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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211902/simultaneous-observation-of-particle-and-wave-behaviors-of-entangled-photons
#1
Zhong-Xiao Man, Yun-Jie Xia, Nguyen Ba An
We theoretically study wave-particle duality of two entangled photons in the spirit of quantum version of delayed-choice experiments using Hadamard gate controlled by the quantum state of an ancilla and show that the two photons may globally exhibit particle-like, wave-like or simultaneously both particle-like and wave-like behavior. We prove that the obtained results cannot be satisfactorily explained by any hidden-variable theory. We also propose an efficient and experimentally feasible scheme without using any ancilla and controlled-gates to directly (i...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#2
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211587/histaminergic-and-non-histaminergic-elicited-itch-is-attenuated-in-capsaicin-evoked-areas-of-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-a-healthy-volunteer-study
#3
H H Andersen, J Elberling, N Sharma, L E Hauberg, P Gazerani, L Arendt-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain patients with sensitization may exhibit decreased sensitivity to normally pruritogenic sensory stimuli and moreover occasionally perceive these as painful. This study explored the relationship between itch and pain, by evaluating histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch evoked in capsaicin-induced allodynic and hyperalgesic areas. METHODS: In 28 healthy volunteers, capsaicin (100 μg/0.1 mL) was injected intradermally in the volar forearm to establish secondary dysesthesias...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211541/antibody-controlled-actuation-of-dna-based-molecular-circuits
#4
Wouter Engelen, Lenny H H Meijer, Bram Somers, Tom F A de Greef, Maarten Merkx
DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211496/the-use-of-bright-and-dark-types-of-humour-is-rooted-in-the-brain
#5
Ilona Papousek, Willibald Ruch, Christian Rominger, Elisabeth Kindermann, Katharina Scheidl, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss
The ways in which humour can be used are related to the manifold interpersonal functions humour can serve, some of which are positive, and some negative. In the present study, phasic changes in the functional coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortex (EEG coherence) during other people's auditory displays of happy and sad mood were recorded to predict people's typical use of humour in social interactions. Greater use of benevolent humour, the intentions of which are in keeping with the characteristics of "laughing-with" humour, was associated with greater decreases of prefrontal-posterior coupling during the processing of happy laughter...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209737/gaba-cells-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#6
Matthew B Snow, Jimmy J Fraigne, Gabrielle Thibault-Messier, Victoria L Chuen, Aren Thomasian, Richard L Horner, John Peever
Cataplexy is a hallmark of narcolepsy characterized by the sudden uncontrollable onset of muscle weakness or paralysis during wakefulness. It can occur spontaneously, but is typically triggered by positive emotions such as laughter. Although cataplexy was identified over 130 years ago, its neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that a newly identified GABA circuit within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) promotes cataplexy. We used behavioral, electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and chemogenetic strategies to selectively target and manipulate CeA activity in narcoleptic (orexin(-/-) ) mice to determine its functional role in controlling cataplexy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205593/imaging-cardiac-scn5a-using-the-novel-f-18-radiotracer-radiocaine
#7
Jacob M Hooker, Martin G Strebl, Frederick A Schroeder, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Amrut V Ambardekar, Timothy A McKinsey, Matthias Schoenberger
The key function of the heart, a well-orchestrated series of contractions, is controlled by cardiac action potentials. These action potentials are initiated and propagated by a single isoform of voltage gated sodium channels - SCN5A. However, linking changes in SCN5A expression levels to human disease in vivo has not yet been possible. Radiocaine, an F-18 radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), is the first SCN5A imaging agent in the heart. Explants from healthy and failing human hearts were compared using radiocaine autoradiography to determine that the failing heart has ~30% lower SCN5A levels - the first evidence of changes in SCN5A expression in humans as a function of disease...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205548/the-complete-structure-of-an-activated-open-sodium-channel
#8
Altin Sula, Jennifer Booker, Leo C T Ng, Claire E Naylor, Paul G DeCaen, B A Wallace
