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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534738/optocontrol-of-glutamate-receptor-activity-by-single-side-chain-photoisomerization
#1
Viktoria Klippenstein, Christian Hoppmann, Shixin Ye, Lei Wang, Pierre Paoletti
Engineering light-sensitivity into proteins has wide ranging applications in molecular studies and neuroscience. Commonly used tethered photoswitchable ligands, however, require solvent-accessible protein labeling, face structural constrains, and are bulky. Here, we designed a set of optocontrollable NMDA receptors by directly incorporating single photoswitchable amino acids (PSAAs) providing genetic encodability, reversibility, and site tolerance. We identified several positions within the multi-domain receptor endowing robust photomodulation...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534085/atp-induced-ca-2-signalling-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration
#2
REVIEW
Lin-Hua Jiang, Fatema Mousawi, Xuebin Yang, Sėbastien Roger
The ability of cells to migrate to the destined tissues or lesions is crucial for physiological processes from tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and immune responses, and also for stem cell-based regenerative medicines. Cytosolic Ca(2+) is a primary second messenger in the control and regulation of a wide range of cell functions including cell migration. Extracellular ATP, together with the cognate receptors on the cell surface, ligand-gated ion channel P2X receptors and a subset of G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors, represents common autocrine and/or paracrine Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533267/the-kv1-associated-molecules-tag-1-and-caspr2-are-selectively-targeted-to-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Delphine Pinatel, Bruno Hivert, Margaux Saint-Martin, Nelly Noraz, Maria Savvaki, Domna Karagogeos, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh
Caspr2 and TAG-1 are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) associated with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1/1.2 at regions controlling axonal excitability, the axon initial segment (AIS) and juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons. The distribution of Kv1 at juxtaparanodes requires axo-glial contacts mediated by Caspr2 and TAG-1. In the present study, we showed that TAG-1 strongly co-localizes with Kv1.2 at the AIS of cultured hippocampal neurons whereas Caspr2 is uniformly expressed along the axolemma. Live-cell imaging revealed that Caspr2 and TAG-1 are sorted together in axonal transport vesicles...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530233/artificial-control-of-the-bias-voltage-dependence-of-tunnelling-anisotropic-magnetoresistance-using-quantization-in-a-single-crystal-ferromagnet
#4
Iriya Muneta, Toshiki Kanaki, Shinobu Ohya, Masaaki Tanaka
A major issue in the development of spintronic memory devices is the reduction of the power consumption for the magnetization reversal. For this purpose, the artificial control of the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials is of great importance. Here, we demonstrate the control of the carrier-energy dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of the density of states (DOS) using the quantum size effect in a single-crystal ferromagnetic material, GaMnAs. We show that the mainly twofold symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy of DOS, which is attributed to the impurity band, is changed to a fourfold symmetry by enhancing the quantum size effect in the valence band of the GaMnAs quantum wells...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530201/ultrafast-growth-of-large-area-monolayer-mos2-film-via-gold-foil-assistant-cvd-for-high-sensitive-photodetector
#5
Changbin Nie, Leyong Yu, Xingzhan Wei, Jun Shun, Wenqiang Lu, Weimin Chen, Shuanglong Feng, Haofei Shi
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for ultrasensitive photodetector owing to its tunable band gap and high absorption coefficient. However, controlled synthesis of high quality, large area monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is still a challenge in practical application. In this work, we report a gold foil assistant chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method of large size (>400 μm) single crystal MoS2 film on silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrate. The influence of Au foil in enlarging the size of single crystal MoS2 were investigated systemically using thermal simulation in Ansys workbench 16...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527682/analyzing-the-experiences-of-adolescent-control-rats-effects-of-the-absence-of-physical-or-social-stimulation-on-anxiety-like-behaviour-are-dependent-on-the-test
#6
Namrata Joshi, Ronald A Leslie, Tara S Perrot
The present study was designed to systematically assess the control experience routinely used in our laboratory as part of studies on predator odour stress. Specifically, we examined effects of the physical and social components of this control experience on measures of anxiety-like behaviour in adolescent rats. Adolescent animals are at increased susceptibility to environmental perturbations and have been used for such studies much less often. Male and female Long-Evans rats were subjected to physical stimulation (Exposed or Unexposed) and social stimulation (Single Housed or Pair Housed), resulting in four groups...
