Read by QxMD icon Read


Xiaobing Zhou, Hilda Smith, Ana Giraldo Silva, Jayne Belnap, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30-35°C...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Laura Mannocci, Jason J Roberts, David L Miller, Patrick N Halpin
As human activities expand beyond national jurisdictions to the high seas, there is increasing need to consider anthropogenic impacts to species that inhabit these waters. The current scarcity of scientific observations of cetaceans in the high seas impedes the assessment of population-level impacts of these activities. This study is directed towards an important management need in the high seas-the development of plausible density estimates to facilitate a quantitative assessment of anthropogenic impacts on cetacean populations in these waters...
October 24, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Chang-Jie Jiang, Shoji Sugano, Akito Kaga, Sung Shin Lee, Takuma Sugimoto, Mami Takahashi, Masao Ishimoto
Stem and root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae is devastating to soybean crops worldwide. Developing host resistance to P. sojae, considered the most effective and stable means to control this disease, is partly hampered by limited germplasm resources. In this study, we first modified conventional methods for a P. sojae-resistance assay to a simpler and more cost-effective version in which the P. sojae-inoculum was mixed into the soil and the resistance was evaluated by survival rate (%) of soybean seedlings...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Anna E Greer, Brianna Castrogivanni, Richard Marcello
BACKGROUND: Limited research has examined park use and physical activity among economically and ethnically diverse families. This study fills that gap. METHODS: Parents (n=326) completed a questionnaire about their park use (yes/no, parks visited, reasons for non-use) and physical activity (Godin Leisure Time questionnaire). Geographical Information Systems was used to calculate the distance from respondents' home address to their nearest park. The number of activity features (e...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Suzanne Faxneld, Urs Berger, Björn Helander, Sara Danielsson, Anna Aroha Miller, Elisabeth Nyberg, Jan-Olov Persson, Anders Bignert
Temporal and spatial trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in Baltic Sea herring liver (Clupea harengus) from three sites, and white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eggs (Haliaeetus albicilla) from two freshwater and two marine areas in Sweden. Trends of most quantifiable PFAAs increased over the monitored period (1980 - 2014 in herring, 1960s/1980s - 2010 in WTSE). No significant decreasing trends were observed for the most recent ten years for any substances, except perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pauline D Scanlan, Alex R Hall, Angus Buckling
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can lead to local adaptation (LA), such that parasite fitness is greatest in sympatric hosts (or vice versa). The magnitude of LA typically increases with geographic distance, which is assumed to be because genetic (and hence phenotypic) distance increases with geographic distance. Here we explicitly test the relationships between parasite genetic and phenotypic distance and LA using isolates of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage ϕ2) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
L Ming, L Yi, R Sa, Z X Wang, Z Wang, R Ji
The Bactrian camel includes various domestic (Camelus bactrianus) and wild (Camelus ferus) breeds that are important for transportation and for their nutritional value. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure. Here, we studied these parameters by examining an 809-bp mtDNA fragment from 113 individuals, representing 11 domestic breeds, one wild breed and two hybrid individuals. We found 15 different haplotypes, and the phylogenetic analysis suggests that domestic and wild Bactrian camels have two distinct lineages...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
A Bennouna, T Balenghien, H El Rhaffouli, F Schaffner, C Garros, L Gardès, Y Lhor, S Hammoumi, G Chlyeh, O Fassi Fihri
The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S...
October 24, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Manuel Villar-Argaiz, Presentación Carrillo
The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jinliang Liu, Hong Qian, Yi Jin, Chuping Wu, Jianhua Chen, Shuquan Yu, Xinliang Wei, Xiaofeng Jin, Jiajia Liu, Mingjian Yu
Understanding the relative importance of dispersal limitation and environmental filtering processes in structuring the beta diversities of subtropical forests in human disturbed landscapes is still limited. Here we used taxonomic (TBD) and phylogenetic (PBD), including terminal PBD (PBDt) and basal PBD (PBDb), beta diversity indices to quantify the taxonomic and phylogenetic turnovers at different depths of evolutionary history in disturbed and undisturbed subtropical forests. Multiple linear regression model and distance-based redundancy analysis were used to disentangle the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
M L Knope, K A Tice, D C Rypkema
To assess the repeatability of an ecological study, this study both partially replicates and extends a previous study on the site fidelity and homing ability of two abundant and ecologically important species of rocky intertidal sculpin fishes, Oligocottus maculosus and Oligocottus snyderi. A traditional mark and recapture approach was utilized and found that both of these species display high site fidelity to a home range of tidepools and homing ability to these pools, confirming the findings of previous work...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Miriam N Lango, Elizabeth Handorf, Ellis Arjmand
OBJECTIVES: To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files...
October 24, 2016: Laryngoscope
Joakim Esbjörnsson, Mattias Mild, Anne Audelin, Jannik Fonager, Helena Skar, Louise Bruun Jørgensen, Kirsi Liitsola, Per Björkman, Göran Bratt, Magnus Gisslén, Anders Sönnerborg, Claus Nielsen, Patrik Medstrand, Jan Albert
Increased knowledge about HIV-1 transmission dynamics in different transmission groups and geographical regions is fundamental for assessing and designing prevention efforts against HIV-1 spread. Since the first reported cases of HIV infection during the early 1980s, the HIV-1 epidemic in the Nordic countries has been dominated by HIV-1 subtype B and MSM transmission. HIV-1 pol sequences and clinical data of 51 per cent of all newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in the period 2000-2012 (N = 3,802) were analysed together with a large reference sequence dataset (N = 4,537) by trend analysis and phylogenetics...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Marta Canuti, Kimberly E O'Leary, Bruce D Hunter, Grant Spearman, Davor Ojkic, Hugh G Whitney, Andrew S Lang
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Matthew D Hall, Mark E J Woolhouse, Andrew Rambaut
The ongoing large-scale increase in the total amount of genetic data for viruses and other pathogens has led to a situation in which it is often not possible to include every available sequence in a phylogenetic analysis and expect the procedure to complete in reasonable computational time. This raises questions about how a set of sequences should be selected for analysis, particularly if the data are used to infer more than just the phylogenetic tree itself. The design of sampling strategies for molecular epidemiology has been a neglected field of research...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Angela R Rourk, Frederick S Nolte, Christine M Litwin
OBJECTIVES: With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. METHODS: Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
J K Lee, G M Moraru, J V Stokes, R W Wills, E Mitchell, E Unz, B Moore-Henderson, A B Harper, A S Varela-Stokes
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, may also be infected with a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." Infection rates with these rickettsiae vary geographically, and coinfected ticks have been reported. In this study, infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca R. andeanae" were evaluated, and rickettsial DNA levels quantified, in 335 questing adult A. maculatum collected in 2013 (n = 95), 2014 (n = 139), and 2015 (n = 101) from Oktibbeha County, MS...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
David I W Phillips, Clive Osmond, Martin L Williams, Alexander Jones
BACKGROUND: Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"