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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786943/integrating-a-comprehensive-dna-barcode-reference-library-with-a-global-map-of-yews-taxus-l-for-forensic-identification
#1
Jie Liu, Richard I Milne, Michael Möller, Guang-Fu Zhu, Lin-Jiang Ye, Ya-Huang Luo, Jun-Bo Yang, Moses Cheloti Wambulwa, Chun-Neng Wang, De-Zhu Li, Lian-Ming Gao
Rapid and accurate identification of endangered species is a critical component of bio-surveillance and conservation management, and potentially policing illegal trades. However, this is often not possible using traditional taxonomy, especially where only small or pre-processed parts of plants are available. Reliable identification can be achieved via a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, accompanied by precise distribution data. However, these require extensive sampling at spatial and taxonomic scales, which has rarely been achieved for cosmopolitan taxa...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786835/bilateral-asymmetry-of-the-humerus-in-neandertals-australian-aborigines-and-medieval-humans
#2
Anna Maria Kubicka, Wioletta Nowaczewska, Antoine Balzeau, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral asymmetry of diaphyseal shape and size may be a reflection of relative activity levels and patterns of habitual biomechanical stress in the upper arms of Neandertals and Homo sapiens. The main purpose of our study was to assess the level of directional asymmetry of humeral cross sections in Neandertals, recent Australian aborigines, and medieval farmers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Indices of directional and absolute asymmetry (%DA and %AA) of humeral cross-sectional properties in Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens were calculated...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786693/hormonebase-a-population-level-database-of-steroid-hormone-levels-across-vertebrates
#3
Maren N Vitousek, Michele A Johnson, Jeremy W Donald, Clinton D Francis, Matthew J Fuxjager, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Jerry F Husak, Bonnie K Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B Martin, Eliot T Miller, Laura A Schoenle, Jennifer J Uehling, Tony D Williams
Hormones are central regulators of organismal function and flexibility that mediate a diversity of phenotypic traits from early development through senescence. Yet despite these important roles, basic questions about how and why hormone systems vary within and across species remain unanswered. Here we describe HormoneBase, a database of circulating steroid hormone levels and their variation across vertebrates. This database aims to provide all available data on the mean, variation, and range of plasma glucocorticoids (both baseline and stress-induced) and androgens in free-living and un-manipulated adult vertebrates...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786500/exploratory-cluster-analysis-to-identify-patterns-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-500-cities-project
#4
Shelley H Liu, Yan Li, Bian Liu
Chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of death in the United States. We used cluster analysis to explore patterns of chronic kidney disease in 500 of the largest US cities. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, we found that unhealthy behaviors, prevention measures, and health outcomes related to chronic kidney disease differ between cities in Utah and those in the rest of the United States. Cluster analysis can be useful for identifying geographic regions that may have important policy implications for preventing chronic kidney disease...
May 17, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785619/comparative-analyses-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-sheep-ked-melophagus-ovinus-diptera-hippoboscidae-from-different-geographical-origins-in-china
#5
Jia-Min Tang, Fen Li, Tian-Yin Cheng, De-Yong Duan, Guo-Hua Liu
The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus is mainly found in Europe, Northwestern Africa, and Asia. Although M. ovinus is an important ectoparasite of sheep in many countries, the population genetics, molecular biology, and systematics of this ectoparasite remain poorly understood. Herein, we determined the mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. ovinus from Gansu Province, China (MOG) and compared with that of M. ovinus Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China (MOX). The mt genome sequence (15,044 bp) of M. ovinus MOG was significantly shorter (529 bp) than M...