May 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526583/the-connexin-43-c-terminus-a-tail-of-many-tales
#7
REVIEW
Edward Leithe, Marc Mesnil, Trond Aasen
Connexins are chordate gap junction channel proteins that, by enabling direct communication between the cytosols of adjacent cells, create a unique cell signalling network. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has important roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation and in tissue development and homeostasis. Moreover, several non-canonical connexin functions unrelated to GJIC have been discovered. Of the 21 members of the human connexin family, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and studied...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524916/facile-fabrication-of-highly-controllable-gating-systems-based-on-the-combination-of-inverse-opal-structure-and-dynamic-covalent-chemistry
#8
Chen Wang, Haowei Yang, Li Tian, Shiqiang Wang, Ning Gao, Wanlin Zhang, Peng Wang, Xianpeng Yin, Guangtao Li
A three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal with periodic and porous structures has shown great potential for applications not only in optics and optoelectronics, but also in functional membranes. In this work, the benzaldehyde group was initially introduced into a 3D nanoporous inverse opal, serving as a platform for fabricating functional membranes. By employing the dynamic covalent approach, a highly controllable gating system was facilely fabricated to achieve modulable and reversible transport features. It was found that the physical/chemical properties and pore size of the gating system could easily be regulated through post-modification with amines...
May 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524267/synaptic-activity-suppresses-expression-of-neurogenic-differentiation-factor-2-in-an-nmda-receptor-dependent-manner
#9
Fading Chen, Benjamin J Hall
Neurogenic differentiation factor 2 (NeuroD2) is a highly expressed transcription factor in the developing central nervous system. In newborn neurons, NeuroD2-mediated gene expression promotes differentiation, maturation, and survival. In addition to these early, cell-intrinsic developmental processes, NeuroD2 in post-mitotic neurons also regulates synapse growth and ion channel expression to control excitability. While NeuroD2 transactivation can be induced in an activity-dependent manner, little is known about how expression of NeuroD2 itself is regulated...
May 19, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523468/development-of-a-novel-radiotherapy-motion-phantom-using-a-stepper-motor-driver-circuit-and-evaluation-using-optical-surface-scanning
#10
Michael Lempart, Malin Kügele, Jonatan Snäll, Lee Ambolt, Sofie Ceberg
Recent developments in radiotherapy have focused on the management of patient motion during treatment. Studies have shown that significant gains in treatment quality can be made by 'gating' certain treatments, simultaneously keeping target coverage, and increasing separation to nearby organs at risk (OAR). Motion phantoms can be used to simulate patient breathing motion and provide the means to perform quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) of gating functionality as well as to assess the dosimetric impact of motion on individual patient treatments...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522763/aortic-arch-compliance-and-idiopathic-unilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis
#11
Reza Behkam, Kara E Roberts, Andrew J Bierhals, M Eileen Jacobs, Julia D Edgar, Randal C Paniello, Gayle Woodson, Jonathan P Vande Geest, Julie M Barkmeier-Kraemer
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) occurs related to recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) impairment associated with impaired swallowing, voice production, and breathing functions. The majority of UVP cases occur subsequent to surgical intervention with approximately 12-42% having no known cause for the disease (i.e., idiopathic). Approximately 2/3 of those with UVP exhibit left-sided injury with the average onset at 50 years of age or older in those diagnosed as idiopathic. Given the association between the RLN and the subclavian and aortic arch vessels, we hypothesized that changes in vascular tissues would result in increased aortic compliance in idiopathic left-sided UVP patients compared to those without UVP...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522338/year-round-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-in-nepal-a-phase-4-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Mark C Steinhoff, Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Laveta Stewart, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C LeClerq, Naoko Kozuki, Monica McNeal, Adriana M Reedy, James M Tielsch
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunisation during pregnancy is recommended but not widely implemented in some low-income regions. We assessed the safety and efficacy in mothers and infants of year-round maternal influenza immunisation in Nepal, where influenza viruses circulate throughout the year. METHODS: In this phase 4, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled two consecutive sequential annual cohorts of pregnant women from the Sarlahi district in southern Nepal...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522250/ppargamma-agonists-rescue-increased-phosphorylation-of-fgf14-at-s226-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Wei-Chun J Hsu, Norelle C Wildburger, Sigmund J Haidacher, Miroslav N Nenov, Oluwarotimi Folorunso, Aditya K Singh, Brent C Chesson, Whitney F Franklin, Ibdanelo Cortez, Rovshan G Sadygov, Kelly T Dineley, Jay S Rudra, Giulio Taglialatela, Cheryl F Lichti, Larry Denner, Fernanda Laezza
