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Solution liquid solid

Susmitha Ambadipudi, Jacek Biernat, Dietmar Riedel, Eckhard Mandelkow, Markus Zweckstetter
The protein Tau aggregates into tangles in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In solution, however, Tau is intrinsically disordered, highly soluble, and binds to microtubules. It is still unclear what initiates the conversion from an innocuous phase of high solubility and functionality to solid-like neurotoxic deposits. Here, we show that the microtubule-binding repeats of Tau, which are lysine-rich, undergo liquid-liquid phase separation in solution. Liquid-liquid demixing causes molecular crowding of amyloid-promoting elements of Tau and drives electrostatic coacervation...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Giuseppe Di Marco, Raffaella Manuzzi
The recovery of off-gas, waste, and biomass in Large Combustion Plants for energy production gives the opportunity to recycle waste and by-products and to recover materials produced in agricultural and industrial activities. The paper illustrates the Italian situation regarding the production of energy from off-gas, biomass, and waste in Large Combustion Plants subject to Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) National Permit. Moreover, it focuses on the 4 Italian Large Combustion Plants producing energy from biomass and waste...
August 14, 2017: Waste Management
Imane Benhamed, Laurie Barthe, Rachid Kessas, Henri Delmas, Carine Julcour
Oxidative regeneration of activated carbon exhausted with phenolic compounds is still a challenging issue due to the frequent porosity loss. Addition of low H2O2 amount is investigated as a way to promote catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of adsorbed pollutants and thereby to recover absorbent properties. Commercial activated carbon and transition metal (iron or copper) modified counterparts are tested in repeated adsorption / batch peroxide-promoted CWAO of phenol. Cycles are operated in both fixed bed and slurry reactors to vary the initial pollutant distribution in between the two phases...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Christine Carola Holzammer, Judith Maria Schicks, Stefan Will, Andreas Siegfried Braeuer
We present an experimental study on the formation and dissociation characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas hydrates using Raman spectroscopy. The CO2 hydrates were formed from sodium-chloride/water solutions with salinities of 0-10 wt-%, which were pressurized with liquid CO2 in a stirred vessel at 6 MPa and a subcooling of 9.5 K. The formation of the CO2 hydrate resulted in a hydrate gel where the solid hydrate can be considered as the continuous phase that includes small amounts of a dispersed liquid water-rich phase that has not been converted to hydrate...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Zongxia Guo, Kun Wang, Ping Yu, Shengyue Zhang, Kai Sun, Zhibo Li
The impact of hydrogen bond formation on the supramolecular assembly of two perylene imide derivatives (PMAMI and PDINH) was systematically investigated in solution and at the liquid-solid interface. PDINH has intrinsic hydrogen bond sites, but this is not the case for PMAMI. The solution assembly was explored by morphological methods (SEM, AFM, TEM and cryo-TEM) and spectral characterization (UV-vis, FL, XRD, and FTIR spectra). The surface assembly at the liquid-solid interface was detected by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhijian Yao, Qingqing Zhao, Yan Ma, Wei Wang, Qing Zhou, Aimin Li
In this research a new magnetic material called M88 was fully synthetized and characterized for the extraction of pharmaceutical and personal care products in water samples. In addition, a portable prototype of magnetic solidphase extraction (MSPE) device was developed for the onsite preconcentration. The MSPE coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-Diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 11 PPCPs (mefenamic acid, chloroamphenicol, ketoprofen, clofibric acid, indometacin, acetylsalicylic acid, bisphenol A, phenylphenol, gemfibrozil, triclosan, and ibuprofen) in environmental water samples...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
T Okabe, H Terashima, A Sakamoto
We previously demonstrated that the gastric emptying time of different liquids with the same volume mainly depended on their energy content, regardless of differences in composition. In this crossover study, we investigated whether the same applies when soluble solid foods are ingested with water. Ten healthy volunteers ingested one of five test diets consisting of two test meals (Calorie Mate(®) 100 and 200 kcal) and three test solutions (water and glucose solutions of 100 and 200 kcal), each given in a volume of 400 ml, and then underwent ultrasonography to measure the gastric antral cross-sectional area every 10 min for 120 min...
August 14, 2017: Anaesthesia
Anna Lymperatou, Hariklia N Gavala, Ioannis V Skiadas
Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
E Adriaens, J A Willoughby, B R Meyer, L C Blakeman, N Alépée, P Fochtman, R Guest, H Kandarova, S Verstraelen, A R Van Rompay
Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and establish an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One assay selected was the Short Time Exposure (STE) assay. This assay measures the viability of SIRC rabbit corneal cells after 5min exposure to 5% and 0...
