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Solution liquid solid

Weifang Chen, Yan Qu, Zhihua Xu, Feifei He, Zai Chen, Sisi Huang, Yuxiang Li
Heavy metal-contaminated sediments posed a serious threat to both human beings and environment. A biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, was employed as the washing agent to remove heavy metals in river sediment. Batch experiments were conducted to test the removal capability. The effects of rhamnolipid concentration, washing time, solution pH, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The speciation of heavy metals before and after washing in sediment was also analyzed. Heavy metal washing was favored at high concentration, long washing time, and high pH...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Somayeh Arghavani-Beydokhti, Maryam Rajabi, Alireza Asghari
A novel, efficient, rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and environmentally friendly method termed magnetic dispersive micro solid-phase extraction combined with supramolecular solvent-based microextraction (Mdμ-SPE-SSME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection is introduced for the simultaneous microextraction of cholesterol-lowering drugs in complicated matrices. In the first microextraction procedure, using layered double hydroxide (LDH)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, an efficient sample cleanup is simply and rapidly provided without the need for time-consuming centrifugation and elution steps...
May 26, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sally A El-Zahaby, Mohamed H H AbouGhaly, Ghada A Abdelbary, Omaima N El-Gazayerly
Solid self-nanoemulsifying (S-SNEDDS) asymmetrically coated osmotic tablets of the poorly water-soluble drug Vinpocetine (VNP) were designed. The aim was to control the release of VNP by the osmotic technology taking advantage of the solubility and bioavailability-enhancing capacity of S-SNEDDS. Liquid SNEDDS loaded with 2.5 mg VNP composed of Maisine™ 35-1, Transcutol® HP and Cremophor(®) EL was adsorbed on the solid carrier Aeroperl(®). S-SNEDDS was mixed with the osmotic tablet excipients (Sodium chloride, Avicel(®), HPMC-K4M, PVP-K30 and Lubripharm(®)), then directly compressed to form the core tablet...
May 25, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Juan Wan, Xiaowen Sun, Cheng Liu, Mengjun Tang, Lin Li, Hong Ni
A triplicate volcanic rock matrix-Bacillus thuringiensis-laccase WlacD (VRMs-Bt-WlacD) dye decolorization system was developed. WlacD was displayed on the B. thuringiensis MB174 cell surface to prepare a whole-cell laccase biocatalyst by using two repeat N-terminal domains of autolysin Mbg (Mbgn)2 as the anchoring motif. Immunofluorescence microscopic assays confirmed that the fusion protein (Mbgn)2-WlacD was anchored on the surface of the recombinant B. thuringiensis MB174. After optimization by a single factor test, L 9(3(4))-orthogonal test, Plackett-Burman test, steepest ascent method, and Box-Behnken response surface methodology, the whole-cell specific laccase activity of B...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
M V Santos, M Sansinena, N Zaritzky, J Chirife
  BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem...
March 2017: Cryo Letters
Junting Zhang, Xiaoning Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shaoning Yu
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the widely used vibrational spectroscopic methods in protein structural analysis. The protein solution sample loaded in demountable CaF2 liquid cell presents a challenge and is limited to high concentrations. Some researchers attempted the simpler solid-film sampling method for the collection of protein FTIR spectra. In this study, the solid-film sampling FTIR method was studied in detail. The secondary structure components of some globular proteins were determined by this sampling method, and the results were consistent with those data determined by the traditional solution sampling FTIR method and X-ray crystallography, indicating that this sampling method is feasible and efficient for the structural characterization of proteins...
May 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kyle Benzle, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are used as an efficient target tissue for plant transformation assays. In root propagable species transformed roots are able to regenerate into whole plants without the addition of exogenous hormones, thus avoiding somaclonal variation associated with many plant transformation protocols. Plants grown in soil or soilless solid medium have roots that tend to be extremely delicate and are difficult to sterilize in advance of plant transformation experiments. Axenic tissue culture plants grown on semi-solid media are slow to produce large amounts of biomass compared to plants grown in solution-based media...
