim
In 1998, it was claimed that an 80-year-old glass tube intentionally filled with Bacillus anthracis and embedded in a sugar lump as a WWI biological weapon still contained viable spores. Today, genome sequencing of three colonies isolated in 1998 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis surprisingly identified a well-known B. anthracis reference strain isolated in the United States in 1981, pointing to accidental laboratory contamination.IMPORTANCE Next-generation sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analyses are useful and reliable tools for the classification of recent and historical samples...
April 25, 2017: MBio
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