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Basic reproductive number

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086915/comparative-study-in-infertile-couples-with-and-without-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection
#1
Yuanchang Zhu, Biao Yin, Tonghua Wu, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Yaou Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis(C. trachomatis), is the most common sexually transmitted disease. The incidence is not clear due to the asymptomatic nature of early stage of infections. The incidence of Chlamydia has not been fully investigated in the Chinese Han population. Since chronic infection with can C. trachomatis can lead to infertility in males and females, it is important to determine the impact of infection on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiology of C...
January 13, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077759/complex-responses-to-movement-based-disease-control-when-livestock-trading-helps
#2
Jamie C Prentice, Glenn Marion, Michael R Hutchings, Tom N McNeilly, Louise Matthews
Livestock disease controls are often linked to movements between farms, for example, via quarantine and pre- or post-movement testing. Designing effective controls, therefore, benefits from accurate assessment of herd-to-herd transmission. Household models of human infections make use of R*, the number of groups infected by an initial infected group, which is a metapopulation level analogue of the basic reproduction number R0 that provides a better characterization of disease spread in a metapopulation. However, existing approaches to calculate R* do not account for individual movements between locations which means we lack suitable tools for livestock systems...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074919/development-of-microsatellite-markers-and-estimation-of-inbreeding-frequency-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-melittobia
#3
Jun Abe, Bart A Pannebakker
The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using next-generation sequencing, 20 microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for M. australica. The developed loci were used to analyze two populations, one from a mainland Japan and one from the Okinawa island region...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062188/a-comprehensive-analysis-and-immunobiology-of-autoimmune-neurological-syndromes-during-the-zika-virus-outbreak-in-c%C3%A3%C2%BAcuta-colombia
#4
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Yhojan Rodríguez, Diana M Monsalve, Daniel Vega, Ernesto Ojeda, Diana González-Bravo, Mónica Rodríguez-Jiménez, Carlos A Pinto-Díaz, Pablo Chaparro, María L Gunturiz, Aftab A Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Nicolás Molano-González, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia
We have focused on the epidemiology and immunobiology of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and factors associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and other neurological syndromes in Cúcuta, the capital of North Santander department, Colombia. Data of patients with ZIKV disease reported to the national population-based surveillance system were used to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0) and the attack rates (ARs) as well as to develop epidemiological maps. Patients with neurological syndromes were contacted and their diagnoses were confirmed...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035484/a-mathematical-model-of-anthrax-transmission-in-animal-populations
#5
C M Saad-Roy, P van den Driessche, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
A general mathematical model of anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis) transmission is formulated that includes live animals, infected carcasses and spores in the environment. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is calculated, and existence of a unique endemic equilibrium is established for [Formula: see text] above the threshold value 1. Using data from the literature, elasticity indices for [Formula: see text] and type reproduction numbers are computed to quantify anthrax control measures. Including only herbivorous animals, anthrax is eradicated if [Formula: see text]...
