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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432599/the-beneficial-effect-of-repaglinide-on-in-vitro-maturation-and-development-ability-of-immature-mouse-oocytes
#1
Eshrat Kalehoei, Mehri Azadbakht
Repaglinide is a hypoglycemic drug, causing depolarization of the cell membrane, opening the voltage-gated calcium channels, and then increasing intracellular calcium in the pancreatic B cells by inhibition of the K-ATP-sensitive channels. Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is influenced by different factors such as calcium signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and fertilization ability of mouse oocyte. Immature oocytes were isolated from female Naval Medical Research Institute mice which are 6-8 wk old mechanically and then cultured in 30 μl droplets of T6 medium with different concentrations of repaglinide...
April 21, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430458/gating-classical-information-flow-via-equilibrium-quantum-phase-transitions
#2
Leonardo Banchi, Joaquín Fernández-Rossier, Cyrus F Hirjibehedin, Sougato Bose
The development of communication channels at the ultimate size limit of atomic scale physical dimensions will make the use of quantum entities an imperative. In this regime, quantum fluctuations naturally become prominent and are generally considered to be detrimental. Here, we show that for spin-based information processing, these fluctuations can be uniquely exploited to gate the flow of classical binary information across a magnetic chain in thermal equilibrium. Moreover, this information flow can be controlled with a modest external magnetic field that drives the system through different many-body quantum phases in which the orientation of the final spin does or does not reflect the orientation of the initial input...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430359/sulfur-containing-gaseous-signal-molecules-ion-channels-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Wen Yu, Hongfang Jin, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Zhiren Zhang
Sulfur-containing gaseous signal molecules including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) were previously recognized as toxic gases. However, extensive studies have revealed that they can be generated in the cardiovascular system via a sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway, playing an important part in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins present in the membrane of all biological cells; functions include establishing a resting membrane potential and controlling action potentials and other electrical signals by conducting ions across the cell membrane...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#4
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#5
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428632/cyclophosphamide-induced-hcn1-channel-upregulation-in-interstitial-cajal-like-cells-leads-to-bladder-hyperactivity-in-mice
#6
Qian Liu, Zhou Long, Xingyou Dong, Teng Zhang, Jiang Zhao, Bishao Sun, Jingzhen Zhu, Jia Li, Qingqing Wang, Zhenxing Yang, Xiaoyan Hu, Longkun Li
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are confirmed to be expressed in bladder interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICC-LCs), but little is known about their possible role in cystitis-associated bladder dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the functional role of HCN channels in regulating bladder function under inflammatory conditions. Sixty female wild-type C57BL/6J mice and sixty female HCN1-knockout mice were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#7
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426662/plos-neglected-tropical-diseases-ten-years-of-progress-in-neglected-tropical-disease-control-and-elimination-%C3%A2-more-or-less
#8
EDITORIAL
Peter Hotez, Serap Aksoy
This year PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (PLOS NTDs) celebrates its tenth anniversary following the publication of the first issue in 2007 [1]. When PLOS NTDs was founded, the framework of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) as an alternative to "other diseases" (as they were then referred to in the Millennium Development Goals) was just getting started-especially for Africa [2, 3]. In the decade since, PLOS NTDs has overseen enormous successes in NTD control and elimination. Here, we want to briefly review the ten year progress made towards the control or elimination of the diseases now identified by the WHO as NTDs...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425459/complementary-spin-transistor-using-a-quantum-well-channel
#9
Youn Ho Park, Jun Woo Choi, Hyung-Jun Kim, Joonyeon Chang, Suk Hee Han, Heon-Jin Choi, Hyun Cheol Koo
In order to utilize the spin field effect transistor in logic applications, the development of two types of complementary transistors, which play roles of the n- and p-type conventional charge transistors, is an essential prerequisite. In this research, we demonstrate complementary spin transistors consisting of two types of devices, namely parallel and antiparallel spin transistors using InAs based quantum well channels and exchange-biased ferromagnetic electrodes. In these spin transistors, the magnetization directions of the source and drain electrodes are parallel or antiparallel, respectively, depending on the exchange bias field direction...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424473/highly-gate-tuneable-rashba-spin-orbit-interaction-in-a-gate-all-around-inas-nanowire-metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor
#10
K Takase, Y Ashikawa, G Zhang, K Tateno, S Sasaki
III-V semiconductors have been intensively studied with the goal of realizing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high mobility, a high on-off ratio, and low power consumption as next-generation transistors designed to replace current Si technology. Of these semiconductors, a narrow band-gap semiconductor InAs has strong Rashba spin-orbit interaction, thus making it advantageous in terms of both high field-effect transistor (FET) performance and efficient spin control. Here we report a high-performance InAs nanowire MOSFET with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, where we simultaneously control the spin precession using the Rashba interaction...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421749/design-of-multi-functional-nanogate-in-response-to-multiple-external-stimuli-using-amphiphilic-diblock-copolymer
#11
Kai Huang, Igal Szleifer
