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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783202/feasibility-of-myocardial-pet-imaging-using-a-benzylguanidine-analog-meta-3-18-f-fluoropropyl-benzylguanidine-18-f-mfpbg
#1
Sang-Keun Woo, Byung Seok Moon, Bom Sahn Kim, Min Hwan Kim, Yong Jin Lee, Jae Ho Jung, Kyo Chul Lee, Youngho Seo, Wook Kim, Sang Moo Lim, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim
INTRODUCTION: Global and regional sympathetic activity in the heart can be evaluated using [123 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([123 I]mIBG) imaging. However, [123 I]mIBG is associated with low image spatial resolution and sensitivity in cardiac imaging. We investigated the capability of an F-18-labeled mIBG derivative, meta-(3-[18 F]fluoropropyl)benzylguanidine ([18 F]mFPBG), for identifying ischemic and viable myocardium in a rat model of myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo metabolic stability of [18 F]mFPBG were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 3, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783177/evaluating-long-term-patterns-of-decreasing-groundwater-discharge-through-a-lake-bottom-permeable-reactive-barrier
#2
Timothy D McCobb, Martin A Briggs, Denis R LeBlanc, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Carole D Johnson
Identifying and quantifying groundwater exchange is critical when considering contaminant fate and transport at the groundwater/surface-water interface. In this paper, areally distributed temperature and point seepage measurements are used to efficiently assess spatial and temporal groundwater discharge patterns through a glacial-kettle lakebed area containing a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Concern was that the PRB was becoming less permeable with time owing to biogeochemical processes within the PRB...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783145/electrochemical-biosensor-system-using-a-cmos-microelectrode-array-provides-high-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-images
#3
William Tedjo, Jasmine E Nejad, Rachel Feeny, Lang Yang, Charles S Henry, Stuart Tobet, Tom Chen
The ability to view biological events in real time has contributed significantly to research in the life sciences. While video capture of real time changes in anatomical relationships is important, it is equally important to visualize real time changes in the chemical communications that drive cell behaviors. This paper describes an electrochemical imaging system capable of capturing changes in chemical gradients in live tissue slices. The system consists of a CMOS microchip with 8192 configurable Pt surface electrodes, on-chip potentiostat, on-chip control logic, and a microfluidic device designed to interface with the CMOS chip to support ex vivo tissue experimentation...
April 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#4
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783110/temporal-and-spatial-variation-in-the-mechanisms-used-by-microorganisms-to-form-methylmercury-in-the-water-column-of-changshou-lake
#5
Zhilin Xing, Tiantao Zhao, Weiyang Bai, Xu Yang, Shuai Liu, Lijie Zhang
The microbiome in artificial lake water and its impact on mercury (Hg) methylation remain largely unknown. We selected the largest artificial lake in southeastern china, Changshou Lake (CSL), which has high background levels of Hg, for our investigation of Hg transformation microorganisms. Five different sections of the water column of CSL were sampled during four seasons. The water samples were subjected to analysis of geochemical parameters, various Hg species and microbiome information. High concentrations of total mercury (THg) were detected in CSL in comparison with those found in natural lakes...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783102/strain-analysis-from-nano-beam-electron-diffraction-influence-of-specimen-tilt-and-beam-convergence
#6
Tim Grieb, Florian F Krause, Marco Schowalter, Dennis Zillmann, Roman Sellin, Knut Müller-Caspary, Christoph Mahr, Thorsten Mehrtens, Dieter Bimberg, Andreas Rosenauer
Strain analyses from experimental series of nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) patterns in scanning transmission electron microscopy are performed for different specimen tilts. Simulations of NBED series are presented for which strain analysis gives results that are in accordance with experiment. This consequently allows to study the relation between measured strain and actual underlying strain. A two-tilt method which can be seen as lowest-order electron beam precession is suggested and experimentally implemented...
