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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926985/tropical-rainforests-that-persisted-inferences-from-the-quaternary-demographic-history-of-eight-tree-species-in-the-guiana-shield
#1
Stéphanie Barthe, Giorgio Binelli, Bruno Hérault, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Daniel Sabatier, Ivan Scotti
How Quaternary climatic and geological disturbances influenced the composition of Neotropical forests is hotly debated. Rain fall and temperature changes during and/or immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are thought to have strongly affected the geographical distribution and local abundance of tree species. The paucity of the fossil records in Neotropical forests prevents a direct reconstruction of such processes. To describe community-level historical trends in forest composition, we turned therefore to inferential methods based on the reconstruction of past demographic changes...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926927/male-circumcision-and-the-epidemic-emergence-of-hiv-2-in-west-africa
#2
João Dinis Sousa, Marina Padrão Temudo, Barry Stephen Hewlett, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Viktor Müller, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
BACKGROUND: Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930-40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985-91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and phylogeographical analysis suggests they were the earliest epicenters. Wars and parenteral transmission have been hypothesized to have promoted HIV-2 spread...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926807/evaluation-of-a-national-e-mentoring-program-for-ethnically-diverse-student-nurse-midwives-and-student-midwives
#3
Maria Valentin-Welch
INTRODUCTION: The US racial profile is changing rapidly, yet the nursing and midwifery professions are not evolving accordingly. The lack of racial and ethnic diversity within these health professions negatively affects efforts to eliminate persistent health disparities. To address this issue, the Midwives of Color Committee (MOCC) of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a national online mentoring program in 2011 to support midwifery students of color. An evaluation of the program is reported here...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#4
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926733/high-resolution-mapping-of-global-surface-water-and-its-long-term-changes
#5
Jean-François Pekel, Andrew Cottam, Noel Gorelick, Alan S Belward
The location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity and affects climate, biological diversity and human wellbeing. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions, statistical extrapolation of regional data and satellite imagery, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at 30-metre resolution...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926593/cost-effectiveness-of-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment-in-hepatitis-c-infected-liver-transplant-candidates-with-compensated-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
James Salazar, Varun Saxena, James G Kahn, John P Roberts, Neil Mehta, Michael Volk, Jennifer C Lai
BACKGROUND: HCV(+) donors represent an effective strategy to increase liver donor availability to HCV-infected recipients. However, many HCV(+) transplant candidates are now receiving treatment with direct acting anti-virals (DAA) that lower the risk of posttransplant HCV recurrence but could make the patient ineligible for HCV(+) livers. METHODS: We compared pretransplant DAA treatment versus deferred DAA treatment using a cost-effectiveness decision analysis model to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; cost per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained) from the societal perspective across a range of HCV(+) liver availability rates...
December 6, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926547/liver-redistricting-what-are-the-upcoming-changes-in-liver-allocation-in-the-united-states
#7
Therese Bittermann, David S Goldberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Geographic disparity in liver transplantation is substantial in the United States, and primarily a byproduct of artificially created zones of organ distribution. In 2016, the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) put forward a formal redistricting proposal with the goal of reducing this variability by regrouping the country's 58 donation service areas into eight new districts. This review provides a summary of the redistricting proposal's methodologies, expected results, criticisms and next steps...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925776/providers-and-administrators-perceptions-of-complementary-and-integrative-health-practices-across-the-veterans-health-administration
#8
Carol E Fletcher, Allison R Mitchinson, Erika Trumble, Daniel B Hinshaw, Jeffery A Dusek
OBJECTIVES: Use of complementary and integrative health (CIH) therapies is being promoted by the Veterans Health Administration (VA), but promotion may not equate to adoption. The purpose of this study was to explore whether perceptions regarding CIH at one VA medical center (VAMC) were similar to perceptions from a sample of other VAMCs. DESIGN: This article reports a subset of qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Sites were recruited through a VA-wide CIH listserver...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925277/identification-of-sources-of-metal-in-the-agricultural-soils-of-guanzhong-plain-northwest-china
#9
Wenbo Deng, Xuxiang Li, Zhisheng An, Liu Yang, Kang Hou, Yue Zhang
In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey to assess the possible sources and distribution of metals in the agricultural soils of Guanzhong Plain, northwest China. A total of 227 samples of agricultural soil were collected to determine the content of Pb, Cr, Co, V, Ni, Zn, Cu, As and Mn by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The mean concentrations of metals were 26.2 ± 10.8 mg · kg(-1) , 71.5 ± 16.8 mg · kg(-1) , 12.7 ± 1.81 mg · kg(-1) , 85.1 ± 7.86 mg · kg(-1) , 30...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925178/adaptive-patterns-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-laboratory-and-field-environments-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Vinayak Mathur, Paul S Schmidt
Identifying mechanisms of adaptation to variable environments is essential in developing a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. Phenotypic plasticity allows for phenotypic change in response to changes in the environment, and as such may play a major role in adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Here, the plasticity of stress response in D. melanogaster originating from two distinct geographic regions and ecological habitats was examined. Adults were given a short-term, 5-day exposure to combinations of temperature and photoperiod to elicit a plastic response for three fundamental aspects of stress tolerance that vary adaptively with geography...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925134/-leptospirosis-space-time-distribution-and-risk-factors-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-brazil
