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Kofi Asiedu, Samuel Kyei, Selassie K Dzasimatu, Enyam K A Morny
SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a high frequency of nonobvious obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction, which can be detected only via the expression of the meibomian glands. The study advocates that meibomian gland expressibility should be a routine part of the clinical examination of patients especially those with dry eyes to avoid missing meibomian gland dysfunction among a youthful population. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of meibomian gland dysfunction including asymptomatic and symptomatic meibomian gland dysfunction and obvious and nonobvious obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction among a youthful population in Ghana...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Roy Jacobstein
This article draws from national surveys of every sub-Saharan African country with at least 1 recent survey published between 2015 and 2017 and 2 prior surveys from 2003 to 2014. Twelve countries comprising over 60% of the region's population met these inclusion criteria. The analysis considers recent and longer-term changes in 3 key variables: modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), method-specific prevalence, and a method's share of the current modern method mix. As recently as 2011, implant CPR in sub-Saharan Africa was only 1...
March 20, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Charlotte Osafo, Bernard Morton, Andrew Ready, Jennie Jewitt-Harris, Dwomoa Adu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Transplantation
Adam J Weiss, Torben Vestergaard-Frandsen, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Donald R Hopkins, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, David Agymang
Despite several periods of stagnating guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence in Ghana during its national eradication campaign in the 1990s and early 2000s, the last reported case of GWD was in May 2010. In July 2011, Ghana celebrated the interruption of guinea worm (GW) transmission. Although it has been established that GWD causes disability, pain, and socioeconomic hardship, there is a dearth of population-based evidence collected in post-GW-endemic countries to document the value attributed to GWD eradication by residents in formerly endemic communities...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rembecca Lyn Ritter, Dorothy Peprah, Clair Null, Christine L Moe, George Armah, Joseph Ampofo, Nii Wellington, Habib Yakubu, Katharine Robb, Amy E Kirby, Yuke Wang, Katherine Roguski, Heather Reese, Chantal A Agbemabiese, Lady Asantewa B Adomako, Matthew C Freeman, Kelly K Baker
In crowded urban settlements in low-income countries, many households rely on shared sanitation facilities. Shared facilities are not currently considered "improved sanitation" because of concerns about whether hygiene conditions sufficiently protect users from the feces of others. Prevention of fecal exposure at a latrine is only one aspect of sanitary safety. Ensuring consistent use of latrines for feces disposal, especially child feces, is required to reduce fecal contamination in households and communities...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
G K Sarfo, A Larbi, J A Hamidu, A Donkoh
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of intermittent use of direct-fed microbial addition (DFM-"RE3®") on growth performance and health status of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. One-hundred and eighty day-old guinea keets were randomly assigned to 4 direct-fed microbial (DFM) treatments that included: control, daily, 3 consecutive days per wk (3CDW), and 7 days repeated every other wk (7DREOW) at 1.5 ml/L through water from day 1 to 56 days. Feed intake, body weight gain, and blood hematological and serum biochemical properties were recorded...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Linda M Mobula, Gilbert Burnham, Daniel Ansong, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, David Ofori-Adjei
BACKGROUND: The burden of uncontrolled hypertension in Low-and-Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is high, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and chronic renal failure in these settings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure control in a cross-section of Ghanaian hypertensive subjects involved in an on-going multicenter epidemiological study aimed at improving access to hypertension treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2,870 participants with hypertension with or without diabetes who were enrolled at 5 hospitals in Ghana (2 tertiary, 2 district and 1 rural hospital)...