April 12, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783061/enhanced-extinction-of-aversive-memories-in-mice-lacking-sparc-related-protein-containing-immunoglobulin-domains-1-spig1-fstl4
#7
Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Yukio Komatsu, Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Masaharu Noda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory. We previously reported that SPARC-related protein-containing immunoglobulin domains 1 (SPIG1, also known as Follistatin-like protein 4, FSTL4) binds to pro-BDNF and negatively regulates BDNF maturation; however, its neurological functions, particularly in learning and memory, have not yet been elucidated. We herein examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of Spig1-knockout (Spig1-KO) mice...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783060/sleep-dependent-consolidation-patterns-reveal-insights-into-episodic-memory-structure
#8
Carlos N Oyanedel, Anuck Sawangjit, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
Episodic memory formation is considered a genuinely hippocampal function. Its study in rodents has relied on two different task paradigms, i.e. the so called "what-where-when" (WW-When) task and "what-where-which" (WW-Which) task. The WW-When task aims to assess the memory for an episode as an event bound into its context defined by spatial and distinct temporal information, the WW-Which task lacks the temporal component and introduces, instead, an "occasion setter" marking the broader contextual configuration in which the event occurred...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783051/occurrence-and-potential-human-health-risks-of-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-in-drinking-water-from-cities-along-the-chinese-coastland-of-the-yellow-sea
#9
Zekai Li, Fangyu Chang, Peng Shi, Xun Chen, Feng Yang, Qing Zhou, Yang Pan, Aimin Li
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in drinking water have been considered a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, SVOC contamination and the associated human health risks of the drinking water from cities along tributaries of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River in China have been seldom reported. Here, we focused on the occurrence and distribution of a series of SVOCs, mainly including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), in drinking water of this region...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783042/synchronization-of-hybrid-coupled-reaction-diffusion-neural-networks-with-time-delays-via-generalized-intermittent-control-with-spacial-sampled-data
#10
Binglong Lu, Haijun Jiang, Cheng Hu, Abdujelil Abdurahman
The exponential synchronization of hybrid coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with time delays is discussed in this article. At first, a generalized intermittent control with spacial sampled-data is introduced, which is intermittent in time and data sampling in space. This type of control strategy not only can unify the traditional periodic intermittent control and the aperiodic case, but also can lower the update rate of the controller in both temporal and spatial domains. Next, based on the designed control protocol and the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, some novel and readily verified criteria are established to guarantee the exponential synchronization of the considered networks...
May 4, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#11
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782933/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analyses-identify-high-genetic-heterogeneity-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-genotype-p-6-strains-circulating-in-africa
#12
Martin M Nyaga, Yi Tan, Mapaseka L Seheri, Rebecca A Halpin, Asmik Akopov, Karla M Stucker, Nadia B Fedorova, Susmita Shrivastava, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, Brett E Pickett, Suman R Das, M Jeffery Mphahlele
Rotavirus A (RVA) exhibits a wide genotype diversity globally. Little is known about the genetic composition of genotype P[6] from Africa. This study investigated possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic diversity of genotype P[6] VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses on 167 P[6] VP4 full-length sequences were conducted, which included six porcine-origin sequences. Of the 167 sequences, 57 were newly acquired through whole genome sequencing as part of this study. The other 110 sequences were all publicly-available global P[6] VP4 full-length sequences downloaded from GenBank...