May 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785569/association-between-firearm-laws-and-homicide-in-urban-counties
#6
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Alex McCourt, Jon S Vernick, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel W Webster
Laws related to the sale, use, and carrying of firearms have been associated with differences in firearm homicide rates at the state level. Right-to-carry (RTC) and stand your ground (SYG) laws are associated with increases in firearm homicide; permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws and those prohibiting individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors (VM) have been associated with decreases in firearm homicide. Evidence for the effect of comprehensive background checks (CBC) not tied to PTP is inconclusive. Because firearm homicide tends to concentrate in urban areas, this study was designed to test the effects of firearm laws on homicide in large, urban U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785525/beyond-the-border-and-into-the-heartland-spatial-patterning-of-u-s-immigration-detention
#7
Margot Moinester
The expansion of U.S. immigration enforcement from the borders into the interior of the country and the fivefold increase in immigration detentions and deportations since 1995 raise important questions about how the enforcement of immigration law is spatially patterned across American communities. Focusing on the practice of immigration detention, the present study analyzes the records of all 717,160 noncitizens detained by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in 2008 and 2009-a period when interior enforcement was at its peak-to estimate states' detention rates and examine geographic variation in detention outcomes, net of individual characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785398/marker-assisted-introgression-of-saltol-qtl-enhances-seedling-stage-salt-tolerance-in-the-rice-variety-pusa-basmati-1
#8
Vivek Kumar Singh, Brahma Deo Singh, Amit Kumar, Sadhna Maurya, Subbaiyan Gopala Krishnan, Kunnummal Kurungara Vinod, Madan Pal Singh, Ranjith Kumar Ellur, Prolay Kumar Bhowmick, Ashok Kumar Singh
Marker-assisted selection is an unequivocal translational research tool for crop improvement in the genomics era. Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1) is an elite Indian Basmati rice cultivar sensitive to salinity. Here, we report enhanced seedling stage salt tolerance in improved PB1 genotypes developed through marker-assisted transfer of a major QTL, Saltol . A highly salt tolerant line, FL478, was used as the Saltol donor. Parental polymorphism survey using 456 microsatellite (SSR)/QTL-linked markers revealed 14.3% polymorphism between PB1 and FL478...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785354/geographical-variation-in-colour-of-female-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#9
Connor M French, Travis Ingram, Daniel I Bolnick
The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785338/coarse-and-fine-scale-patterns-of-distribution-and-habitat-selection-places-an-amazonian-floodplain-curassow-in-double-jeopardy
#10
Gabriel A Leite, Izeni P Farias, André L S Gonçalves, Joseph E Hawes, Carlos A Peres
Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow ( Crax globulosa ), an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785319/a-multi-faceted-pandemic-a-review-of-the-state-of-knowledge-on-the-zika-virus
#11
REVIEW
Anneliese Depoux, Aline Philibert, Serge Rabier, Henri-Jean Philippe, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Flahault
While until recently the small and isolated Zika outbreaks in Eastern Asia and Pacific islands had been overlooked, the large-scale outbreak that started in Brazil in 2015 and the increase of microcephaly cases in the same place and time made media headlines. Considered as harmless until recently, Zika has given rise to an important global crisis that poses not only health challenges but also environmental, economical, social, and ethical challenges for states and people around the world. The main objective of this paper is to review the recent Zika outbreak by covering a broad range of disciplines and their interactions...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784607/telestroke-adoption-among-community-hospitals-in-north-carolina-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Christopher M Shea, Amir Alishahi Tabriz, Kea Turner, Steve North, Kristin L Reiter
OBJECTIVE: This study identifies community and hospital characteristics associated with adoption of telestroke among acute care hospitals in North Carolina (NC). METHODS: Our sample included 107 hospitals located in NC. Our analytic dataset included variables from the American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey, AHA Health IT supplement, Healthcare Cost Report Information System, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER online database. We supplemented our secondary sources with data on telestroke adoption and market-level variables developed for NC...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784419/development-of-a-method-for-the-elemental-analysis-of-milk-powders-using-laser-ablation-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-la-icp-ms-and-its-potential-use-in-geographic-sourcing
#13
Tricia Hoffman, Radojko Jaćimović, Lian Jie Bay, Julieta Griboff, Marta Jagodic, Magdalena Monferrán, Nives Ogrinc, Ivan Podkolzin, Daniel Wunderlin, Jose Almirall