2018: PloS One
Cicely Marston, Alicia Renedo, Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba, Kazuyo Machiyama, Placide Tapsoba, John Cleland
CONTEXT: According to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, highly educated urban women in some West African countries simultaneously have low rates of both contraceptive use and fertility-suggesting that the DHS may not be capturing a complete picture of women's contraceptive practices. METHODS: Individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 48 women aged 18-49 in Accra, Ghana, who had at least a secondary education to explore their reproductive lives and relationships, and their views on and use of fertility regulation strategies...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Kirstin Harling, Ernest Adankwah, Alptekin Güler, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Louis Adu-Amoah, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen
T-cells critically contribute to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and impaired T-cell responses can lead to disease progression. Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines affect T-cells, and fine-tuned regulation of cytokine signaling via the Jak/STAT signaling pathways is crucial for appropriate T-cell function. Constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation as a consequence of aberrant cytokine signaling has been described to occur in pathognomonic T-cell responses in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
March 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Kombo F N'Guessan, Ceejay Boyce, Awewura Kwara, Timothy N A Archampong, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena W Sagoe, Ernest Kenu, Adjoa Obo-Akwa, Jason T Blackard
Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of multiple HPgV genotypes with distinct geographic locations. HPgV is of interest because of its potential beneficial impact on HIV disease progression. Despite this, the effects of HPgV in the context of other viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are poorly understood, and data from resource-limited settings are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPgV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana...
March 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Minerva Kyei-Onanjiri, Mary Carolan-Olah, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Terence V McCann
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is most prevalent in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. In sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is one of the countries still facing particular challenges in reducing its maternal morbidity and mortality. Access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) interventions has been identified as a means of improving maternal health outcomes. Assessing the range of interventions provided in health facilities is, therefore, important in determining capacity to treat obstetric emergencies...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Nancy Innocentia Ebu
Background: The burden of HIV and cervical cancer is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Women with HIV are more likely to have persistent HPV infection leading to cervical abnormalities and cancer. Cervical cancer screening seems to be the single most critical intervention in any efforts to prevent cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic factors influencing intention to seek cervical cancer screening by HIV-positive women in the Central Region of Ghana...
2018: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Bernard Yeboah-Asiamah Asare, Joyce Veronica Preko, Diana Baafi, Bismark Dwumfour-Asare
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is important for child health and growth, but its practice is low in many developing countries. This study aimed at determining the breastfeeding practices and examining the sociodemographic characteristics that influence exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic at Manhean, in the Tema East Sub-Meteropolitan area of Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that employed a structured questionnaire to collect data among 355 mothers of children aged 0-24 months selected through simple random sampling, attending a child welfare clinic from May to June, 2016...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Dror Ben-Zeev
Although underdeveloped in mental health care, the sub-Saharan country of Ghana is advanced in telecommunications. In this context, innovative mobile health (mHealth) approaches may help to overcome limited infrastructure (lack of clinics, trained professionals, and landlines) and to address significant unmet public mental health needs. The Technology in Mental Health editor reports on travels to Ghana to assess the viability of mHealth for mental health initiatives in the region. He found that stakeholders from all sectors (patients, providers, government officials, and traditional and faith healers) were open to exploring whether mHealth approaches could promote more humane care, reduce human rights violations, and improve the clinical outcomes of those in need...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Valerie Bauza, Diana M Byrne, John T Trimmer, Amanda Lardizabal, Philip Atiim, Mawuli A K Asigbee, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this work were to evaluate (i) the prevalence and frequency of caregiver-reported soil ingestion by children, (ii) whether household flooring material in the bedroom (earth versus concrete) affected caregiver-reported soil ingestion, (iii) whether caregiver-reported soil ingestion was associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea, and (iv) caregivers' perceptions of their children ingesting soil. METHODS: We conducted 309 household surveys in northern Ghana, including 529 children under five (249 children aged 6-36 months), and measured faecal contamination in soil from 31 households...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Barclay T Stewart, Adam Gyedu, Cameron Gaskill, Godfred Boakye, Robert Quansah, Peter Donkor, Jimmy Volmink, Charles Mock
OBJECTIVE: Capacity assessments serve as surrogates for surgical output in low- and middle-income countries where detailed registers do not exist. The relationship between surgical capacity and output was evaluated in Ghana to determine whether a more critical interpretation of capacity assessment data is needed on which to base health systems strengthening initiatives. METHODS: A standardized surgical capacity assessment was performed at 37 hospitals nationwide using WHO guidelines; availability of 25 essential resources and capabilities was used to create a composite capacity score that ranged from 0 (no availability of essential resources) to 75 (constant availability) for each hospital...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Sharon Ashong, Irene A Kretchy, Barima Afrane, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
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