May 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782926/decoding-cell-signalling-and-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#13
REVIEW
A K Santos, M S Vieira, R Vasconcellos, V A M Goulart, A H Kihara, R R Resende
Oligodendrocytes are fundamental for the functioning of the nervous system; they participate in several cellular processes, including axonal myelination and metabolic maintenance for astrocytes and neurons. In the mammalian nervous system, they are produced through waves of proliferation and differentiation, which occur during embryogenesis. However, oligodendrocytes and their precursors continue to be generated during adulthood from specific niches of stem cells that were not recruited during development. Deficiencies in the formation and maturation of these cells can generate pathologies mainly related to myelination...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782905/pathology-of-nnos-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782703/spatial-micropatterning-of-growth-factors-in-3d-hydrogels-for-location-specific-regulation-of-cellular-behaviors
#15
Oju Jeon, Keewon Lee, Eben Alsberg
Growth factors are potent stimuli for regulating cell function in tissue engineering strategies, but spatially patterning their presentation in 3D in a facile manner using a single material is challenging. Micropatterning is an attractive tool to modulate the cellular microenvironment with various biochemical and physical cues and study their effects on stem cell behaviors. Implementing heparin's ability to immobilize growth factors, dual-crosslinkable alginate hydrogels are micropatterned in 3D with photocrosslinkable heparin substrates with various geometries and micropattern sizes, and their capability to establish 3D micropatterns of growth factors within the hydrogels is confirmed...
May 21, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782671/enhanced-performance-of-a-molecular-photoacoustic-imaging-agent-by-encapsulation-in-mesoporous-silicon-nanoparticles
#16
Jinyoung Kang, Dokyoung Kim, Junxin Wang, Yunho Han, Jonathan M Zuidema, Ali Hariri, Ji-Ho Park, Jesse V Jokerst, Michael J Sailor
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging allows visualization of the physiology and pathology of tissues with good spatial resolution and relatively deep tissue penetration. The method converts near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation into thermal expansion, generating pressure transients that are detected with an acoustic transducer. Here, we find that the response of the PA contrast agent indocyanine green (ICG) can be enhanced 17-fold when it is sealed within a rigid nanoparticle. ICG encapsulated in particles composed of porous silicon (pSiNP), porous silica, or calcium silicate all show greater PA contrast relative to equivalent quantities of free ICG, with the pSiNPs showing the strongest enhancement...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782655/cross-scale-occupancy-dynamics-of-a-post-fire-specialist-in-response-to-variation-across-a-fire-regime
#17
Morgan W Tingley, Andrew N Stillman, Robert L Wilkerson, Christine A Howell, Sarah C Sawyer, Rodney B Siegel
1.Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2.Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and persistence varied across two spatial scales as a function of four characteristics of fire regimes - fire severity, fire size, fire ignition date, and number of years since fire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782617/patient-specific-neurosurgical-phantom-assessment-of-visual-quality-accuracy-and-scaling-effects
#18
Felipe Wilker Grillo, Victor Hugo Souza, Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Carlo Rondinoni, Theo Zeferino Pavan, Oswaldo Baffa, Helio Rubens Machado, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro
Background: Training in medical education depends on the availability of standardized materials that can reliably mimic the human anatomy and physiology. One alternative to using cadavers or animal bodies is to employ phantoms or mimicking devices. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) gels are biologically inert and present tunable properties, including mechanical properties that resemble the soft tissue. Therefore, SEBS is an alternative to develop a patient-specific phantom, that provides real visual and morphological experience during simulation-based neurosurgical training...
2018: 3D Print Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782523/spatial-abundance-models-and-seasonal-distribution-for-guanaco-lama-guanicoe-in-central-tierra-del-fuego-argentina
#19
Celina E Flores, Guillermo Deferrari, Leonardo Collado, Julio Escobar, Adrián Schiavini
Spatially explicit modelling allows to estimate population abundance and predict species' distribution in relation to environmental factors. Abiotic factors are the main determinants of a herbivore´s response to environmental heterogeneity on large spatiotemporal scales. We assessed the influence of elevation, geographic location and distance to the coast on the seasonal abundance and distribution of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in central Tierra del Fuego, by means of spatially explicit modelling. The estimated abundance was 23,690 individuals for the non-breeding season and 33,928 individuals for the breeding season...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782510/individual-differences-in-learning-correlate-with-modulation-of-brain-activity-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#20
Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman, Daniel E Callan
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability...
2018: PloS One
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