2017: Plant Methods
Alessandro Iagatti, Barbara Patrizi, Andrea Basagni, Agnese Marcelli, Andrea Alessi, Stefano Zanardi, Roberto Fusco, Mario Salvalaggio, Laura Bussotti, Paolo Foggi
The relationships between the photophysics and structural properties of 4,7-dithien-2-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as a function of solvent polarity are investigated both experimentally and by computational methods. Stationary fluorescence measurements are consistent with a model envisaging the presence of three types of conformers in equilibrium in the ground state. They are characterized by different relative orientations of the thiophene rings. Due to a low rotational barrier, the sample in solution is characterized by a distribution of relative internal orientations...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dan Zhang, Thomas Thundat, Ravin Narain
Temperature-responsive copolymer with cationic charge was prepared with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylamide hydrochloride (AEMA) by conventional free-radical polymerization. The flocculation performance of the copolymer, poly(AEMA-st-NIPAM), was compared to five different mixture ratios of polyNIPAM and cationic poly(acrylamide-st-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (poly(AAm-st-DADMAC)). The effects of polymer mixture ratios, polymer dosages, and temperature on solid-liquid separation as a function of initial settling rates (ISR), supernatant turbidity, sediment solids content and water recovery were investigated...
May 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zi-Qiang Fan, Hong Yu
This paper presents a novel analytical method for the determination of piperidinium ionic liquid cations in environmental water by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction technology. The left standing, centrifuged and filtered river water samples were first purified and concentrated through the C18 solid phase extraction column, and eluted with 0.02mol/L hydrochloric acid prepared in methanol and deionized water (80/20, v/v). Then the eluents were analyzed by a hydrophilic column combined with 0...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Alexander Yulaev, Alexey Lipatov, Annie Xi Lu, Alexander Sinitskii, Marina S Leite, Andrei Kolmakov
We demonstrate a technique for facile encapsulation and adhesion of micro- and nano objects on arbitrary substrates, stencils, and micro structured surfaces by ultrathin graphene oxide membranes via a simple drop casting of graphene oxide solution. A self-assembled encapsulating membrane forms during the drying process at the liquid-air and liquid-solid interfaces and consists of a water-permeable quasi-2D network of overlapping graphene oxide flakes. Upon drying and interlocking between the flakes, the encapsulating coating around the object becomes mechanically robust, chemically protective, and yet highly transparent to electrons and photons in a wide energy range, enabling microscopic and spectroscopic access to encapsulated objects...
January 23, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
Zhihao Zhou, Wei Zheng, Jintao Kong, Yan Liu, Ping Huang, Shanyong Zhou, Zhuo Chen, Jianlin Shi, Xueyuan Chen
Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) have shown great promise in the field of biomedicine, but are currently limited by the challenge in the synthesis of high-quality PLNPs with bright persistent luminescence and a long afterglow time. Herein, we report a facile strategy for the synthesis of monodisperse, rechargeable and LED-activated ZnGa2O4 : Cr(3+) near-infrared (NIR) PLNPs based on a modified solvothermal liquid-solid-solution method. The as-synthesized PLNPs are not only flexible for bioconjugation, but could also circumvent the limitation of the weak persistent luminescence and short afterglow time that most PLNPs confronted owing to their rechargeable capability...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
Javor K Novev, Richard G Compton
We investigate the heat transfer in a cylinder-shaped electrochemical cell with solid, thermally insulating walls. The cell is filled with a liquid and a solid substrate that is thermostated from below is situated at its base. The initial temperature of the liquid is different from that of the substrate so as to mimic imperfect thermostating in an electrochemical experiment; as heat transfer acts to diminish the temperature difference between the two, natural convection ensues. The influence of inhomogeneities in the thermal conductivity of the solid is studied - numerical simulations of the heat transfer in the system are conducted for substrates that are comprised of a thermally conductive material, an insulating one or a combination thereof...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rixiang Huang, Peng Yi, Yuanzhi Tang
Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) provide a new analytical opportunity and prospect to characterize many environmental processes at solid/liquid interfaces, thanks to their almost real-time measurement of physicochemical changes on their quartz sensor. This work reviews the applications of QCMs in probing the interactions of organic molecules, nanomaterials (NMs) and microbes with solid surfaces. These interfacial interactions are relevant to critical environmental processes such as biofilm formation, fate and transport of NMs, fouling in engineering systems and antifouling practices...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Joshua Demuth, Eli Fahrenkrug, Luyao Ma, Titilayo Shodiya, Julia I Deitz, Tyler J Grassman, Stephen Maldonado
Deposition of epitaxial germanium (Ge) thin films on silicon (Si) wafers has been achieved over large areas with aqueous feedstock solutions using electrochemical liquid phase epitaxy (ec-LPE) at low temperatures (T ≤ 90 °C). The ec-LPE method uniquely blends the simplicity and control of traditional electrodeposition with the material quality of melt growth. A new electrochemical cell design based on the compression of a liquid metal electrode into a thin cavity that enables ec-LPE is described. The epitaxial nature, low strain character, and crystallographic defect content of the resultant solid Ge films were analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and electron channeling contrast imaging...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Heidi Leonard, Sarel Halachmi, Nadav Ben-Dov, Ofer Nativ, Ester Segal
With global antimicrobial resistance becoming increasingly detrimental to society, improving current clinical antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is crucial to allow physicians to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment as early as possible, reducing not only mortality rates but also the emergence of resistant pathogens. In this work, we tackle the main bottlenecks in clinical AST by designing biofunctionalized silicon micropillar arrays to provide both a preferable solid-liquid interface for bacteria networking and a simultaneous transducing element that monitors the response of bacteria when exposed to chosen antibiotics in real time...
May 9, 2017: ACS Nano
Renata Jędrkiewicz, Agnieszka Głowacz-Różyńska, Justyna Gromadzka, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik
A novel method for indirect determination of MCPD esters levels in lipid samples has been developed. The method is based on combination of extraction and derivatization in the same sample preparation step. It is achieved by the application of diethyl ether as extraction solvent for isolation of analytes released from esterified forms from the water phase and as dilution solvent for solid PBA - the derivatization agent. It is a noteworthy improvement of recommended indirect approaches available in the literature because such steps as sample clean-up, multiple liquid-liquid extractions, and preconcentration are excluded in the proposed solution...
May 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
K Miyazawa, M Watkins, A L Shluger, T Fukuma
Recent advancement in liquid-environment atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled us to visualize three-dimensional (3D) hydration structures as well as two-dimensional (2D) surface structures with subnanometer-scale resolution at solid-water interfaces. However, the influence of ions present in solution on the 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements has not been well understood. In this study, we perform atomic-scale 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements at fluorite-water interfaces in pure water and a supersaturated solution of fluorite...
May 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
Piotr Jamroz, Krzysztof Greda, Anna Dzimitrowicz, Krzysztof Swiderski, Pawel Pohl
A novel liquid drop anode (LDA) direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge (dc-APGD) system was applied for direct determination of Cd in small-volume samples solutions by optical emission spectrometry (OES). The microdischarge was generated in open-to-air atmosphere between a solid pin type tungsten cathode and liquid drop placed on a graphite disk anode. The arrangement of the graphite disk placed on a PTFE chip platform as well as the solid pin type cathode was simple and robust. The limit of detection (LOD) of Cd for the developed LDA-APGD-OES method was 0...
May 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Dong-Hao Zhao, Qiang Wang, Xu-Feng Wang, Zhi-Guang Li, Yong-Xian Li, Ke Huang, Liu-Dong Li
A practical solid-phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of the fish anesthetic MS-222 in water. Water samples were concentrated and purified using three SPE cartridges of different specifications. Elution curves of MS-222 were constructed using various methanol-water solutions on the different cartridges, and SPE conditions were optimized in accordance with the elution curves. The mobile phase containing methanol and 0...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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