Nature uses the interplay between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions of disordered proteins to orchestrate complicated molecular gate such as the nuclear pore complex to control the transport of biological masses. Inspired by nature, we here theoretically show that well-defined gate shape, sensitive response to pH and salt concentration, and selectivity in cargo transport can be simultaneously achieved by grafting amphiphilic diblock copolymers made of sequence-controlled hydrophobic and ionizable monomers on the inner surface of solid-state nanopore...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416699/ip3-mediated-gating-mechanism-of-the-ip3-receptor-revealed-by-mutagenesis-and-x-ray-crystallography
#12
Kozo Hamada, Hideyuki Miyatake, Akiko Terauchi, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is an IP3-gated ion channel that releases calcium ions (Ca(2+)) from the endoplasmic reticulum. The IP3-binding sites in the large cytosolic domain are distant from the Ca(2+) conducting pore, and the allosteric mechanism of how IP3 opens the Ca(2+) channel remains elusive. Here, we identify a long-range gating mechanism uncovered by channel mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography of the large cytosolic domain of mouse type 1 IP3R in the absence and presence of IP3 Analyses of two distinct space group crystals uncovered an IP3-dependent global translocation of the curvature α-helical domain interfacing with the cytosolic and channel domains...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416443/astrocytes-modulate-thalamic-sensory-processing-via-mglu2-receptor-activation
#13
C S Copeland, T M Wall, R E Sims, S A Neale, E Nisenbaum, H R Parri, T E Salt
Astrocytes possess many of the same signalling molecules as neurons. However, the role of astrocytes in information processing, if any, is unknown. Using electrophysiological and imaging methods, we report the first evidence that astrocytes modulate neuronal sensory inhibition in the rodent thalamus. We found that mGlu2 receptor activity reduces inhibitory transmission from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus (VB): mIPSC frequencies in VB slices were reduced by the Group II mGlu receptor agonist LY354740, an effect potentiated by mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) LY487379 co-application (30 nM LY354740: 10...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416358/non-gated-high-pitch-computed-tomography-aortic-angiography-myocardial-perfusion-defects-in-patients-with-suspected-aortic-dissection
#14
Li-Ting Huang, Shih-Hung Chan, Chia-Chang Chuang, Yi-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic value of first-pass myocardial perfusion defects visualised in non-gated high-pitch computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for suspected aortic dissection. METHODS: We recruited 174 ED patients who underwent high-pitch CTA of the aorta because of suspected aortic dissection. We divided these patients into two groups (diseased and control groups) based on whether their clinical data fulfilled the third universal definition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), specifically an increase in cardiac troponin (cTn) with at least one of the following: (a) symptoms of ischemia; (b) new ST-segment-T wave (ST-T) changes or new left bundle branch block (LBBB); (c) development of pathological Q wave; (d) new loss of viable myocardium or new regional wall motion abnormality; or (e) identification of an intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414744/knockdown-resistance-mutations-predict-ddt-resistance-and-pyrethroid-tolerance-in-the-visceral-leishmaniasis-vector-phlebotomus-argentipes
#15
Bruno Gomes, Bidyut Purkait, Rinki Michelle Deb, Aarti Rama, Rudra Pratap Singh, Geraldine Marie Foster, Michael Coleman, Vijay Kumar, Mark Paine, Pradeep Das, David Weetman
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT has been the primary strategy for control of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector Phlebotomus argentipes in India but efficacy may be compromised by resistance. Synthetic pyrethroids are now being introduced for IRS, but with a shared target site, the para voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), mutations affecting both insecticide classes could provide cross-resistance and represent a threat to sustainable IRS-based disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A region of the Vgsc gene was sequenced in P...
April 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413470/identification-of-genes-associated-with-the-effect-of-inflammation-on-the-neurotransmission-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#16
Shujie Gan, Shenlong Qiu, Yiwen Feng, Yanping Zhang, Qin Qian, Zhong Wan, Jingdong Tang
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation and hypertrophy are common in vascular disorders, and inflammation has a crucial role in the development of these diseases. To investigate the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of VSMC, bioinformatic analysis was performed, following next generation sequencing. Genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated A7r5 cells and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated A7r5 cells were sequenced via next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated three times...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411270/short-term-facilitation-at-a-detonator-synapse-requires-the-distinct-contribution-of-multiple-types-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#17
Simon Chamberland, Alesya Evstratova, Katalin Tóth
Neuronal calcium elevations are shaped by several key parameters, including the properties, density, and the spatial location of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). These features allow presynaptic terminals to translate complex firing frequencies and tune the amount of neurotransmitter released. While synchronous neurotransmitter release relies on both P/Q- and N-type VGCCs at hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses, the specific contribution of VGCCs to calcium dynamics, neurotransmitter release and short-term facilitation remains unknown...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#18
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408744/room-temperature-field-effect-transistors-with-metallic-ultrathin-tin-based-channel-prepared-by-atomic-layer-delta-doping-and-deposition
#19
Po-Hsien Cheng, Chun-Yuan Wang, Teng-Jan Chang, Tsung-Han Shen, Yu-Syuan Cai, Miin-Jang Chen
Metallic channel transistors have been proposed as the candidate for sub-10 nm technology node. However, the conductivity modulation in metallic channels can only be observed at low temperatures usually below 100 K. In this study, room-temperature field effect and modulation of the channel resistance was achieved in the metallic channel transistors, in which the oxygen-doped TiN ultrathin-body channels were prepared by the atomic layer delta doping and deposition (AL3D) with precise control of the channel thickness and electron concentration...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#20
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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