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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#1
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743093/development-of-a-statistical-oil-spill-model-for-risk-assessment
#2
Weijun Guo
To gain a better understanding of the impacts from potential risk sources, we developed an oil spill model using probabilistic method, which simulates numerous oil spill trajectories under varying environmental conditions. The statistical results were quantified from hypothetical oil spills under multiple scenarios, including area affected probability, mean oil slick thickness, and duration of water surface exposed to floating oil. The three sub-indices together with marine area vulnerability are merged to compute the composite index, characterizing the spatial distribution of risk degree...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743085/direct-electrodeposition-of-graphene-enhanced-conductive-polymer-on-microelectrode-for-biosensing-application
#3
Ming-Hao Wang, Bo-Wen Ji, Xiao-Wei Gu, Hong-Chang Tian, Xiao-Yang Kang, Bin Yang, Xiao-Lin Wang, Xiang Chen, Cheng-Yu Li, Jing-Quan Liu
Engineering of neural interface with nanomaterials for high spatial resolution neural recording and stimulation is still hindered by materials properties and modification methods. Recently, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been widely used as an electrode-tissue interface material for its good electrochemical property. However, cracks and delamination of PEDOT film under pulse stimulation are found which restrict its long-term applications. This paper develops a flexible electrochemical method about the co-deposition of graphene with PEDOT on microelectrode sites to enhance the long-term stability and improve the electrochemical properties of microelectrode...
July 13, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743075/preference-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-gh3-5-acyl-amido-synthetase-for-growth-versus-defense-hormone-acyl-substrates-is-dictated-by-concentration-of-amino-acid-substrate-aspartate
#4
Rebecca Mackelprang, Rachel A Okrent, Mary C Wildermuth
The GH3 family of adenylating enzymes conjugate acyl substrates such as the growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids via a two-step reaction of acyl substrate adenylation followed by amino acid conjugation. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 was previously shown to be unusual in that it could adenylate both IAA and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoate). Our detailed studies of the kinetics of GH3.5 on a variety of auxin and benzoate substrates provides insight into the acyl preference and reaction mechanism of GH3...
July 22, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743056/apigenin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-epigenetic-regulation-and-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#5
Lin Chen, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Weiqiang Zhuang, Changcheng Jiang, Naizhen Liu
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Post operational cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Abnormal histone acetylation and neuroinflammation are key factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Apigenin not only has an anti-inflammatory activity but also modifies histone acetylation. We aimed to investigate whether apigenin can attenuate isoflurane exposure-induced cognitive decline by regulating histone acetylation and inflammatory signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743007/environmental-footprints-of-brick-kiln-bottom-ashes-geostatistical-approach-for-assessment-of-metal-toxicity
#6
Ananya Mondal, Subhasish Das, Rajesh Kumar Sah, Pradip Bhattacharyya, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742881/epiphytes-in-wooded-pastures-isolation-matters-for-lichen-but-not-for-bryophyte-species-richness
#7
Thomas Kiebacher, Christine Keller, Christoph Scheidegger, Ariel Bergamini
Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742496/experience-dependent-shaping-of-hippocampal-ca1-intracellular-activity-in-novel-and-familiar-environments
#8
Jeremy D Cohen, Mark Bolstad, Albert K Lee
The hippocampus is critical for producing stable representations of familiar spaces. How these representations arise is poorly understood, largely because changes to hippocampal inputs have not been measured during spatial learning. Here, using intracellular recording, we monitored inputs and plasticity-inducing complex spikes (CSs) in CA1 neurons while mice explored novel and familiar virtual environments. Inputs driving place field spiking increased in amplitude - often suddenly - during novel environment exploration...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742353/a-dft-assessment-of-the-environment-polarity-effect-on-polyaniline-water-coupling
#9
Jasmina Nedkova Petrova, Anela N Ivanova, Alia V Tadjer
Crystallization water plays an important role for the self-organization of oligomer chains in conducting polyaniline - emeraldine. In order to quantify the interaction between the emeraldine salt and such a water, models containing a tetramer in bipolaronic or polaronic form, chloride counterions and an explicit water molecule are used. Different initial positions of water with respect to the oligomer chain - tangential and vertical, are considered. Various media are simulated by introducing implicit solvent continuum of decreasing polarity...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742159/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-broadly-contributes-to-ltp-induction
#10
Joanna Jȩdrzejewska-Szmek, Vincent Luczak, Ted Abel, Kim T Blackwell
Long-lasting forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) represent one of the major cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. One of the fundamental questions in the field of LTP is why different molecules are critical for long-lasting forms of LTP induced by diverse experimental protocols. Further complexity stems from spatial aspects of signaling networks, such that some molecules function in the dendrite and some are critical in the spine. We investigated whether the diverse experimental evidence can be unified by creating a spatial, mechanistic model of multiple signaling pathways in hippocampal CA1 neurons...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#11
