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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239565/spatio-temporal-analysis-and-visualisation-of-the-anthrax-epidemic-situation-in-livestock-in-kazakhstan-over-the-period-1933-2016
#1
Sarsenbay K Abdrakhmanov, Yersyn Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, Fedor I Korennoy, Bolat Sh Karatayev, Aizada A Mukhanbetkaliyeva, Aruzhan S Abdrakhmanova
An analysis of the anthrax epidemic situation among livestock animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan over the period 1933-2016 is presented. During this time, 4,064 anthrax outbreaks (mainly in cattle, small ruminants, pigs and horses) were recorded. They fall into five historical periods of increase and decrease in the annual anthrax incidence (1933-1953; 1954-1968; 1969-1983; 1984- 2001; and 2002-2016), which has been associated with changes in economic activity and veterinary surveillance. To evaluate the temporal trends of incidence variation for each of these time periods, the following methods were applied: i) spatio-temporal analysis using a space-time cube to assess the presence of hotspots (i...
November 13, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#2
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235265/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-branched-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonates-as-potential-inhibitors-of-bacterial-adenylate-cyclases
#3
Jan Frydrych, Jan Skácel, Markéta Šmídková, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Martin Dračínský, Ramachandran Gnanasekaran, Martin Lepšík, Monica Soto-Velasquez, Val J Watts, Zlatko Janeba
Inhibition of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF), the key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity, represents a potential method how to treat or prevent toxemia related to whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. A novel series of α-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) having a hemiaminal ether moiety was synthesized as potential inhibitors of bacterial adenylate cyclases. ANPs prepared as bisamidates were not cytotoxic but did not exhibited any profound activity (IC50 > 10 µM) towards ACT in J774A...
December 13, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231245/two-cases-of-human-cutaneous-anthrax-with-massive-tissue-damage-severe-edema-and-slight-injury-to-the-liver
#4
Hai-Ling Yuan, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Wen Zhang, Hua Xie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#5
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229702/galactosylation-of-the-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-its-contribution-to-anthrax-pathogenesis
#6
Alice Chateau, Justin Mark Lunderberg, So Young Oh, Teresa Abshire, Arthur Friedlander, Conrad P Quinn, Dominique M Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, elaborates a secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that is essential for bacterial growth and cell division. B. anthracis SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats, [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→], where α-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal and β-Gal at O3 and O4, respectively, and β-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal at O3. The genes whose products promote the galactosylation of B. anthracis SCWP are not yet known...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229654/protocol-for-developing-a-database-of-zoonotic-disease-research-in-india-dozoori
#7
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224733/validated-maldi-tof-ms-method-for-anthrax-lethal-factor-provides-early-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#8
Maribel Gallegos-Candela, Anne E Boyer, Adrian R Woolfitt, Judy Brumlow, Renato C Lins, Conrad P Quinn, Alex R Hoffmaster, Gabriel Meister, John R Barr
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endoprotease and a critical virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. The mass spectrometry (MS) method for total-LF quantification includes three steps; 1) LF specific antibody capture/concentration, 2) LF-specific hydrolysis of a peptide substrate, and 3) detection and quantification of LF-cleaved peptides by isotope-dilution MALDI-TOF/MS. Recombinant LF spiked plasma was used for calibration and quality control (QC) materials. Specificity was 100% from analysis of serum and plasma from 383 non-infected humans, 31 rabbits, and 24 rhesus macaques...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215551/cmg2-expression-is-an-independent-prognostic-factor-for-soft-tissue-sarcoma-patients
#9
Thomas Greither, Alice Wedler, Swetlana Rot, Jacqueline Keßler, Astrid Kehlen, Hans-Jürgen Holzhausen, Matthias Bache, Peter Würl, Helge Taubert, Matthias Kappler
The capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), also known as the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), is a transmembrane protein putatively involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion and tissue remodeling. CMG2 promotes endothelial cell proliferation and exhibits angiogenic properties. Its downregulation is associated with a worsened survival of breast carcinoma patients. Aim of this study was to analyze the CMG2 mRNA and protein expression in soft tissue sarcoma and their association with patient outcome. CMG2 mRNA was measured in 121 tumor samples of soft tissue sarcoma patients using quantitative real-time PCR...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199984/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-reductase-rfbd
#10
Ashley Law, Alexander Stergioulis, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of the deadly disease Anthrax. Its use in bioterrorism and its ability to re-emerge have brought renewed interest in this organism. B. anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that adds L-rhamnose to its cell-wall polysaccharides using the activated donor dTDP-β-L-rhamnose. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the activated donor are absent in humans, which make them ideal targets for therapeutic development to combat pathogens. Here, the 2.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the fourth enzyme in the dTDP-β-L-rhamnose-biosynthetic pathway from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198864/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-anthrax-edema-factor
#11
Guan-Sheng Jiao, Seongjin Kim, Mahtab Moayeri, April Thai, Lynne Cregar-Hernandez, Linda McKasson, Sean O'Malley, Stephen H Leppla, Alan T Johnson
Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity...
