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Ryan S Noyce, Seth Lederman, David H Evans
Edward Jenner and his contemporaries believed that his variolae vaccinae originated in horses and molecular analyses show that modern vaccinia virus (VACV) strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we asked whether an HPXV-based vaccine might provide a superior alternative. Since HPXV may be extinct and the only specimen of HPXV that has been identified is unavailable for investigation, we explored whether HPXV could be obtained by large-scale gene synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Jean-Luc Richard, Christian Schaetti, Sabine Basler, Virginie Masserey Spicher
With a hepatitis B prevalence of 0.3%, Switzerland is a country with low endemicity. Unlike most other countries, Switzerland's recommendation for vaccination against hepatitis B has since 1998 focused on adolescents aged 11 to 15 years rather than on infants, in addition to risk groups since 1982. This paper describes the evolution of the incidence of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and newly reported chronic cases in Switzerland, as well as their epidemiological features, in order to discuss the implications for the control of hepatitis B through vaccination...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Alberto Berardi, Anna Maria Buffagni, Cecilia Rossi, Eleonora Vaccina, Chiara Cattelani, Lucia Gambini, Federica Baccilieri, Francesca Varioli, Fabrizio Ferrari
AIM: To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks' gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Alfred B Jenson, Shin-Je Ghim, John P Sundberg
Few papers have had a greater impact on the health of the human species than the simple, yet elegant, observations and clinical trials of Edward Jenner with what was at the time called the Cow Pox. In fact, this was a naturally attenuated rodent (probably rat) pox that could infect horses and, through farriers and farm hands, dairy cattle. While commonly called the Cow Pox at the time, Jenner's transmission studies between humans used infectious materials from horses. His methods provided protection from the serious effects of smallpox infections...
March 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Kendall A Smith
One of the most celebrated achievements of immunology and modern medicine is the eradication of the dreaded plague smallpox. From the introduction of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner, to its popularization by Louis Pasteur, to the eradication effort led by Donald Henderson, this story has many lessons for us today, including the characteristics of the disease and vaccine that permitted its eradication, and the obviousness of the vaccine as a vector for other intractable Infectious diseases. The disease itself, interpreted in the light of modern molecular immunology, is an obvious immunopathological disease, which occurs after a latent interval of 1-2 weeks, and manifests as a systemic cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) syndrome...
May 2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
B Wolters, T Müller, R S Ross, R Kundt, M Roggendorf, H Roggendorf
AIM OF THE STUDY: People with mental and physical disabilities have a higher risk of infection with hepatitis viruses. Studies conducted so far show contradictory results on the success of vaccination in this population. These people live and work under special conditions and sometimes have immune defects. METHODS: We investigated the antibody response after combined vaccination against hepatitis A and B in facilities for handicapped people in the city of Essen/Germany...
February 2014: Das Gesundheitswesen
B Schwermer
Every influenza season, vaccina-tion campaigns are launched with the aim to achieve higher vaccination rates. Despite diverse educational work, health behaviour regarding influenza vaccination falls short of expectations. The current study explores the relationship between vaccination behaviour and objective infection risk. The hypothesis is that vaccination is performed independently of the objective infection risk. Even with increasing infection risk, no increase of vaccination rate is expected.Questionnaires were filled in by passengers of public transportation services in a southern German city at 3 defined time points...
May 2013: Das Gesundheitswesen
R C Brunham, K M Coombs
This review commemorates the 200th anniversary of Edward Jenner's development of a vaccine for variola, the cause of smallpox, and the 20th anniversary of its eradication. Jenner's original 23 case reports are briefly revisited within the context of earlier attempts to prevent this dreaded disease and in light of the current understanding of vaccinology and immunology. In addition, with molecular biological information available about many pox viruses and detailed sequence knowledge of some, it is now possible to appreciate Jenner's prescient accomplishments more fully...
September 1998: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses
Alfredo de Micheli, Raúl Izaguirre-Avila
The expression "inoculation" of smallpox was first employed by doctor Emanuel Timone, native of the Greek island of Chios and graduated from the Universities of Padua and Oxford. This method was largely employed in the XVIII century. Nevertheless, in 1798, the English physician Edward Jenner published the results of his observartions and his own experience with "vaccination", i. e. the inoculation of cowpox. These were exposed in his book "Inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae". This method soon substituted the variolization...
January 2011: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1945: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Matteo Accetturo, Teresa M Creanza, Claudia Santoro, Giancarlo Tria, Antonio Giordano, Simone Battagliero, Antonella Vaccina, Gaetano Scioscia, Pietro Leo
At present, 51 genes are already known to be responsible for Non-Syndromic hereditary Hearing Loss (NSHL), but the knowledge of 121 NSHL-linked chromosomal regions brings to the hypothesis that a number of disease genes have still to be uncovered. To help scientists to find new NSHL genes, we built a gene-scoring system, integrating Gene Ontology, NCBI Gene and Map Viewer databases, which prioritizes the candidate genes according to their probability to cause NSHL. We defined a set of candidates and measured their functional similarity with respect to the disease gene set, computing a score ( S S M avg) that relies on the assumption that functionally related genes might contribute to the same (disease) phenotype...
