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Gate control

Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Valentin Sottas, Carl-Mattheis Wahl, Mihnea C Trache, Michael Bartolf-Kopp, Sidney Cambridge, Markus Hecker, Nina D Ullrich
The therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is limited by immature functional features including low impulse propagation and reduced cell excitability. Key players regulating electrical activity are voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav 1.5) and gap junctions built from connexin-43 (Cx43). Here we tested the hypothesis that enhanced Cx43 expression increases intercellular coupling and influences excitability by modulating Nav 1.5. Using transgenic approaches, Cx43 and Nav 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Vera T Unwin, Shaun Ainsworth, Emily J Rippon, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Mark J I Paine, David Weetman, Emily R Adams
BACKGROUND: The spread of insecticide resistance (IR) is a major threat to vector control programmes for mosquito-borne diseases. Early detection of IR using diagnostic markers could help inform these programmes, especially in remote locations where gathering reliable bioassay data is challenging. Most current molecular tests for genetic IR markers are only suitable for use in well-equipped laboratory settings. There is an unmet need for field-applicable diagnostics. METHODS: A single-cartridge test was designed to detect key IR mutations in the major African vector of malaria, Anopheles gambiae...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anne L Wilson, Margaret Pinder, John Bradley, Martin J Donnelly, Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Lamin B S Jarju, Musa Jawara, David Jeffries, Ballah Kandeh, Emily J Rippon, Kolawole Salami, Umberto D'Alessandro, Steven W Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance threatens malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel which is the target site for the insecticide. The study aimed to examine risk factors for knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.l. and its relationship with malaria infection in children in rural Gambia. Point mutations at the Vgsc-1014 locus, were measured in An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Anita M Loughlin, Qing Qiao, Anthony P Nunes, Stephen M Ezzy, Laura Yochum, C Robin Clifford, Robert V Gately, David D Dore, John D Seeger
A propensity-matched cohort study compared injectable-naive patients with type 2 diabetes initiating exenatide once weekly (EQW) or basal insulin (BI), from 2012 through 2015, within a U.S. electronic health record database. A1C and weight were obtained as observed or multiply imputed values at baseline and quarterly for 1 year (Q1-Q4). Hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal symptoms were identified using diagnostic codes and clinical notes. EQW ( n = 2,008) and BI ( n = 4,016) cohorts were comparable at baseline (mean A1C and weight: EQW, 8...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Jon Gorecki, Vasilis Apostolopoulos, Jun-Yu Ou, Sakellaris Mailis, Nikitas Papasimakis
We demonstrate experimentally non-volatile, all-optical control of graphene's charge transport properties by virtue of a Fe:LiNbO3 photoconductive substrate. The substrate can register and sustain photo-induced charge distributions which modify locally the electrostatic environment of the graphene monolayer and allow spatial control of graphene resistivity. We present light-induced changes of graphene sheet resistivity as high as ∼370 Ω/sq (~ 2.6 fold increase) under spatially non-uniform light illumination...
May 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Daohua Jiang, Tamer M Gamal El-Din, Christopher Ing, Peilong Lu, Régis Pomès, Ning Zheng, William A Catterall
Potassium-sensitive hypokalaemic and normokalaemic periodic paralysis are inherited skeletal muscle diseases characterized by episodes of flaccid muscle weakness1,2 . They are caused by single mutations in positively charged residues ('gating charges') in the S4 transmembrane segment of the voltage sensor of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.4 or the calcium channel Cav 1.11,2 . Mutations of the outermost gating charges (R1 and R2) cause hypokalaemic periodic paralysis1,2 by creating a pathogenic gating pore in the voltage sensor through which cations leak in the resting state3,4 ...
May 16, 2018: Nature
Matthew Yankowitz, Jeil Jung, Evan Laksono, Nicolas Leconte, Bheema L Chittari, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, Shaffique Adam, David Graf, Cory R Dean
Heterostructures can be assembled from atomically thin materials by combining a wide range of available van der Waals crystals, providing exciting possibilities for designer electronics 1 . In many cases, beyond simply realizing new material combinations, interlayer interactions lead to emergent electronic properties that are fundamentally distinct from those of the constituent layers 2 . A critical parameter in these structures is the interlayer coupling strength, but this is often not easy to determine and is typically considered to be a fixed property of the system...
May 2018: Nature
Hanieh Meteran, Erik Vindbjerg, Sigurd Wiingaard Uldall, Birte Glenthøj, Jessica Carlsson, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Impairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: A total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Haiyue Zu, Xueting Yi, Dewei Zhao
Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) materials are considered ideal as osteosynthesis implants. However, clinical application has proven complex. This is primarily associated with the issue of reducing the extent of implant degradation to a range acceptable for the human body, while simultaneously enhancing osteogenesis or osteoinduction. In the present study, a combination of Mg ions and low‑intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment was applied in hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast cells as a potential strategy to resolve this issue...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Matthew J Hamer, Endre Tóvári, Mengjian Zhu, Michael Dermot Thompson, Alexander S Mayorov, Jonathan Prance, Yongjin Lee, Richard Haley, Zakhar R Kudrynskyi, Amalia Patanè, Daniel Terry, Zakhar D Kovalyuk, Klaus Ensslin, Andrey V Kretinin, Andre K Geim, Roman Vladislavovich Gorbachev
Indium selenide, a post-transition metal chalcogenide, is a novel two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor with interesting electronic properties. Its tunable band gap and high electron mobility have already attracted considerable research interest. Here we demonstrate strong quantum confinement and manipulation of single electrons in devices made from few-layer crystals of InSe using electrostatic gating. We report on gate-controlled quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime as well as one-dimensional quantization in point contacts, revealing multiple plateaus...