December 29, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025320/does-donor-proliferation-in-development-aid-for-health-affect-health-service-delivery-and-population-health-cross-country-regression-analysis-from-1995-to-2010
#6
Sarah Wood Pallas, Jennifer Prah Ruger
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that increasing numbers of development aid donors can reduce aid effectiveness but this has not been tested in the health sector, which has experienced substantial recent growth in aid volume and number of donors. METHODS: Based on annual data for 1995-2010 on 139 low- and middle-income countries that received health sector aid from donors reporting to the OECD's Creditor Reporting System, the study used two-step system generalized method of moments regression models to test whether the number of health aid donors and an index of health aid donor fragmentation affect health services (measured by DTP3 immunization rate) or health outcomes (measured by infant mortality rate) for three subsectors of health aid...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004608/modeling-the-within-host-dynamics-of-cholera-bacterial-viral-interaction
#7
Xueying Wang, Jin Wang
Novel deterministic and stochastic models are proposed in this paper for the within-host dynamics of cholera, with a focus on the bacterial-viral interaction. The deterministic model is a system of differential equations describing the interaction among the two types of vibrios and the viruses. The stochastic model is a system of Markov jump processes that is derived based on the dynamics of the deterministic model. The multitype branching process approximation is applied to estimate the extinction probability of bacteria and viruses within a human host during the early stage of the bacterial-viral infection...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002417/predicting-rift-valley-fever-inter-epidemic-activities-and-outbreak-patterns-insights-from-a-stochastic-host-vector-model
#8
Sansao A Pedro, Shirley Abelman, Henri E Z Tonnang
Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks are recurrent, occurring at irregular intervals of up to 15 years at least in East Africa. Between outbreaks disease inter-epidemic activities exist and occur at low levels and are maintained by female Aedes mcintoshi mosquitoes which transmit the virus to their eggs leading to disease persistence during unfavourable seasons. Here we formulate and analyse a full stochastic host-vector model with two routes of transmission: vertical and horizontal. By applying branching process theory we establish novel relationships between the basic reproduction number, R0, vertical transmission and the invasion and extinction probabilities...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994177/cytological-behaviour-of-floral-organs-and-in-silico-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-transcript-derived-fragments-associated-with-floral-bud-distortion-in-soybean
#9
Prashant B Kale, Pravin V Jadhav, Rachana S Wakekar, M P Moharil, A G Deshmukh, M S Dudhare, R S Nandanwar, S S Mane, J G Manjaya, R G Dani
An attempt was made to understand the 'floral bud distortion' (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cytological behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried out. Pollens in asymptomatic plants do not have defects in number, size, shape and function. However, in symptomatic plant, pollens were found nonviable, abnormal in shape and with reduced germination ability...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983500/mathematical-modeling-of-programmatic-requirements-for-yaws-eradication
#10
Michael Marks, Oriol Mitjà, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Kingsley Asiedu, Anthony W Solomon, David C W Mabey, Sebastian Funk
Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020. The mainstay of the eradication strategy is mass treatment followed by case finding. Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. The estimated number of cases arising from an index case (basic reproduction number [R0]) ranged from 1.08 to 3.32. To have 80% probability of achieving eradication, 8 rounds of treatment with 80% coverage were required at low estimates of R0 (1...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981983/shading-concepts-and-layering-techniques-to-master-direct-anterior-composite-restorations-an-update
#11
D Dietschi, N Fahl
Creating perfect direct composite restorations has been for long time a strict challenge due to many materials' limitations impacting either shade integration or surface quality, and possibly colour stability. Next to technological drawbacks, a certain complexity and lack of predictability in clinical application was inherent to the technique and made it elitist for a long time. Shading and layering concepts then progressively evolved from a simplistic, non histo-anatomical, bilaminar technique to a multi-layering approach (3 to 4 or more layers), following the Vita Classic(™) system...
December 16, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968911/folic-acid-supplementation-birth-defects-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-chinese-women-a-population-based-mega-cohort-study
#12
Yuan He, An Pan, Frank B Hu, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: Periconceptional folic acid use has been widely recommended to reduce risk of neural tube defects. However, the effect on other birth defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes, as well as the time window of folic acid use, needs further investigation. Our study aimed to comprehensively assess the effect of periconceptional folic acid use on pregnancy outcomes in a mega-cohort of women of reproductive age. METHODS: The China National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) was established in 2010 to assess couples who planned to get pregnant within 4-6 months for pre-pregnancy risk factors for birth defects, and was a national project for all couples in 31 provinces...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965970/relevance-of-indirect-transmission-for-wildlife-disease-surveillance
#13
Martin Lange, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Hans-Hermann Thulke
Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design, and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modeling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission (IT) through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943165/assessment-of-public-health-and-economic-impact-of-intranasal-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccination-of-children-in-france-using-a-dynamic-transmission-model
#14
L Gerlier, M Lamotte, S Grenèche, X Lenne, F Carrat, C Weil-Olivier, O Damm, M Schwehm, M Eichner
OBJECTIVES: We estimated the epidemiological and economic impact of extending the French influenza vaccination programme from at-risk/elderly (≥65 years) only to healthy children (2-17 years). METHODS: A deterministic, age-structured, dynamic transmission model was used to simulate the transmission of influenza in the French population, using the current vaccination coverage with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in at-risk/elderly individuals (current strategy) or gradually extending the vaccination to healthy children (aged 2-17 years) with intranasal, quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV) from current uptake up to 50% (evaluated strategy)...
