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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820129/role-of-food-insecurity-in-outbreak-of-anthrax-infections-among-humans-and-hippopotamuses-living-in-a-game-reserve-area-rural-zambia
#1
Mark W Lehman, Allen S Craig, Constantine Malama, Muzala Kapina-Kany'anga, Philip Malenga, Fanny Munsaka, Sergio Muwowo, Sean Shadomy, Melissa A Marx
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798957/holographic-deep-learning-for-rapid-optical-screening-of-anthrax-spores
#2
YoungJu Jo, Sangjin Park, JaeHwang Jung, Jonghee Yoon, Hosung Joo, Min-Hyeok Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Myung Chul Choi, Sang Yup Lee, YongKeun Park
Establishing early warning systems for anthrax attacks is crucial in biodefense. Despite numerous studies for decades, the limited sensitivity of conventional biochemical methods essentially requires preprocessing steps and thus has limitations to be used in realistic settings of biological warfare. We present an optical method for rapid and label-free screening of Bacillus anthracis spores through the synergistic application of holographic microscopy and deep learning. A deep convolutional neural network is designed to classify holographic images of unlabeled living cells...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797061/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-trials-testing-anti-toxin-therapies-for-b-anthracis-infection-a-need-for-more-robust-study-designs-and-results
#3
Wanying Xu, Lernik Ohanjandian, Junfeng Sun, Xizhong Cui, Dante Suffredini, Yan Li, Judith Welsh, Peter Q Eichacker
BACKGROUND: B. anthracis anti-toxin agents are approved and included in the Strategic National Stockpile based primarily on animal infection trials. However, in the only anthrax outbreak an approved anti-toxin agent was administered in, survival did not differ comparing recipients and non-recipients, although recipients appeared sicker. OBJECTIVE: Employ a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate preclinical studies supporting anthrax anti-toxin agents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783216/sensitive-quantitative-naked-eye-biodetection-with-polyhedral-cu-nanoshells
#4
Jae-Ho Kim, Jeong-Eun Park, Mouhong Lin, Sungi Kim, Gyeong-Hwan Kim, SungJun Park, GwangPyo Ko, Jwa-Min Nam
One of the most heavily used methods in chemical and biological labeling, detection, and imaging is based on silver shell-based enhancement on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) that is useful for amplifying Rayleigh scattering, colorimetric signal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and electrical signal, but poor structural controllability and nonspecific growth of silver shells have limited its applications, especially with respect to signal reproducibility and quantification. Here, a highly specific, well-defined Cu nanopolyhedral shell overgrowth chemistry is developed with the aid of polyethyleneimine (PEI) on AuNPs, and the use of this PEI-mediated Cu polyhedral nanoshell (CuP) chemistry is shown as a means of light-scattering signal enhancement for the development of naked-eye-based highly sensitive and quantitative detections of DNA and viruses...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774908/anthrax-cousin-wreaks-havoc-in-the-rainforest
#5
Kai Kupferschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774566/correlation-between-anthrax-lethal-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-levels-and-survival-in-guinea-pigs-and-nonhuman-primates-vaccinated-with-the-av7909-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#6
Vladimir Savransky, Jeffry D Shearer, Melicia R Gainey, Daniel C Sanford, Gloria S Sivko, Gregory V Stark, Na Li, Boris Ionin, Michael J Lacy, Mario H Skiadopoulos
The anthrax vaccine candidate AV7909 is being developed as a next generation vaccine for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication against anthrax. AV7909 consists of the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax®) bulk drug substance adjuvanted with the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) compound, CPG 7909. The addition of CPG 7909 to AVA enhances both the magnitude and the kinetics of antibody responses in animals and human subjects, making AV7909 a suitable next-generation vaccine for use in a PEP setting...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770842/persistent-anthrax-as-a-major-driver-of-wildlife-mortality-in-a-tropical-rainforest
#7
Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg, Gregory Brazolla, Katherine Corogenes, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Tobias Deschner, Paula Dieguez, Karsten Dierks, Ariane Düx, Susann Dupke, Henk Eshuis, Pierre Formenty, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Annemarie Goedmakers, Jan F Gogarten, Anne-Céline Granjon, Scott McGraw, Roland Grunow, John Hart, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, John Kiang, Kevin Langergraber, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Siv Aina Leendertz, Floraine Léguillon, Vera Leinert, Therese Löhrich, Sergio Marrocoli, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Amelia Meier, Kevin Merkel, Sonja Metzger, Mizuki Murai, Svenja Niedorf, Hélène De Nys, Andreas Sachse, Joost van Schijndel, Ulla Thiesen, Els Ton, Doris Wu, Lothar H Wieler, Christophe Boesch, Silke R Klee, Roman M Wittig, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770840/ecology-chimps-at-risk-from-anthrax
#8
Anna Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768476/pan-genome-and-phylogeny-of-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato
#9
Adam L Bazinet
BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i...