November 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156374/genetic-profiling-and-surface-proteome-analysis-of-human-atrial-stromal-cells-and-rat-ventricular-epicardium-derived-cells-reveals-novel-insights-into-their-cardiogenic-potential
#12
Sebastian Temme, Daniela Friebe, Timo Schmidt, Gereon Poschmann, Julia Hesse, Bodo Steckel, Kai Stühler, Meik Kunz, Thomas Dandekar, Zhaoping Ding, Payam Akhyari, Artur Lichtenberg, Jürgen Schrader
Epicardium-derived cells (EPDC) and atrial stromal cells (ASC) display cardio-regenerative potential, but the molecular details are still unexplored. Signals which induce activation, migration and differentiation of these cells are largely unknown. Here we have isolated rat ventricular EPDC and rat/human ASC and performed genetic and proteomic profiling. EPDC and ASC expressed epicardial/mesenchymal markers (WT-1, Tbx18, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD105), cardiac markers (Gata4, Tbx5, troponin T) and also contained phosphocreatine...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155651/enhancing-surveillance-and-diagnostics-in-anthrax-endemic-countries
#13
Antonio R Vieira, Johanna S Salzer, Rita M Traxler, Katherine A Hendricks, Melissa E Kadzik, Chung K Marston, Cari B Kolton, Robyn A Stoddard, Alex R Hoffmaster, William A Bower, Henry T Walke
Naturally occurring anthrax disproportionately affects the health and economic welfare of poor, rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control programs. Effective prevention of anthrax outbreaks among humans is accomplished through routine livestock vaccination programs and prompt response to animal outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145870/bacillus-anthracis-gamma-phage-lysis-among-soil-bacteria-an-update-on-test-specificity
#14
Cari B Kolton, Nicole L Podnecky, Sean V Shadomy, Jay E Gee, Alex R Hoffmaster
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and animals, is enzootic in parts of the U.S. state of Texas where cases are typically reported in animals annually. The gamma phage lysis assay is a common diagnostic method for identification of B. anthracis and is based on the bacterium's susceptibility to lysis. This test has been shown to be 97% specific for B. anthracis, as a small number of strains of other Bacillus spp. are known to be susceptible. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a combination of B...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136755/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-a-cutaneous-anthrax-outbreak-in-huairou-district-of-beijing
#15
X J Zhao, L Y Liu, C Li, X Yan, Z P Gao, Y Liu, B D Wang, T Guan, Z Q Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#16
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#17
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125719/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-obiltoxaximab-after-intramuscular-administration-to-healthy-humans
#18
Christa F Nagy, Timothy S Leach, Alex King, Robert Guttendorf
Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103500/ratiometric-fluorescence-detection-of-an-anthrax-biomarker-with-eu-3-chelated-chitosan-biopolymers
#19
Mert Donmez, Huseyin Avni Oktem, M Deniz Yilmaz
A novel chitosan-based ratiometric fluorescent probe incorporating an EDTA-Eu(3+) complex as the sensing unit and fluorescein dye as the internal standard was designed to detect dipicolinic acid (DPA) as an anthrax biomarker with high sensitivity and selectivity. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescein dye attached to the chitosan backbone remains constant as an internal reference, while the Eu(3+) emission increased linearly upon the consecutive addition of DPA. The selectivity studies were performed by adding different competitive aromatic ligands to the sensing environment and no signifacant fluorescence response was observed...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076567/statistical-interpretation-of-the-amerithrax-morph-assay-results
#20
Stephan Paul Velsko, Joanne J Osburn, Sushil K Sharma, James D Ashley
In the Amerithrax investigation PCR-based "morph assays" were used to link the anthrax letters with the RMR-1029 flask at USAMRIID. Quantitative data reported for several of these assays are not consistent with Poisson sampling statistics, but instead exhibit "Taylor's Law" behavior where the variance greatly exceeds the mean. A plausible statistical model for this behavior can explain the large number of observed negative and "inconclusive" findings, and implies a high likelihood that a repository sample could contain a "morph" mutant at concentrations well above the nominal detection limit but nonetheless give a negative or inconclusive test result...
October 27, 2017: Electrophoresis
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