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play essential roles in excitable tissues, with their activation and opening resulting in the initial phase of the action potential. The cycling of Navs through open, closed and inactivated states, and their closely choreographed relationships with the activities of other ion channels lead to exquisite control of intracellular ion concentrations in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we present the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of the complete NavMs prokaryotic sodium channel in a fully open conformation...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201982/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-genes-in-injured-spinal-cord-at-different-stages-by-rna-sequencing
#9
Ling-Ling Shi, Nan Zhang, Xiu-Mei Xie, Yue-Juan Chen, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jian-Sheng Zhou, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in fatal damage and currently has no effective treatment. The pathological mechanisms of SCI remain unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of spinal cord samples from injured rats at different time points after SCI was performed by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The transcriptomes were systematically characterized to identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in SCI pathology. RESULTS: RNA-Seq results were obtained from total RNA harvested from the spinal cords of sham control rats and rats in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI (1 day, 6 days and 28 days after injury, respectively; n = 3 in every group)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197552/altered-channel-conductance-states-and-gating-of-gabaa-receptors-by-a-pore-mutation-linked-to-dravet-syndrome
#10
Ciria C Hernandez, Weijing Kong, Ningning Hu, Yujia Zhang, Wangzhen Shen, Laurel Jackson, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuwu Jiang, Robert L Macdonald
We identified a de novo missense mutation, P302L, in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor γ2 subunit gene GABRG2 in a patient with Dravet syndrome using targeted next-generation sequencing. The mutation was in the cytoplasmic portion of the transmembrane segment M2 of the γ2 subunit that faces the pore lumen. GABAA receptor α1 and β3 subunits were coexpressed with wild-type (wt) γ2L or mutant γ2L(P302L) subunits in HEK 293T cells and cultured mouse cortical neurons. We measured currents using whole-cell and single-channel patch clamp techniques, surface and total expression levels using surface biotinylation and Western blotting, and potential structural perturbations in mutant GABAA receptors using structural modeling...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197106/inhibition-of-intermediate-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channel-kca3-1-and-fibroblast-mitogenesis-by-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-alterations-of-channel-expression-in-the-lysosomal-storage-disorders-fabry-disease-and-niemann-pick-c
#11
Aida Oliván-Viguera, Javier Lozano-Gerona, Laura López de Frutos, Jorge J Cebolla, Pilar Irún, Edgar Abarca-Lachen, Ana J García-Malinis, Ángel Luis García-Otín, Yolanda Gilaberte, Pilar Giraldo, Ralf Köhler
The calcium/calmodulin-gated KCa3.1 channel regulates normal and abnormal mitogenesis by controlling K(+)-efflux, cell volume, and membrane hyperpolarization-driven calcium-entry. Recent studies suggest modulation of KCa3.1 by omega-3 fatty acids as negative modulators and impaired KCa3.1 functions in the inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), Fabry disease (FD). In the first part of present study, we characterize KCa3.1 in murine and human fibroblasts and test the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on fibroblast proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195507/predicting-risk-factors-for-radiation-pneumonitis-after-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-primary-or-metastatic-lung-tumors
#12
Mitsuru Okubo, Tomohiro Itonaga, Tatsuhiko Saito, Sachika Shiraishi, Ryuji Mikami, Hidetugu Nakayama, Akira Sakurada, Shinji Sugahara, Kiyoshi Koizumi, Koichi Tokuuye
OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with lung tumors. METHODS: From May 2004 to January 2016, 66 patients with 71 primary or metastatic lung tumors were treated with SBRT; these 71 cases were retrospectively analyzed for RP. To explore the risk factors for RP, the following factors were investigated: age, sex, performance status, operability, number of treatments, respiratory gating, pulmonary emphysema, tumor location, and subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD)...
February 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195492/gate-tunable-giant-stark-effect-in-few-layer-black-phosphorus
#13
Yanpeng Liu, Zhizhan Qiu, Alexandra Carvalho, Yang Bao, Hai Xu, Sherman Jun Rong Tan, Wei Liu, Antonio H Castro Neto, Kian Ping Loh, Jiong Lu
Two-dimensional black phosphorus (BP) has sparked enormous research interest due to its high carrier mobility, layer-dependent direct bandgap and outstanding in-plane anisotropic properties. BP is one of the few two-dimensional materials where it is possible to tune the bandgap over a wide energy range from the visible up to the infrared. In this article, we report the observation of a giant Stark effect in electrostatically-gated few-layer BP. Using low temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy, we observed that in few-layer BP, when electrons are injected, a monotonic reduction of the bandgap occurs...
