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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343333/use-of-phase-locking-value-in-sensorimotor-rhythm-based-brain-computer-interface-zero-phase-coupling-and-effects-of-spatial-filters
#1
Wenjuan Jian, Minyou Chen, Dennis J McFarland
Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering...
March 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343270/magnetic-field-discrimination-learning-and-memory-in-the-yellow-stingray-urobatis-jamaicensis
#2
Kyle C Newton, Stephen M Kajiura
Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) have been hypothesized to use the geomagnetic field as a cue for orienting and navigating across a wide range of spatial scales. Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in many invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including elasmobranchs, but this sensory modality and the cognitive abilities of cartilaginous fishes are poorly studied. Wild caught yellow stingrays, Urobatis jamaicensis (N = 8), underwent conditioning to associate a magnetic stimulus with a food reward in order to elicit foraging behaviors...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343248/uncovering-specific-changes-in-network-wiring-underlying-the-primate-cerebrotype
#3
Salah Hamodeh, Ayse Bozkurt, Haian Mao, Fahad Sultan
Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling...
March 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#4
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343099/source-apportionments-of-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-in-israeli-jordanian-and-palestinian-cities
#6
Jongbae Heo, Bo Wu, Ziad Abdeen, Radwan Qasrawi, Jeremy A Sarnat, Geula Sharf, Kobby Shpund, James J Schauer
This manuscript evaluates spatial and temporal variations of source contributions to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected every six days over a 1-year period (January to December 2007) in four cities in Israel (West Jerusalem, Eilat, Tel Aviv, and Haifa), four cities in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Rahma, and Zarka), and three cities in Palestine (Nablus, East Jerusalem, and Hebron). The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for major chemical components, including organic carbon and elemental carbon, ions, and metals, and the results were used in a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to estimate source contributions to PM2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343062/the-material-moral-and-affective-worlds-of-dealing-and-crime-among-young-men-entrenched-in-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#7
Danya Fast, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr
A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343041/characterization-of-regional-cold-hydrothermal-inflows-enriched-in-arsenic-and-associated-trace-elements-in-the-southern-part-of-the-duero-basin-spain-by-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#8
Elena Giménez-Forcada, Marisol Vega-Alegre, Susana Timón-Sánchez
Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater exceeding the limit for potability has been reported along the southern edge of the Cenozoic Duero Basin (CDB) near its contact with the Spanish Central System (SCS). In this area, spatial variability of arsenic is high, peaking at 241μg/L. Forty-seven percent of samples collected contained arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water (10μg/L). Correlations of As with other hydrochemical variables were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA and Principal Component Analysis, PCA)...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343000/evidence-for-similar-patterns-of-neural-activity-elicted-by-picture-and-word-based-representations-of-natural-scenes
#9
Manoj Kumar, Kara D Federmeier, Li Fei-Fei, Diane M Beck
A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342994/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-the-atmosphere-of-coastal-areas-of-the-ross-sea-antarctica-indications-for-long-term-downward-trends
#10
Karla Pozo, Tania Martellini, Simonetta Corsolini, Tom Harner, Victor Estellano, Petr Kukučka, Marie D Mulder, Gerhard Lammel, Alessandra Cincinelli
Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m(-3). In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342971/a-novel-dual-glp-1-gip-receptor-agonist-alleviates-cognitive-decline-by-re-sensitizing-insulin-signaling-in-the-alzheimer-icv-stz-rat-model
#11
Lijuan Shi, Zhihua Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, accompanied by memory loss and cognitive impairments, and there is no effective treatment for it at present. Since type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been identified as a risk factor for AD, the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), promising antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have been tested in models of neurodegenerative disease including AD and achieved good results...
March 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342918/evidence-of-the-impact-of-visuo-spatial-processing-on-magnitude-representation-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#12
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Line Vossius, Laurence Rousselle
The influence of visuo-spatial skills on numerical magnitude processing is the subject of a long-standing debate. As most of the numerical and non-numerical magnitude abilities underpinning mathematical development are visual by nature, they are often assessed in the visual modality, thereby confusing visuo-spatial and numerical processing. In order to assess the influence of visuo-spatial processing on numerical magnitude representation, we examined magnitude processing in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic condition characterized by a cognitive profile with a relative weakness in visuo-spatial abilities but with preserved verbal abilities...
March 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342882/functional-neuroimaging-findings-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mirette Habib, Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John T O'Brien
It is well established that the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins many years before symptom onset. This preclinical phase provides a crucial time-window for therapeutic intervention, though this requires biomarkers that could evaluate the efficacy of future disease-modification treatments in asymptomatic individuals. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the temporal sequence of the earliest functional and structural brain imaging changes in AD. These efforts have focused on studying individuals who are highly vulnerable to develop AD, such as those with familial genetic mutations, susceptibility genes (i...