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of Aβ-pathology can be ameliorated by treatments with the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists, such as rosiglitazone (RSG). Previously, we demonstrated that in the Tg2576 animal model of AD, RSG treatment rescued cognitive deficits and reduced aberrant activity of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), an area critical for memory formation...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#14
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521045/effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-water-vapor-on-chamber-pressure-and-oxygen-level-during-low-atmospheric-pressure-stunning-of-poultry
#15
Paul H Holloway, David G Pritchard
The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516985/gate-controlled-heat-generation-in-zno-nanowire-fets
#16
Andrea Pescaglini, Subhajit Biswas, Davide Cammi, Carsten Ronning, Justin D Holmes, Daniela Iacopino
Nanoscale heating production using nanowires has been shown to be particularly attractive for a number of applications including nanostructure growth, localized doping, transparent heating and sensing. However, all proof-of-concept devices proposed so far relied on the use of highly conductive nanomaterials, typically metals or highly doped semiconductors. In this article, we demonstrate a novel nanoheater architecture based on a single semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistor (NW-FET). Nominally undoped ZnO nanowires were incorporated into three-terminal devices whereby control of the nanowire temperature at a given source-drain bias was achieved by additional charge carriers capacitatively induced via the third gate electrode...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516507/an-all-plastic-field-effect-nanofluidic-diode-gated-by-a-conducting-polymer-layer
#17
Gonzalo Pérez-Mitta, Waldemar A Marmisollé, Christina Trautmann, María Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Omar Azzaroni
The design of an all-plastic field-effect nanofluidic diode is proposed, which allows precise nanofluidic operations to be performed. The fabrication process involves the chemical synthesis of a conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer over a previously fabricated solid-state nanopore. The conducting layer acts as gate electrode by changing its electrochemical state upon the application of different voltages, ultimately changing the surface charge of the nanopore. A PEDOT-based nanopore is able to discriminate the ionic species passing through it in a quantitative and qualitative manner, as PEDOT nanopores display three well-defined voltage-controlled transport regimes: cation-rectifying, non-rectifying, and anion rectifying regimes...
May 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516277/analysis-of-cellular-autofluorescence-in-touch-samples-by-flow-cytometry-implications-for-front-end-separation-of-trace-mixture-evidence
#18
M Katherine Philpott, Cristina E Stanciu, Ye Jin Kwon, Eduardo E Bustamante, Susan A Greenspoon, Christopher J Ehrhardt
The goal of this study was to survey optical and biochemical variation in cell populations deposited onto a surface through touch or contact and identify specific features that may be used to distinguish and then sort cell populations from separate contributors in a trace biological mixture. Although we were not able to detect meaningful biochemical variation in touch samples deposited by different contributors through preliminary antibody surveys, we did observe distinct differences in red autofluorescence emissions (650-670 nm), with as much as a tenfold difference in mean fluorescence intensities observed between certain pairs of donors...
May 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516227/impairment-in-mismatch-negativity-but-not-repetition-suppression-in-schizophrenia
#19
Brian A Coffman, Sarah M Haigh, Tim K Murphy, Dean F Salisbury
Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), mismatch negativity (MMN), and sensory gating of AEPs to repeated stimuli (repetition suppression, RS). In the predictive modeling framework, MMN and RS reflect encoding of prediction error and model sharpening, respectively. We compared P50, N100, P200 RS, and pitch and duration MMN in 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and 26 matched healthy controls (HC), and assessed relationships between MMN, RS, and SZ diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515901/experimental-identification-and-computational-characterization-of-a-novel-extracellular-metalloproteinase-produced-by-clostridium-sordellii
#20
Michael J Aldape, Aoxiang Tao, Dustin D Heeney, Eric R McIndoo, John M French, Dong Xu
Clostridium sordellii is a lethal pathogen for both animals and humans. Severe capillary leakage, toxic shock syndrome, and an extreme leukemoid reaction (LR), are hallmark features of C. sordellii infections and contribute to its high mortality rate. Here we report the discovery of a previously unknown and uncharacterized metalloproteinase of C. sordellii (referred as Mcs1) that cleaves human vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in vitro, an adhesion molecule critical to hematopoietic precursor retention and leukocyte diapedesis...
March 2, 2017: RSC Advances
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