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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646713/substance-use-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-agreement-between-medical-records-and-the-assist-questionnaire
#1
Iona K Machado, Paula M Luz, Jordan E Lake, Rodolfo Castro, Luciane Velasque, Jesse L Clark, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Raquel B De Boni
BACKGROUND: Substance use assessment is a challenge in busy clinical settings that may adversely affect HIV-infected persons. This study aimed to evaluate agreement between the medical chart and a standardized substance use screening questionnaire. METHODS: Of adults (n=1050) in HIV care in Rio de Janeiro who completed the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), we randomly selected 200 participants for medical chart review...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#2
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645060/young-people-who-use-drugs-engaged-in-harm-reduction-programs-in-new-york-city-overdose-and-other-risks
#3
Michele Calvo, Jessica MacFarlane, Heather Zaccaro, Matthew Curtis, María Cabán, Jamie Favaro, Marian R Passannante, Taeko Frost
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the engagement of young people who use drugs (PWUD) in harm reduction programs (HRPs), and few studies have included non-opioid users and non-injectors. While HRPs have effectively engaged PWUD, young people are under-represented in their services. METHODS: The Injection Drug Users Health Alliance Citywide Study (IDUCS) is the largest community-based study of PWUD in HRPs in the US. From 2014-2015, 2421 HRP participants across New York City (NYC) completed a cross-sectional survey...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644052/a-little-dab-will-do-ya-in-a-case-report-of-neuro-and-cardiotoxicity-following-use-of-cannabis-concentrates
#4
Shannon S Rickner, Dazhe Cao, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Steven Fleming
CONTEXT: The use of marijuana and cannabis concentrates is increasing, especially following decriminalization in several states. Psychosis and cardiotoxicity have been reported following cannabis use; however, myocardial injury from "dabbing" has not yet been reported. We report a case of hyperthermia, tachycardia, hypertension, severe agitation, neuro-, and cardiotoxicity following the use of "dabs" where there is concomitant confirmatory biological and sample testing. CASE DETAILS: A 17-year-old athletic man developed agitation requiring sedation and intubation for safety, with peak systolic blood pressures in the 190s and hyperthermia (to 102 °F)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641130/sexual-orientation-minority-stress-social-norms-and-substance-use-among-racially-diverse-adolescents
#5
Ethan H Mereish, Jeremy T Goldbach, Claire Burgess, Angelo M DiBello
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641129/moderate-and-vigorous-physical-activity-patterns-among-marijuana-users-results-from-the-2007-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys
#6
Denise C Vidot, Jordan B Bispo, WayWay M Hlaing, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E Messiah
The relationship between marijuana use and recreational physical activity has yet to be explored in the United States. Our aim was to examine this relationship in a population-based sample of 20-to-59-year olds (N=12,618) using 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Marijuana use was categorized as never (reference group), past (previously but not within the last 30-days), and current (>1day in the last 30-days) use. Current users were further categorized based on frequency of use (light, moderate, and heavy users)...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641128/expectancy-of-impairment-attenuates-marijuana-induced-risk-taking
#7
Rachel L Gunn, Linda Skalski, Jane Metrik
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use has been associated with increased risk-taking and impulsive behavior. While pharmacologic effects of marijuana can lead to inhibitory impairment, expectancy of potential impairment may result in compensatory behavioral response by decreasing impulsive decisions and risky behaviors. With the increases in marijuana use and related problems, a better understanding of the individual characteristics associated with marijuana intoxication and risky behavior is needed...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640680/polysubstance-use-among-us-women-of-reproductive-age-who-use-opioids-for-nonmedical-reasons
#8
Marian Jarlenski, Colleen L Barry, Sarah Gollust, Amy J Graves, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Katy Kozhimannil
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and patterns of polysubstance use among US reproductive-aged women who use opioids for nonmedical purposes. METHODS: We used the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2005-2014) data on female respondents aged 18 to 44 years reporting nonmedical opioid use in the past 30 days (unweighted n = 4498). We categorized patterns of polysubstance use in the past 30 days, including cigarettes, binge drinking, and other legal and illicit substances and reported prevalence adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640679/crash-fatality-rates-after-recreational-marijuana-legalization-in-washington-and-colorado
#9
Jayson D Aydelotte, Lawrence H Brown, Kevin M Luftman, Alexandra L Mardock, Pedro G R Teixeira, Ben Coopwood, Carlos V R Brown
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. METHODS: We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640062/an-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-ms-ms-assay-using-online-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-11-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#10
Jelena Klawitter, Cristina Sempio, Sophie Mörlein, Erik De Bloois, Jacek Klepacki, Thomas Henthorn, Maureen A Leehey, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kelly Knupp, George S Wang, Christian Hopfer, Greg Kinney, Russell Bowler, Nicholas Foreman, Jeffrey Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Jost Klawitter
BACKGROUND: Although, especially in the United States, there has been a recent surge of legalized cannabis for either recreational or medicinal purposes, surprisingly little is known about clinical dose-response relationships, pharmaco- and toxicodynamic effects of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Even less is known about other active cannabinoids. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, an online extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites including THC, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11OH-THC), 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THC-C-gluc), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV-COOH) was developed and validated in human urine and plasma...