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742118/similarities-and-differences-between-on-scalp-and-conventional-in-helmet-magnetoencephalography-recordings
#12
Lau M Andersen, Robert Oostenveld, Christoph Pfeiffer, Silvia Ruffieux, Veikko Jousmäki, Matti Hämäläinen, Justin F Schneiderman, Daniel Lundqvist
The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742117/comparison-of-gcamp3-and-gcamp6f-for-studying-astrocyte-ca2-dynamics-in-the-awake-mouse-brain
#13
Liang Ye, Mateen A Haroon, Angelica Salinas, Martin Paukert
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes play a much more active role in neural processes than the traditional view of them as supporting cells suggests. Although not electrically excitable, astrocytes exhibit diverse Ca2+ dynamics across spatial and temporal scales, more or less dependent on the animal's behavioral state. Ca2+ dynamics range from global elevations lasting multiple seconds encompassing the soma up to the finest processes, to short elevations restricted to so-called microdomains within fine processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742069/nematode-grazing-promotes-bacterial-community-dynamics-in-soil-at-the-aggregate-level
#14
Yuji Jiang, Manqiang Liu, Jiabao Zhang, Yan Chen, Xiaoyun Chen, Lijun Chen, Huixin Li, Xue-Xian Zhang, Bo Sun
Nematode predation has important roles in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics, but the extent of the effects remains largely rudimentary, particularly in natural environment settings. Here, we investigated the complex microbial-microfaunal interactions in the rhizosphere of maize grown in red soils, which were derived from four long-term fertilization regimes. Root-free rhizosphere soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions whereby the abundance and community composition were examined for nematode and total bacterial communities...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742066/a-comprehensive-data-set-of-lake-surface-water-temperature-over-the-tibetan-plateau-derived-from-modis-lst-products-2001-2015
#15
Wei Wan, Huan Li, Hongjie Xie, Yang Hong, Di Long, Limin Zhao, Zhongying Han, Yaokui Cui, Baojian Liu, Cunguang Wang, Wenting Yang
Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) is sensitive to long-term changes in thermal structure of lakes and regional air temperature. In the context of global climate change, recent studies showed a significant warming trend of LSWT based on investigating 291 lakes (71% are large lakes, ≥50 km(2) each) globally. However, further efforts are needed to examine variation in LSWT at finer regional spatial and temporal scales. The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as 'the Roof of the World' and 'Asia's water towers', exerts large influences on and is sensitive to regional and even global climates...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#16
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742040/an-hp-adaptive-discretization-algorithm-for-signed-distance-field-generation
#17
Dan Koschier, Crispin Deul, Magnus Brand, Jan Bender
In this paper we present an hp-adaptive algorithm to generate discrete higher-order polynomial Signed Distance Fields (SDFs) on axis-aligned hexahedral grids from manifold polygonal input meshes. Using an orthonormal polynomial basis, we efficiently fit the polynomials to the underlying signed distance function on each cell. The proposed error-driven construction algorithm is globally adaptive and iteratively refines the SDFs using either spatial subdivision ( h-refinement) following an octree scheme or by cell-wise adaption of the polynomial approximation's degree ( p-refinement)...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742037/temporal-coherence-based-deblurring-using-non-uniform-motion-optimization
#18
Congbin Qiao, Rynson W H Lau, Bin Sheng, Benxuan Zhang, Enhua Wu
Non-uniform motion blur due to object movement or camera jitter is a common phenomenon in videos. However, state-of-the-art video deblurring methods used to deal with this problem can introduce artifacts, and may sometimes fail to handle motion blur due to the movements of the object or the camera. In this paper, we propose a non-uniform motion model to deblur video frames. The proposed method is based on superpixel matching in the video sequence to reconstruct sharp frames from blurry ones. To identify a suitable sharp superpixel to replace a blurry one, we enrich the search space with a non-uniform motion blur kernel, and use a generalized PatchMatch algorithm to handle rotation, scale, and blur differences in the matching step...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742033/the-impact-of-model-based-clutter-suppression-on-cluttered-aberrated-wavefronts
#19
Kazuyuki Dei, Brett Byram
Recent studies reveal that both phase aberration and reverberation play a major role in degrading ultrasound image quality. We previously developed an algorithm for suppressing clutter, but we have not yet tested it in the context of aberrated wavefronts. In this study, we evaluate our previously reported algorithm, called aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE), in the presence of phase aberration and in the presence of multipath scattering and phase aberration. We use simulations to investigate phase aberration corruption and correction in the presence of reverberation...
July 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741924/ultrasound-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-sonoporation-assisted-site-specific-therapeutic-action
#20
Pengying Wu, Yali Jia, Fei Qu, Yue Sun, Pan Wang, Kun Zhang, Chuanshan Xu, Quanhong Liu, Xiaobing Wang
Targeting drug delivery remains a challenge in various disease treatment including cancer. The local drug deposit could be greatly enhanced by some external stimuli-responsive systems. Here we develop pluronic P123/F127 polymeric micelles (M) encapsulating curcumin (Cur) that are permeabilized directly by focused ultrasound, in which ultrasound triggers drug release. Tumor preferential accumulation and site-specific sonochemotherapy were then evaluated. Cur-loaded P123/F127 mixed micelles (Cur-M) exhibited longer circulating time and increased cellular uptake compared to free Cur...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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