Milk has been reported as one of the most adulterated foodstuffs in the developed and developing world. One way to detect adulteration is to determine whether the country of origin on the label could be the actual country of origin. Such profiling may be accomplished through the use of elemental analysis techniques, however this is a preliminary study and this goal is not yet met. In this study, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method was developed for the analysis of solid milk powder and compared to k0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0 -INAA) for a reference milk material (IAEA-153) as well as several milk samples from different countries...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784414/source-attribution-profiling-of-five-species-of-amanita-mushrooms-from-four-european-countries-by-high-resolution-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-multivariate-statistical-analysis-and-dna-barcoding
#14
Daniel Jansson, Arthur Wolterink, Leonie Bergwerff, Patrick Hough, Kris Geukens, Crister Åstot
Source attribution profiling of five species of Amanita mushrooms from four European countries was performed using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Initially, species determination was carried out morphologically and was verified by DNA-analysis. This data was then combined with chemical profiling, generated from LC-HRMS full scan analysis. The untargeted data was processed and the 720 most abundant peaks in the LC-HRMS chromatogram were used to build a multivariate PLS-DA model...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784331/selected-ion-flow-tube-mass-spectrometry-sift-ms-fingerprinting-versus-chemical-profiling-for-geographic-traceability-of-moroccan-argan-oils
#15
Mourad Kharbach, Rabie Kamal, Mohammed Alaoui Mansouri, Ilias Marmouzi, Johan Viaene, Yahia Cherrah, Katim Alaoui, Joeri Vercammen, Abdelaziz Bouklouze, Yvan Vander Heyden
This study investigated the effectiveness of SIFT-MS versus chemical profiling, both coupled to multivariate data analysis, to classify 95 Extra Virgin Argan Oils (EVAO), originating from five Moroccan Argan forest locations. The full scan option of SIFT-MS, is suitable to indicate the geographic origin of EVAO based on the fingerprints obtained using the three chemical ionization precursors (H3 O+ , NO+ and O2 + ). The chemical profiling (including acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices, fatty acids, tocopherols- and sterols composition) was also used for classification...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784088/preventing-the-growth-of-geographic-atrophy-an-important-therapeutic-target-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
EDITORIAL
Philip J Rosenfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784045/occupational-risk-factors-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-southern-europe-a-case-control-study
#17
Giulia Paolocci, Ilenia Folletti, Kjell Torén, Magnus Ekström, Marco Dell'Omo, Giacomo Muzi, Nicola Murgia
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause associated with the histopathologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Occupational risk factors have been proposed to be associated with UIP. The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the relationship between UIP pattern and occupational exposure in Southern Europe. METHODS: Sixty nine cases with a UIP radiological pattern at CT-scan were selected from a clinical database of the University Hospital of Perugia, Umbria, between January 2010 and December 2013...
May 21, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783978/climatic-differentiation-in-polyploid-apomictic-ranunculus-auricomus-complex-in-europe
#18
Juraj Paule, Franz G Dunkel, Marco Schmidt, Thomas Gregor
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy and apomixis are important factors influencing plant distributions often resulting in range shifts, expansions and geographical parthenogenesis. We used the Ranunculus auricomus complex as a model to asses if the past and present distribution and climatic preferences were determined by these phenomena. RESULTS: Ecological differentiation among diploids and polyploids was tested by comparing the sets of climatic variables and distribution modelling using 191 novel ploidy estimations and 561 literature data...
May 21, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783692/genomic-differentiation-during-speciation-with-gene-flow-comparing-geographic-and-host-related-variation-in-divergent-life-history-adaptation-in-rhagoletis-pomonella
#19
Meredith M Doellman, Gregory J Ragland, Glen R Hood, Peter J Meyers, Scott P Egan, Thomas H Q Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A Hahn, Stewart H Berlocher, James J Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L Feder
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella . Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a geographic survey of genomic variation across four sites where apple and hawthorn flies co-occur from north to south in the Midwestern USA...
May 18, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783641/premature-spinal-bone-loss-in-women-living-with-hiv-is-associated-with-shorter-leukocyte-telomere-length
#20
Shirin Kalyan, Neora Pick, Alice Mai, Melanie C M Murray, Kristen Kidson, Jackson Chu, Arianne Y K Albert, Hélène C F Côté, Evelyn J Maan, Azita Goshtasebi, Deborah M Money, Jerilynn C Prior
With advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV are now surviving to experience aging. Evidence suggests that individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fractures. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone health in women living with HIV (WLWH) is important for treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to explore new biological factors linked to low BMD in WLWH. Standardized BMD measures of WLWH were compared to reference values from an unselected population of women from the same geographical region of the same age range...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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