August 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
A L Greer
In all of metallurgical processing, probably the most prominent example of nucleation control is the "inoculation" of melts to suppress columnar solidification and to obtain fine equiaxed grain structures in the as-cast solid. In inoculation, a master alloy is added to the melt to increase its solute content and to add stable particles that can act as nucleants for solid grains. This is important for alloys of many metals, and in other cases such as ice nucleation in living systems, but inoculation of aluminum alloys using Al-5Ti-1B (wt...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qiuci Miao, Erping Bi, Binghua Li
Adsorption mechanisms of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride ([OMIM]Cl) on rice straw-derived biochars produced at 400, 500, and 700 °C (referred as RB400, RB500, and RB700, respectively) were evaluated. Adsorption affinity followed the order of RB700 > RB400 > RB500. Electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bond controlled adsorption of [OMIM]Cl on RB400, while π-π EDA interaction between [OMIM]Cl and the aromatic rings of biochar dominated adsorption of RB500 and RB700. With increasing solution pH, -COOH and -OH on biochar became deprotonated...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Giuseppe Lazzara, Richard A Campbell, Solmaz Bayati, Kaizheng Zhu, Bo Nyström, Tommy Nylander, Karin Schillén
The thermal responsive behavior of adsorbed layers of diblock copolymers of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) and poly((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAMPTMA(+)) with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) at the solid/liquid interface has been investigated using three in situ techniques: null ellipsometry, quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and neutron reflectometry. The measurements provided information about the adsorbed amounts, the layer thickness, hydration and viscoelastic properties, and the interfacial structure and composition...
2017: Colloid and Polymer Science
Jonas Duus Stevens Lekfeldt, Charlotte Kjaergaard, Jakob Magid
Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Zhiyuan Zeng, Wenjing Zheng, Haimei Zheng
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become a powerful analytical tool for addressing unique scientific problems in chemical sciences as well as in materials sciences and other disciplines. There has been a lot of recent interest in the development and applications of liquid phase environmental TEM. In this Account, we review the development and applications of liquid cell TEM for the study of dynamic phenomena at liquid-solid interfaces, focusing on two areas: (1) nucleation, growth, and self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals and (2) electrode-electrolyte interfaces during charge and discharge processes...
August 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Hong Wan, Bo Zhang, Xiao-Lin Bai, Yan Zhao, Meng-Wei Xiao, Xun Liao
A new, rapid, green, and cost-effective magnetic solid-phase extraction of ochratoxin A from red wine samples was developed using polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the absorbent. The polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes were fabricated with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes and dopamine by an in situ oxidative self-polymerization approach. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry were used to characterize the absorbents...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Yuhou Yang, Bo Song, Zhanbing Yang, Gaoyang Song, Zeyun Cai, Zhancheng Guo
There is far less study of the refining effect of super gravity fields on solidification structures of metals than of the effects of electrical currents, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Moreover, the refining mechanisms of super gravity are far from clear. This study applied a super gravity field to Al-Cu alloys to investigate its effect on refining their structures and the mechanism of interaction. The experimental results showed that the solidification structure of Al-Cu alloys can be greatly refined by a super gravity field...
December 10, 2016: Materials
Ning Xia, Xin Wang, Xiaojin Wang, Binbin Zhou
We presented the colorimetric and electrochemical methods for determination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity and screening of its inhibitor using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the probe. In the colorimetric assay, the substrate peptide with a sequence of Arg-Pro-Arg induced the aggregation and color change of AuNPs, whereas cleavage of the peptide by DPP-IV prevented the aggregation of AuNPs. Furthermore, the aggregation of AuNPs in the solution was easily initiated on a solid/liquid (electrode/electrolyte) surface, which induced a decrease in the electron-transfer resistance...
October 21, 2016: Materials
Francesco Todescato, Ilaria Fortunati, Alessandro Minotto, Raffaella Signorini, Jacek J Jasieniak, Renato Bozio
Semiconductor nanocrystals are rapidly spreading into the display and lighting markets. Compared with liquid crystal and organic LED displays, nanocrystalline quantum dots (QDs) provide highly saturated colors, wide color gamut, resolution, rapid response time, optical efficiency, durability and low cost. This remarkable progress has been made possible by the rapid advances in the synthesis of colloidal QDs and by the progress in understanding the intriguing new physics exhibited by these nanoparticles. In this review, we provide support to the idea that suitably engineered core/graded-shell QDs exhibit exceptionally favorable optical properties, photoluminescence and optical gain, while keeping the synthesis facile and producing QDs well suited for light emitting applications...
August 9, 2016: Materials
Stanisław Fic, Andrzej Szewczak, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Grzegorz Łagód
The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1-5) and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6-10). Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication...
January 6, 2017: Materials
O Kuzmina, E Symianakis, D Godfrey, T Albrecht, T Welton
We studied leaching of Cu and Fe from naturally occurring chalcopyrite ore using aqueous solutions of ionic liquids (ILs) based on imidazolium and ethylammonium cations and hydrogensulfate, nitrate, acetate or dicyanamide anions. Liquid, solid and gas phases of the leaching systems were characterised. We have shown that nonoxidative leaching is greatly dependant not only on temperature and pH, but on the anion species of the IL. Solutions of 1-butylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate exhibited the best leaching performance among hydrogen sulphate ILs...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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