June 19, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638299/cannabinoids-in-pediatrics
#11
REVIEW
Christopher T Campbell, Marjorie Shaw Phillips, Kalen Manasco
Despite its controversial nature, the use of medical marijuana and cannabis-derived medicinal products grows more popular with each passing year. As of November 2016, over 40 states have passed legislation regarding the use of either medical marijuana or cannabidiol products. Many providers have started encountering patients experimenting with cannabis products for a wide range of conditions. While the debate continues regarding these agents for both medicinal and recreational use in the general population, special consideration needs to be made for pediatric use...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637382/rates-and-correlates-of-binge-drinking-among-college-students-with-disabilities-united-states-2013
#12
Steven L West, Carolyn W Graham, Peter Temple
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to provide the first comprehensive picture of alcohol use and binge drinking by US college students with disabilities (SWDs), who represent at least 11% (1.6 million) of the US college student population. METHODS: In fall 2013, we used a stratified random sampling technique to identify and recruit 2440 SWDs from 122 US colleges and universities. A total of 1285 (53%) SWDs from 61 (50%) colleges and universities completed a survey of alcohol and other drug use and the use of substances by student peers...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636769/is-cannabis-treatment-for-anxiety-mood-and-related-disorders-ready-for-prime-time
#13
REVIEW
Jasmine Turna, Beth Patterson, Michael Van Ameringen
Anxiety and related disorders are the most common mental conditions affecting the North American population. Despite their established efficacy, first-line antidepressant treatments are associated with significant side effects, leading many afflicted individuals to seek alternative treatments. Cannabis is commonly viewed as a natural alternative for a variety of medical and mental health conditions. Currently, anxiety ranks among the top five medical symptoms for which North Americans report using medical marijuana...
June 21, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632075/-is-marijuana-even-a-drug-a-qualitative-study-of-how-teens-view-marijuana-use-and-why-they-use-it
#14
Bettina Friese
This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#15
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627927/a-reinforcement-sensitivity-model-of-affective-and-behavioral-dysregulation-in-marijuana-use-and-associated-problems
#16
Noah N Emery, Jeffrey S Simons
This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP × SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#17
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623880/associations-between-anhedonia-and-marijuana-use-escalation-across-mid-adolescence
#18
Adam M Leventhal, Junhan Cho, Matthew D Stone, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Chih-Ping Chou, Steven Y Sussman, Nathaniel R Riggs, Jennifer B Unger, Janet Audrain-McGovern, David R Strong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anhedonia-a transdiagnostic psychopathological trait indicative of inability to experience pleasure-could lead to and result from adolescent marijuana use, yet this notion has not been tested. This study aimed to estimate the association of: (1) anhedonia at age 14 with rate of change in marijuana use over an 18-month follow-up, and (2) marijuana use at age 14 with rate of change in anhedonia over follow-up. Secondary aims were to test whether gender, baseline marijuana use history, and peer marijuana use moderated these associations...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623859/self-reported-cognitive-scales-in-a-u-s-national-survey-reliability-validity-and-preliminary-evidence-for-associations-with-alcohol-and-drug-use
#19
Efrat Aharonovich, Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M Wall, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
AIMS: To evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population. DESIGN: Two cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#20
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
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