#11
Nelson Veiga Gonçalves, Ediane Nunes de Araujo, Alcinês da Silva Sousa, Waltair Maria Martins Pereira, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda, Pedro Silvestre da Silvia Campos, Mauro Wendel de Souza Matos, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes Palácios
The occurrence of leptospirosis has defied epidemiology even when using different analysis technologies at local geographical levels. This cross-sectional and descriptive study sought to identify spatial correlations between social and environmental risk factors and leptospirosis in Belém in the State of Pará from 2007 to 2013. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the Pará State Department of Public Health and the environmental, demographic and cartographical data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925112/transport-accident-mortality-in-chile-trends-from-2000-to-2012
#12
Tamara Otzen, Antonio Sanhueza, Carlos Manterola, Monica Hetz, Tamara Melnik
The aim of this study is to describe the trends of transport accident mortality in Chile from 2000 to 2012 by year, geographic distribution, gender, age group, and type of accident. Population-based study. Data for transport accident mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used. The crude and adjusted per region transport accident mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates and relative risks (RR) were calculated. The average transport accident mortality rate (TAMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 12...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925058/new-morphological-data-of-litomosoides-chagasfilhoi-nematoda-filarioidea-parasitizing-nectomys-squamipes-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#13
Luís Cláudio Muniz-Pereira, Paula Araujo Gonçalves, Erick Vaz Guimarães, Fábio de Oliveira Fonseca, José Augusto Albuquerque Dos Santos, Arnaldo Maldonado-Júnior, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Litomosoides chagasfilhoi, originally described by Moraes Neto, Lanfredi & De Souza (1997) parasitizing the abdominal cavity of the wild rodent, Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), was found in the abdominal cavity of Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), from the municipality of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This study led to addition of new morphological data and a new geographical distribution for this filarioid in Brazil. Several characters were detailed and emended to previous records of L. chagasfilhoi in N...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924968/spatial-distribution-of-being-sick-or-injured-in-the-past-two-weeks-by-district-in-pakistan
#14
Masood Ali Shaikh
This study harnessed the power of geographic information system (GIS) to summarise and visualise ten-page tabular data in two maps. The data comprised of the percentage of 5-years and older males and females who fell sick or were injured during the two weeks prior to the survey, and on their health consultation by district, cumulatively from both urban and rural areas. The data was collected by the Pakistan Social and Living Standards survey (PSLM) 2014-15. District-wise pattern of the two indices were mapped for better understanding and appreciation of this spatial pattern by the health policymakers in the country...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924947/two-genomic-regions-associated-with-fiber-quality-traits-in-chinese-upland-cotton-under-apparent-breeding-selection
#15
Junji Su, Libei Li, Chaoyou Pang, Hengling Wei, Caixiang Wang, Meizhen Song, Hantao Wang, Shuqi Zhao, Chi Zhang, Guangzhi Mao, Long Huang, Chengshe Wang, Shuli Fan, Shuxun Yu
Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924809/global-molecular-epidemiology-and-genetic-diversity-of-fusarium-a-significant-emerging-group-of-human-opportunists-from-1958-to-2015
#16
Abdullah Ms Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Steph Bj Menken, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924528/mycotoxins-an-underhand-food-problem
#17
Antonio Moretti, Antonio F Logrieco, Antonia Susca
Among the food safety issues, the occurrence of fungal species able to produce toxic metabolites on the agro-food products has acquired a general attention. These compounds, the mycotoxins, generally provided of low molecular weight, are the result of the secondary metabolism of the toxigenic fungi. They may have toxic activity toward the plants, but mostly represent a serious risk for human and animal health worldwide, since they can be accumulated on many final crop products and they have a broad range of toxic biological activities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924080/global-epidemiology-and-burden-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-related-disease
#18
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag, Fasiha Kanwal
Chronic HCV infection is a global health problem that affects >184 million people worldwide. HCV is associated with several hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, including several malignancies. The burden of HCV-related disorders is influenced by the number of new and existing cases, number of existing cases and the natural history of the infection. The natural history of HCV is affected by several demographic, virological, clinical and lifestyle factors. Major variations exist in the burden of HCV among different populations and geographical regions, as well as over time...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923589/comparative-detection-of-a-large-population-of-grapevine-viruses-by-taqman-%C3%A2-rt-qpcr-and-elisa
#19
Sébastien Bruisson, Sylvain Lebel, Bernard Walter, Laurent Prevotat, Sam Seddas, Paul Schellenbaum
Grapevine (Vitis spp) can be infected by numerous viruses that are often widespread and of great economic importance. Reliable detection methods are necessary for sanitary selection which is the only way to partly control grapevine virus diseases. Biological indexing and ELISA are currently the standard methods for screening propagation material, and PCR-methods are becoming increasingly popular. Due to the diversity of virus isolates, it is essential to verify that the tests allow the detection of the largest possible virus populations...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923572/a-system-to-evaluate-fire-impacts-from-simulated-fire-behavior-in-mediterranean-areas-of-central-chile
#20
Miguel E Castillo, Juan R Molina, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva, Pablo García-Chevesich, Roberto Garfias
Wildfires constitute the greatest economic disruption to Mediterranean ecosystems, from a socio-economic and ecological perspective (Molina et al., 2014). This study proposes to classify fire intensity levels based on potential fire behavior in different types of Mediterranean vegetation types, using two geographical scales. The study considered >4 thousand wildfires over a period of 25years, identifying fire behavior on each event, based on simulations using "KITRAL", a model developed in Chile in 1993 and currently used in the entire country...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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