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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088837/disease-severity-classification-using-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-of-cartilage-in-femoroacetabular-impingement
#1
Lisa L Henn, John Hughes, Eleena Iisakka, Jutta Ellermann, Shabnam Mortazavi, Connor Ziegler, Mikko J Nissi, Patrick Morgan
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in which subtle deformities of the femoral head and acetabulum (hip socket) result in pathological abutment during hip motion. FAI is a common cause of hip pain and can lead to acetabular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis. For some patients with FAI, surgical intervention is indicated, and it can improve quality of life and potentially delay the onset of osteoarthritis. For other patients, however, surgery is contraindicated because significant cartilage damage has already occurred...
January 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088752/microfluidic-approaches-for-isolation-detection-and-characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-current-status-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Shima Gholizadeh, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Maryam Zarghooni, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Saeid Ghavami, Hadi Shafiee, Mohsen Akbari
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles present in body fluids that play an essential role in various cellular processes, such as intercellular communication, inflammation, cellular homeostasis, survival, transport, and regeneration. Their isolation and analysis from body fluids have a great clinical potential to provide information on a variety of disease states such as cancer, cardiovascular complications and inflammatory disorders. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest in this field, there are still no standardized procedures available for the purification, detection, and characterization of EVs...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#3
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088547/traffic-related-trace-elements-in-soils-along-six-highway-segments-on-the-tibetan-plateau-influence-factors-and-spatial-variation
#4
Guanxing Wang, Chen Zeng, Fan Zhang, Yili Zhang, Christopher A Scott, Xuedong Yan
The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088516/structural-study-of-the-effects-of-mutations-in-proteins-to-identify-the-molecular-basis-of-the-loss-of-local-structural-fluidity-leading-to-the-onset-of-autoimmune-diseases
#5
Ananya Ali, Semanti Ghosh, Angshuman Bagchi
Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) are crucial in most of the biological processes and PPI dysfunctions are known to be associated with the onsets of various diseases. One of such diseases is the auto-immune disease. Auto-immune diseases are one among the less studied group of diseases with very high mortality rates. Thus, we tried to correlate the appearances of mutations with their probable biochemical basis of the molecular mechanisms leading to the onset of the disease phenotypes. We compared the effects of the Single Amino Acid Variants (SAVs) in the wild type and mutated proteins to identify any structural deformities that might lead to altered PPIs leading ultimately to disease onset...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#6
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088351/neural-activity-reveals-perceptual-grouping-in-working-memory
#7
Laura R Rabbitt, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald, Matthew S Peterson
There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088347/disparity-configuration-influences-depth-discrimination-in-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-but-not-in-children
#8
Laurie M Wilcox, Brittney Hartle, Aliya Solski, Kevin J Mackenzie, Deborah Giaschi
We report a series of experiments in which we assess depth discrimination performance in adults and children using a disparity-balanced target configuration to avoid the effects of anticipatory vergence eye movements. In our first study we found that children outperformed adults by a substantial margin, and the adults were consistently near chance. This was surprising given that we initially tested naïve adults to provide a benchmark for the children's data, and all observers met the criterion for stereoacuity...
January 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088300/cytoplasmic-rna-protein-particles-exhibit-non-gaussian-subdiffusive-behavior
#9
Thomas J Lampo, Stella Stylianidou, Mikael P Backlund, Paul A Wiggins, Andrew J Spakowitz
The cellular cytoplasm is a complex, heterogeneous environment (both spatially and temporally) that exhibits viscoelastic behavior. To further develop our quantitative insight into cellular transport, we analyze data sets of mRNA molecules fluorescently labeled with MS2-GFP tracked in real time in live Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. As shown previously, these RNA-protein particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior that is viscoelastic in its origin. Examining the ensemble of particle displacements reveals a Laplace distribution at all observed timescales rather than the Gaussian distribution predicted by the central limit theorem...
January 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088287/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-deficiency-leads-to-behavior-impairment-with-monoaminergic-and-synaptic-dysfunction
#10
Hongmei Dai, Yu-Ichi Goto, Masayuki Itoh
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates IGF bioactivity, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth independent of IGFs, but the functional role of IGFBP3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we revealed the effect of IGFBP3 on the brain by characterizing the phenotype of Igfbp3-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Igfbp3-null mice had significantly decreased IGF-1 content in the brain but no change in weights of brain and body. In Igfbp3-null mice, the number of dendritic spines was significantly reduced, and the dendritic diameter was thickening...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088242/differences-in-spatial-distributions-of-iron-supplementation-use-among-pregnant-women-and-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-evidence-from-the-2011-national-population-based-survey
#11
Demewoz Haile, Lianna Tabar, Yihunie Lakew
BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation during pregnancy prevents against low birth weight, incidence of prematurity and postpartum hemorrhage. However, the coverage of iron supplementation is still low in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the spatial variations and associated factors of iron supplementation during pregnancy using the 2011 national demographic and health survey data. METHODS: This study used secondary data from the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey...