May 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Miklós Lengyel, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
Two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) are responsible for background K+ currents and regulate the resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. Their activity is controlled by a large variety of physicochemical factors and intracellular signaling pathways. The majority of these effects converge on the intracellular C-terminus of the channels, resulting in the modification of the gating at the selectivity filter. Another gating mechanism, the activation gate at the helix bundle crossing is also well documented in other K+ channel families, however, it remains uncertain whether this type of gating is functional in K2P channels...
2018: PloS One
Naoki Ishida, Takaaki Nakamura, Touta Tanaka, Shota Mishima, Hiroki Kano, Ryota Kuroiwa, Yuhei Sekiguchi, Hideo Kosaka
We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
E V Calman, M M Fogler, L V Butov, S Hu, A Mishchenko, A K Geim
Indirect excitons (IXs) are explored both for studying quantum Bose gases in semiconductor materials and for the development of excitonic devices. IXs were extensively studied in III-V and II-VI semiconductor heterostructures where IX range of existence has been limited to low temperatures. Here, we present the observation of IXs at room temperature in van der Waals transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures. This is achieved in TMD heterostructures based on monolayers of MoS2 separated by atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Imran Ali, Behnam Samadpoor Rikhan, Dong-Gyu Kim, Dong-Soo Lee, Muhammad Riaz Ur Rehman, Hamed Abbasizadeh, Muhammad Asif, Minjae Lee, Keum Cheol Hwang, Youngoo Yang, Kang-Yoon Lee
In this paper, a low-power and small-area Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) transmitter design is proposed for automotive pressure and temperature complex sensor applications. To reduce the cost and size of the hardware, the pressure and temperature information is processed with a single integrated circuit (IC) and transmitted at the same time to the electronic control unit (ECU) through SENT. Due to its digital nature, it is immune to noise, has reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and generates low EMI...
May 14, 2018: Sensors
Pedro Fuentes-Márquez, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Marie Carmen Valenza
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the available scientific evidence on physiotherapy interventions in the management of chronic pelvic pain (CPP). DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed. An electronic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was performed to identify relevant randomized trials from 2010-2016. STUDY SELECTION: Manuscripts were included if at least one of the comparison groups received a physiotherapy intervention...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Murphy Yuezhen Niu, Isaac L Chuang, Jeffrey H Shapiro
We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized-using only linear optics and χ^{(2)} (three-wave mixing) interactions-in any (n+1)-dimensional qudit basis of the n-pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ^{(2)} Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u(3) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ^{(2)} interactions...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shai Machnes, Elie Assémat, David Tannor, Frank K Wilhelm
Quantum computation places very stringent demands on gate fidelities, and experimental implementations require both the controls and the resultant dynamics to conform to hardware-specific constraints. Superconducting qubits present the additional requirement that pulses must have simple parameterizations, so they can be further calibrated in the experiment, to compensate for uncertainties in system parameters. Other quantum technologies, such as sensing, require extremely high fidelities. We present a novel, conceptually simple and easy-to-implement gradient-based optimal control technique named gradient optimization of analytic controls (GOAT), which satisfies all the above requirements, unlike previous approaches...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tian Lan, Francesca Soavi, Massimo Marcaccio, Pierre-Louis Brunner, Jonathan Sayago, Clara Santato
The n-type organic semiconductor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), a soluble fullerene derivative well investigated for organic solar cells and transistors, can undergo several successive reversible, diffusion-controlled, one-electron reduction processes. We exploited such processes to shed light on the correlation between electron transfer properties, ionic and electronic transport as well as device performance in ionic liquid (IL)-gated transistors. Two ILs were considered, based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI] as the anion and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [EMIM] or 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium [PYR14] as the cation...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Adrián H Teruel, Édgar Pérez-Esteve, Isabel González-Álvarez, Marta González-Álvarez, Ana M Costero, Daniel Ferri, Margarita Parra, Pablo Gaviña, Virginia Merino, Ramón Martínez-Mañez, Félix Sancenón
Magnetic mesoporous silica microparticles were loaded with safranin O (S1) and with hydrocortisone (S2) and the outer surface functionalized with a bulky azo derivative bearing urea moieties. Aqueous suspensions of both solids at pH 7.4 showed negligible payload release whereas a marked delivery was observed in the presence of sodium dithionite due to the rupture of the azo bonds. Besides, a moderate cargo release was observed at acidic pH due to the hydrolysis of the urea bonds that linked the azo derivative onto the external surface of the inorganic scaffolds...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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