2010: PloS One
L Manzoli, P Villari, C Granchelli, A Savino, C Carunchio, M Alessandrini, F Palumbo, C De Vito, F Schioppa, F Di Stanislao, A Boccia
INTRODUCTION: In all Italian regions influenza vaccine is routinely administered to the elderly population. However, vaccination impact has been rarely evaluated because of the high costs of conventional cohort investigations. A promising low-cost alternative approach uses administrative discharge data to derive vaccine effectiveness indicators (hospitalizations and/or deaths) and involves General Practitioners (GPs) to document the exposure. We conducted a cohort analysis using such approach to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness and to investigate the feasibility and validity of that methodology for routine vaccine evaluation...
June 2009: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Lisa A Beck, Mark Boguniewicz, Tissa Hata, Lynda C Schneider, Jon Hanifin, Rich Gallo, Amy S Paller, Susi Lieff, Jamie Reese, Daniel Zaccaro, Henry Milgrom, Kathleen C Barnes, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: A subset of subjects with atopic dermatitis (AD) are susceptible to serious infections with herpes simplex virus, called eczema herpeticum, or vaccina virus, called eczema vaccinatum. OBJECTIVE: This National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded multicenter study was performed to establish a database of clinical information and biologic samples on subjects with AD with and without a history of eczema herpeticum (ADEH(+) and ADEH(-) subjects, respectively) and healthy control subjects...
August 2009: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andrea Rusnock
The introduction of smallpox vaccination after the publication of Edward Jenner's An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of Variolae Vaccinae depended on the spread of cowpox, a relatively rare disease. How Europeans and their colonial allies transported and maintained cowpox in new environments is a social and technological story involving a broad range of individuals from physicians and surgeons to philanthropists, ministers, and colonial administrators. Putting cowpox in new places also meant developing new techniques and organizations...
2009: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Jenny M Tam, Linan Song, David R Walt
Nanoarrays for DNA detection were fabricated on etched nanofiber bundles based on recently developed techniques for microscale arrays. Two different-sized nanoarrays were created: one with 700 nm feature sizes and a 1 microm center-to-center pitch (approximately 1x10(6) array elements/mm(2)) and one with 300 nm feature sizes and a 500 nm center-to-center pitch (4.6x10(6) array elements/mm(2)). A random, multiplexed array composed of oligonucleotide-functionalized nanospheres was constructed and used for parallel detection and analysis of fluorescently labeled DNA targets...
April 15, 2009: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nicola Bisek, Stefan Wetzel, Hans-Dieter Arndt, Herbert Waldmann
The biological activity of macrocyclic natural products depends on their conformational properties. For both the elucidation of enzyme binding affinities as well as the development of selective drugs, rigid macrocyclic scaffolds carry high potential. In this study, 13-membered cyclodepsipeptides based on the structure of naturally occurring stevastelins were studied in detail. Six diastereomeric stevastelin C3 analogues and four phosphorylated derivatives were synthesized. The synthesis of linear precursors was achieved on solid support by starting from stereoisomerically pure 2-methyl-3-hydroxy acids...
2008: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alessandra Gambineri, Laura Patton, Antonella Vaccina, Mauro Cacciari, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Carla Cavazza, Uberto Pagotto, Renato Pasquali
CONTEXT: The few controlled trials performed so far indicate that the addition of metformin and/or flutamide to a hypocaloric diet in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) effectively influences different phenotypic aspects of the syndrome. All these studies are, however, characterized by a short to medium period of treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the long-term effects of these therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a medical center...
October 2006: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wei Huang, Hou-Wen Tian, Jiao Ren, Jiang-Tao Fan, Li Zhao, Li Ruan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is tightly related with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), among which HPV16 is most common. This study was to construct HPV16 L1, L2, E67 coexpression non-replication vaccina virus, and explore its immunization effects. METHODS: HPV16 major capsid protein L1/L2 genes and HPV16 early E6/E7 genes were inserted into a vaccina virus expression vector to construct recombinant vaccina virus NTVJE67CKL1L2 by homologous recombination; the recombinant virus was identified by DNA hybridization and Western blot...
July 2005: Ai Zheng, Aizheng, Chinese Journal of Cancer
Robert J Hopkins, J Michael Lane
BACKGROUND: Numerous literature reports describe clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) for complications of smallpox vaccination, prophylaxis of individuals with contraindications to vaccination, and prevention of smallpox among close contacts of patients with smallpox. METHODS: We reviewed the literature regarding VIG treatment and prophylaxis of smallpox vaccine complications and the use of VIG as a preventative measure for close contacts of patients with smallpox...
September 15, 2004: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Vildana Stojić, Jasminka Petrović, Sead Ahmetagić, Ekrem Jusufović, Dilista Piljić, Sana Sabović, Slavica Mott-Divković, Adem Hodzić
The adults died more frequents from the diseases that could be prevented by vaccinae. To data from WHO HBV infection numbers the nineth place on the list for causes of death. The paper from 1980 proved that chronic HBV carriers have 5-100 folds higher risk for liver carcinoma than noninfected persons lived in the same areas and had the same occupations. In the group of higher risks for HBV infection the medical employees are on the first place. The aim of our paper was to show the high risk of HBV diseased at the Clinic of infectious Diseases and to point HBV vaccina in relation to prevention of HBV infection and HBV chronical carriers...
2004: Medicinski Arhiv
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