August 2, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767322/anthrax-in-the-mackenzie-wood-bison-bison-bison-athabascae-population-2012-anthrax-outbreak-and-historical-exposure-in-nonoutbreak-years
#10
Dallas New, Brett Elkin, Terry Armstrong, Tasha Epp
Anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, poses a threat to wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) conservation. We used descriptive epidemiology to characterize a large outbreak of anthrax in the Mackenzie bison population in the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2012 and investigated historical serologic exposure of the bison to the bacterium in nonoutbreak years. Between late June and early August 2012, 451 bison carcasses were detected; mortality peaked from 13-19 July. A substantial number of calves, yearlings, and adult females died in the 2012 outbreak, unlike in two previous anthrax outbreaks in this population that killed mostly mature males...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762675/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#11
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760903/tetrazole-based-trans-translation-inhibitors-kill-bacillus-anthracis-spores-to-protect-host-cells
#12
John N Alumasa, Tyler D P Goralski, Kenneth C Keiler
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, remains a significant threat to humans, including potential use in bioterrorism and biowarfare. The capacity to engineer strains with increased pathogenicity coupled with the ease of disseminating lethal doses of B. anthracis spores makes it necessary to identify chemical agents that target and kill spores. Here, we demonstrate that a tetrazole-based trans-translation inhibitor, KKL-55, is bactericidal against vegetative cells of B. anthracis in culture. Using a fluorescent analog, we show that this class of compounds co-localizes with developing endospores and bind purified spores in vitro KKL-55 was effective against spores at concentrations close to its MIC for vegetative cells...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747367/rapid-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-blood-stream-infections-using-a-novel-assay-in-the-genexpert-system
#13
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Riccardo Russo, Eric Singleton, Darshini Shah, Bhavana Patel, Michele Burday, Ranie Koshy, Qing Wang, Martin Jones, Alexander Gall, Sergey Lokhov, Robert Kwiatkowski, David Persing, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND.Bacillus anthracis is a tier1 select agent with the potential to quickly cause severe disease. Rapid identification of this pathogen may accelerate treatment and reduce mortality in the event of a bioterrorism attack. We developed a rapid and sensitive assay to detect B. anthracis bacteremia using a system that is suitable for point of care testing.METHODS. A filter-based cartridge that included both sample processing and PCR amplification functions was loaded with all reagents needed for sample processing and multiplex nested PCR...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737624/palpebral-antrax
#14
Adil Bozpolat, Didem Atici, Nazan Ulgen Tekerek, Duran Arslan
A 13 year old male patient presented with a complaint of swelling of the left eye starting 3 days ago. Bullous lesion and purulent discharge were present on his left eyelids. B. antracis was shown in culture and diagnosis was confirmed. Oculocutaneous anthrax is a rare condition but the diagnosis should be considered in patients with a painless necrotizing ulcer.