December 9, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932550/spermaurin-an-la1-like-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-scorpio-maurus-palmatus-improves-sperm-motility-and-fertilization-in-different-mammalian-species
#15
Guillaume Martinez, Jean-Pascal Hograindleur, Sébastien Voisin, Roland Abi Nahed, Tarek M Abd El Aziz, Jessica Escoffier, Julien Bessonnat, Claire-Maëlle Fovet, Michel De Waard, Sylviane Hennebicq, Vincent Aucagne, Pierre F Ray, Eric Schmitt, Philippe Bulet, Christophe Arnoult
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify original compounds that are able to enhance sperm motility from the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified a potent disulfide-rich peptide (DRP) of 73 amino acids that significantly improved the motility of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm in different mammalian species, including human, and improved fertilization outcome in mouse IVF experiments. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Any disturbance of sperm motility has a strong impact on fertilization and can lead to subfertility or infertility...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927849/the-effect-of-serum-vitamin-d-levels-on-ovarian-reserve-markers-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Panagiotis Drakopoulos, Arne van de Vijver, Valerie Schutyser, Stevan Milatovic, Ellen Anckaert, Johan Schiettecatte, Christophe Blockeel, Michel Camus, Herman Tournaye, Nikolaos P Polyzos
STUDY QUESTION: Is there any association between serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and ovarian reserve markers in infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Vitamin D is not associated with the ovarian reserve markers, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC), in infertile women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The mechanism underlying the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and reproduction is still unclear; however, evidence indicates a potential direct negative impact on ovarian function...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897973/structure-in-the-variability-of-the-basic-reproductive-number-r0-for-zika-epidemics-in-the-pacific-islands
#17
Clara Champagne, David Georges Salthouse, Richard Paul, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Benjamin Roche, Bernard Cazelles
Before the outbreak that reached the Americas in 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) circulated in Asia and the Pacific: these past epidemics can be highly informative on the key parameters driving virus transmission, such as the basic reproduction number (R0). We compare two compartmental models with different mosquito representations, using surveillance and seroprevalence data for several ZIKV outbreaks in Pacific islands (Yap, Micronesia 2007, Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia 2013-2014, New Caledonia 2014). Models are estimated in a stochastic framework with recent Bayesian techniques...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879137/a-male-female-mathematical-model-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-african-american-population
#18
Najat Ziyadi
We introduce mathematical human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemic models (with and without vaccination) for African American females (AAF) and African American males (AAM) with ''fitted'' logistic demographics and use these models to study the HPV disease dynamics. The US Census Bureau data of AAF and AAM of 16 years and older from 2000 to 2014 is used to ''fit'' the logistic demographic models. We compute the basic reproduction number, R0, and use it to show that R0 is less than 1 in the African American (AA) population with or without implementation of HPV vaccination program...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879114/global-stability-and-uniform-persistence-of-the-reaction-convection-diffusion-cholera-epidemic-model
#19
Kazuo Yamazaki, Xueying Wang
We study the global stability issue of the reaction-convection-diffusion cholera epidemic PDE model and show that the basic reproduction number serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether cholera will persist or become globally extinct. Specifically, when the basic reproduction number is beneath one, we show that the disease-free-equilibrium is globally attractive. On the other hand, when the basic reproduction number exceeds one, if the infectious hosts or the concentration of bacteria in the contaminated water are not initially identically zero, we prove the uniform persistence result and that there exists at least one positive steady state...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879105/optimal-control-analysis-of-malaria-schistosomiasis-co-infection-dynamics
#20
Kazeem Oare Okosun, Robert Smith
This paper presents a mathematical model for malaria--schistosomiasis co-infection in order to investigate their synergistic relationship in the presence of treatment. We first analyse the single infection steady states, then investigate the existence and stability of equilibria and then calculate the basic reproduction numbers. Both the single-infection models and the co-infection model exhibit backward bifurcations. We carrying out a sensitivity analysis of the co-infection model and show that schistosomiasis infection may not be associated with an increased risk of malaria...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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