February 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195039/speed-and-segmentation-control-mechanisms-characterized-in-rhythmically-active-circuits-created-from-spinal-neurons-produced-from-genetically-tagged-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Matthew J Sternfeld, Christopher A Hinckley, Niall J Moore, Matthew T Pankratz, Kathryn L Hilde, Shawn P Driscoll, Marito Hayashi, Neal D Amin, Dario Bonanomi, Wesley D Gifford, Kamal Sharma, Martyn Goulding, Samuel L Pfaff
Flexible neural networks, such as the interconnected spinal neurons that control distinct motor actions, can switch their activity to produce different behaviors. Both excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) spinal neurons are necessary for motor behavior, but the influence of recruiting different ratios of E-to-I cells remains unclear. We constructed synthetic microphysical neural networks, called circuitoids, using precise combinations of spinal neuron subtypes derived from mouse stem cells. Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#15
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
: The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis.Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192090/optogenetic-control-of-ca-2-and-voltage-dependent-large-conductance-bk-potassium-channels
#16
Thomas Mager, Phillip G Wood, Ernst Bamberg
Ca(2+) concentration jumps for the activation of Ca(2+) dependent ion channels or transporters can be obtained either by fast solution exchange or the use of caged Ca(2+). Here we report on an alternate optogenetic method for activation of Ca(2+) and voltage dependent large conductance (BK) potassium channels. This was achieved through the use of the light-gated Ca(2+) permeable Channelrhodopsin 2 variant, CatCh, with enhanced Ca(2+) permeability, which produces locally [Ca(2+)] in the μM range on the inner side of the membrane, without significant [Ca(2+)] increase in the cytosol...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191956/correction-to-three-terminal-single-molecule-junctions-formed-by-mechanically-controllable-break-junctions-with-side-gating
#17
Dong Xiang, Hyunhak Jeong, Dongku Kim, Takhee Lee, Yongjin Cheng, Qingling Wang, Dirk Mayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191930/bandgap-extraction-and-device-analysis-of-ionic-liquid-gated-wse2-schottky-barrier-transistors
#18
Abhijith Prakash, Joerg Appenzeller
Through the careful study of ionic liquid gated WSe2 Schottky barrier field-effect transistors as a function of flake thickness-referred to in the following as body thickness, tbody-critical insights into the electrical properties of WSe2 are gained. One finding is that the inverse subthreshold slope shows a clear dependence on body thickness, i.e., an approximate square root dependent increase with tbody, that provides evidence that injection into the WSe2 channel is mediated by thermally assisted tunneling through the gate-controlled Schottky barriers at the source and drain...
February 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191892/mechanism-and-timing-of-mcm2-7-ring-closure-during-dna-replication-origin-licensing
#19
Simina Ticau, Larry J Friedman, Kanokwan Champasa, Ivan R Corrêa, Jeff Gelles, Stephen P Bell
The opening and closing of two ring-shaped Mcm2-7 DNA helicases is necessary to license eukaryotic origins of replication, although the mechanisms controlling these events are unclear. The origin-recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6 and Cdt1 facilitate this process by establishing a topological link between each Mcm2-7 hexamer and origin DNA. Using colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we monitored ring opening and closing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2-7 during origin licensing...
February 13, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188958/potassium-channel-gene-associations-with-joint-processing-speed-and-white-matter-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#20
Heather A Bruce, Peter Kochunov, Sara A Paciga, Craig L Hyde, Xing Chen, Zhiyong Xie, Baohong Zhang, Hualin S Xi, Patricio O'Donnell, Christopher Whelan, Christian R Schubert, Alfredo Bellon, Seth A Ament, Dinesh K Shukla, Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Hugh O'Neill, L Elliot Hong
Patients with schizophrenia show decreased processing speed on neuropsychological testing and decreased white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, two traits shown to be both heritable and genetically associated indicating that there may be genes that influence both traits as well as schizophrenia disease risk. The potassium channel gene family is a reasonable candidate to harbor such a gene given the prominent role potassium channels play in the central nervous system in signal transduction, particularly in myelinated axons...
February 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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