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716196/maximum-entropy-modeling-risk-of-anthrax-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan
#15
S K Abdrakhmanov, Y Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, A S Kadyrov, D B Kushubaev, T G Bakishev
The objective of this study was to zone the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) into risk categories according to the probability of anthrax emergence in farm animals as stipulated by the re-activation of preserved natural foci. We used historical data on anthrax morbidity in farm animals during the period 1933 - 2014, collected by the veterinary service of the RK. The database covers the entire territory of the RK and contains 4058 anthrax outbreaks tied to 1798 unique locations. Considering the strongly pronounced natural focality of anthrax, we employed environmental niche modeling (Maxent) to reveal patterns in the outbreaks' linkages to specific combinations of environmental factors...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708938/interactions-between-quinolones-and-bacillus-anthracis-gyrase-and-the-basis-of-drug-resistance
#16
Rachel E Ashley, R Hunter Lindsey, Sylvia A McPherson, Charles L Turnbough, Robert J Kerns, Neil Osheroff
Gyrase appears to be the primary cellular target for quinolone antibacterials in multiple pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Given the significance of this type II topoisomerase as a drug target, it is critical to understand how quinolones interact with gyrase and how specific mutations lead to resistance. However, these important issues have yet to be addressed for a canonical gyrase. Therefore, we utilized a mechanistic approach to characterize interactions of quinolones with wild-type B...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702375/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-involved-in-regulation-of-growth-and-spore-formation-of-bacillus-anthracis-pasteur-ii-strain
#17
Xudong Liang, Jin Zhu, Zhongzhi Zhao, Feng Zheng, Enmin Zhang, Jianchun Wei, Yon Ji, Yinduo Ji
Anthrax toxins and capsules, which are encoded by genes located on pXO1 and pXO2, respectively, are major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to high-temperatures is unable to abolish the pXO1 plasmid of the Pasteur II strain, but the growth of the strain was obviously slower than that of the Sterne strain and wild-type virulent strain. To elucidate a potential regulatory mechanism of slowing growth, we employed comparative genome and bioinformatic analysis and revealed a unique SNP (G to T) at the 143135 bp position in pXO1 that is possibly involved in the mediation of growth of Pasteur II...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701192/protection-of-farm-goats-by-combinations-of-recombinant-peptides-and-formalin-inactivated-spores-from-a-lethal-bacillus-anthracis-challenge-under-field-conditions
#18
Susanne M Koehler, Fatih Buyuk, Ozgur Celebi, Hayati Demiraslan, Mehmet Doganay, Mitat Sahin, Jens Moehring, Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Salih Otlu, Henriette van Heerden, Wolfgang Beyer
BACKGROUND: Bacillus (B.) anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, is effectively controlled by the Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) in animals. However, live spore vaccines are not suitable for simultaneous vaccination and antibiotic treatment of animals being at risk of infection in an outbreak situation. Non-living vaccines could close this gap. RESULTS: In this study a combination of recombinant protective antigen and recombinant Bacillus collagen-like antigen (rBclA) with or without formalin inactivated spores (FIS), targeted at raising an immune response against both the toxins and the spore of B...
July 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696235/evaluation-of-combination-drug-therapy-for-treatment-of-antibiotic-resistant-inhalation-anthrax-in-a-murine-model
#19
H S Heine, S V Shadomy, A E Boyer, L Chuvala, R Riggins, A Kesterson, J Myrick, J Craig, M G Candela, J R Barr, K Hendricks, W A Bower, H Walke, G L Drusano
Bacillus anthracis is considered a likely agent to be used as a bioweapon and use of a strain resistance to the first-line antimicrobial treatments is a concern. We determined treatment efficacy against a ciprofloxacin-resistant (C(r)) strain of B. anthracis (C(r) Ames) in a murine inhalational anthrax model. Ten groups of 46 BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 7-35 LD50 of B. anthracis C(r) Ames spores. Commencing at 36 hours (h) post-exposure, groups were administered intraperitoneal doses of sterile water for injections (SWI) and ciprofloxacinalone (control groups), or ciprofloxacin combined with two antimicrobials including meropenem/linezolid, meropenem/clindamycin, meropenem/rifampin, meropenem/doxycycline, penicillin/linezolid, penicillin/doxycycline, rifampin/linezolid, or rifampin/clindamycin at appropriate dosing intervals(6 or 12 hours) for the respective antibiotics...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#20
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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