March 22, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342719/association-of-structural-and-functional-measures-with-contrast-sensitivity-in-glaucoma
#14
Nima Fatehi, Sara Nowroozizadeh, Sharon Henry, Anne L Coleman, Joseph Caprioli, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that structural and functional measures predict contrast sensitivity (CS) outcomes in glaucomatous eyes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. METHODS: 105 eyes of 65 patients who underwent macular SD-OCT imaging, 24-2 standard achromatic visual fields (VF) and CS measurement on the same day were enrolled. Association of CS at 4 spatial frequencies (3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree, cpd), with structural and functional outcomes was explored with correlation and regression analyses...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342710/emerging-role-of-chemoprotective-agents-in-the-dynamic-shaping-of-plasma-membrane-organization
#15
REVIEW
Natividad R Fuentes, Michael L Salinas, Eunjoo Kim, Robert S Chapkin
In the context of an organism, epithelial cells by nature are designed to be the defining barrier between self and the outside world. This is especially true for the epithelial cells that form the lining of the digestive tract, which absorb nutrients and serve as a barrier against harmful substances. These cells are constantly bathed by a complex mixture of endogenous (bile acids, mucus, microbial metabolites) and exogenous (food, nutrients, drugs) bioactive compounds. From a cell biology perspective, this type of exposure would directly impact the plasma membrane, which consists of a myriad of complex lipids and proteins...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342549/stream-aquifer-and-in-stream-processes-affecting-nitrogen-along-a-major-river-and-contributing-tributary
#16
Alexander Huizenga, Ryan T Bailey, Timothy K Gates
This study assesses the spatio-temporal patterns of water and nutrient mass exchange in a stream-riparian system of a major river and a contributing tributary in an irrigated semi-arid region. Field monitoring is performed along reaches of the Arkansas River (4.7km) and Timpas Creek (2.0km) in southeastern Colorado during the 2014 growing season, with water quantity and water quality data collected using a network of in-stream sampling sites and groundwater monitoring wells. Mass balance approaches were used to identify temporal and spatial trends in flow, nitrogen (N), and salinity in stream-aquifer exchange...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342548/in-situ-reactive-zone-with-modified-mg-oh-2-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-groundwater-immobilization-and-interaction-of-cr-iii-pb-ii-and-cd-ii
#17
Jun Dong, Bowen Li, Qiburi Bao
Mg(OH)2 dissolves slowly and can provide a long-term source of alkalinity, thus a promising alternative reagent for the in situ remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater. However, the application of Mg(OH)2 on in situ reactive zone (IRZ) for heavy metal polluted groundwater has never been investigated. In this study, the behaviors of heavy metals in a Mg(OH)2 IRZ were monitored for 45d. The heavy metals show a sequential precipitation by modified Mg(OH)2 due to the difference of Ksp. Column tests were conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals in Mg(OH)2 IRZ and evaluate the stabilization effect for multi-heavy metal polluted groundwater...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342415/initial-report-on-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emission-dynamics-from-sub-antarctic-freshwater-ecosystems-a-seasonal-study-of-a-lake-and-a-reservoir
#18
Oscar Gerardo-Nieto, María Soledad Astorga-España, Andrés Mansilla, Frederic Thalasso
The sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion is a part of the world where ecosystems have been understudied and where the CH4 cycling and emissions in lakes has not ever been reported. To fill that knowledge gap, a lake and a reservoir located at 53°S were selected and studied during three campaigns equally distributed over one year. Among the parameters measured were CH4 and CO2 emissions, as well their dissolved concentrations in the water column, which were determined with high spatial resolution. No ebullition was observed and the CH4 flux ranged from 0...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342367/optimization-of-surface-electrodes-location-for-h-reflex-recordings-in-soleus-muscle
#19
Alberto Botter, Taian M Vieira
The Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is extensively used to investigate the spinal motor neuron excitability in healthy and pathological subjects. Obtaining a representative and robust amplitude estimation of the H reflex is of marked relevance in clinical as well as in research applications. As for the motor responses, this issue is strictly related to the electrode positioning, especially for large, pinnate muscles such as the triceps surae. In this study we investigated the effect of electrode position on soleus H-reflex amplitude...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342339/a-novel-hybrid-strategy-for-pm2-5-concentration-analysis-and-prediction
#20
Ping Jiang, Qingli Dong, Peizhi Li
The analysis and prediction of air pollutants are of great significance in environmental research today since airborne pollution is a substantial threat, especially in urban agglomerations of China. To develop more effective warning systems and management advice, the authorities and city dwellers need more accurate forecasts of the air pollution. Most previous analysis systems were based on costly observation apparatus at fixed sites, forecasting models were usually built on observations within a certain range, and some observations contained biases...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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