January 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088159/symmetry-and-magnetism-in-ni9te6-clusters-ligated-by-co-or-phosphine-ligands
#12
Arthur C Reber, Vikas Chauhan, Shiv N Khanna
The removal of a single ligand from the magnetic Ni9Te6(L)8 (L = P(CH3)3, CO) clusters is found to quench the magnetic moment. The reduction in magnetic moment is caused by a geometric deformation of the Ni9Te6 core that breaks the octahedral symmetry of the cluster. This effect is observed in both the CO and phosphine based ligands. The octahedral symmetry bare cluster is also found to have a large magnetic moment. These results highlight the dilemma faced by magnetic ligand protected clusters whose symmetry has been broken: whether to break the spin symmetry as in Hund's rules or to break the spatial symmetry as in the Jahn-Teller effect...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088153/signatures-of-spatially-correlated-noise-and-non-secular-effects-in-two-dimensional-electronic-spectroscopy
#13
James Lim, David J Ing, Joachim Rosskopf, Jan Jeske, Jared H Cole, Susana F Huelga, Martin B Plenio
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088147/hopping-charge-transport-in-amorphous-semiconductors-with-the-spatially-correlated-exponential-density-of-states
#14
S V Novikov
Hopping charge transport in amorphous semiconductors having spatially correlated exponential density of states has been considered. Average carrier velocity is exactly calculated for the quasi-equilibrium (nondispersive) transport regime. We suggest also a heuristic approach for the consideration of the carrier velocity for the non-equilibrium dispersive regime.
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088138/fast-simulation-of-brownian-dynamics-in-a-crowded-environment
#15
Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Brownian dynamics simulations are an increasingly popular tool for understanding spatially extended biochemical reaction systems. Recent improvements in our understanding of the cellular environment show that volume exclusion effects are fundamental to reaction networks inside cells. These systems are frequently studied by incorporating inert hard spheres (crowders) into three-dimensional Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations; however these methods are extremely slow owing to the sheer number of possible collisions between particles...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088136/pressure-effects-on-structure-and-dynamics-of-metallic-glass-forming-liquid
#16
Yuan-Chao Hu, Peng-Fei Guan, Qing Wang, Yong Yang, Hai-Yang Bai, Wei-Hua Wang
Although the structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquids have been extensively investigated, studies of the pressure effects are rare. In the present study, the structural and dynamical properties of a ternary metallic liquid are systematically studied via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly show that, like isobaric cooling, isothermal compression could also slow down the dynamics of metallic liquid, leading to glass formation. However, the temperature- and pressure-induced glass transitions differ in the formation of local coordination structures and the variation of fragility...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088033/a-bayesian-spatial-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-crash-rates-on-roadway-segments
#17
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
This study develops a Bayesian spatial random parameters Tobit model to analyze crash rates on road segments, in which both spatial correlation between adjacent sites and unobserved heterogeneity across observations are accounted for. The crash-rate data for a three-year period on road segments within a road network in Florida, are collected to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of a (fixed parameters) Tobit model and a spatial (fixed parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context. Significant spatial effect is found in both spatial models and the results of Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) show that the inclusion of spatial correlation in the Tobit regression considerably improves model fit, which indicates the reasonableness of considering cross-segment spatial correlation...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087920/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-water-quality-in-the-bertam-catchment-cameron-highlands-malaysia
#18
G Rasul
The spatio-temporal variability of water quality associated with anthropogenic activities was studied for the Bertam River and its main tributaries within the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A number of physico-chemical parameters of collected samples were analyzed to evaluate their spatio-temporal variability. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed significant temporal and spatial differences (p<0.05) in most of the parameters across the Catchment. Parameters except DO and COD displayed higher values in rainy season...
December 16, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087801/occurrence-of-similar-mycoviruses-in-pathogenic-saprotrophic-and-mycorrhizal-fungi-inhabiting-the-same-forest-stand
#19
Eeva J Vainio, Taina Pennanen, Tiina Rajala, Jarkko Hantula
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) are considered to be highly host specific, but phylogenetic analysis supports the occasional occurrence of horizontal transmission between species. We used an extensive sampling strategy to investigate whether similar viruses occur in more than one fungal species of the same forest habitat. Mycelial samples were collected from in-growth mesh bags (N = 259), fruiting bodies (N = 173) and cultured isolates (N = 68) at a forest site where the spatial distribution of viral infections in clonal individuals of the wood decay fungus H...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#20
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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