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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563484/tgf-%C3%AE-and-bmp-signaling-in-osteoblast-skeletal-development-and-bone-formation-homeostasis-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mengrui Wu, Guiqian Chen, Yi-Ping Li
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515372/comparison-of-ex-vivo-harvested-and-in-vitro-cultured-materials-from-echinococcus-granulosus-by-measuring-expression-levels-of-five-genes-putatively-involved-in-the-development-and-maturation-of-adult-worms
#2
Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki, Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoubi, Markus Spiliotis, Ghalia Boubaker, Elham Taheri, Pooya Ghaseminejad Almani, Farideh Tohidi, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Bruno Gottstein
Parts of the natural life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus can be retraced in vitro such as the development of protoscoleces into semiadult worms with three or more proglottids, or the redifferentiation of in vitro cultured protoscoleces into metacestode-like cystic structures. Most in vitro generated samples share-at the microscopical level-high similarities with those naturally grown, but developmental differences have also been documented, such as missing egg production in in vitro grown adults or unusual bladder/vesicle formation in protoscoleces cultured into the metacestode direction...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192219/sequential-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-neural-epithelial-like-stem-cells-and-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#3
Jing Bian, Jiao Zheng, Shen Li, Lan Luo, Fei Ding
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in stem cell technology afford an unlimited source of neural progenitors and glial cells for cell based therapy in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, current differentiation strategies still need to be improved due to time-consuming processes, poorly defined culture conditions, and low yield of target cell populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: This study aimed to provide a precise sequential differentiation to capture two transient stages: neural epithelia-like stem cells (NESCs) and oligodendrocytes progenitor cells (OPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054717/intrinsic-deregulation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-and-myofibroblast-differentiation-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Björn Hegner, Theres Schaub, Rusan Catar, Angelika Kusch, Philine Wagner, Kirill Essin, Claudia Lange, Gabriela Riemekasten, Duska Dragun
INTRODUCTION: Obliterative vasculopathy and fibrosis are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a severe systemic autoimmune disease. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from SSc patients may harbor disease-specific abnormalities. We hypothesized disturbed vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation with increased propensity towards myofibroblast differentiation in response to SSc-microenvironment defining growth factors and determined responsible mechanisms. METHODS: We studied responses of multipotent MSCs from SSc-patients (SSc-MSCs) and healthy controls (H-MSCs) to long-term exposure to CTGF, b-FGF, PDGF-BB or TGF-β1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677769/fgf-insulin-and-smad-signaling-cooperate-for-avian-primordial-germ-cell-self-renewal
#5
Jemima Whyte, James D Glover, Mark Woodcock, Joanna Brzeszczynska, Lorna Taylor, Adrian Sherman, Pete Kaiser, Michael J McGrew
Precise self-renewal of the germ cell lineage is fundamental to fertility and reproductive success. The early precursors for the germ lineage, primordial germ cells (PGCs), survive and proliferate in several embryonic locations during their migration to the embryonic gonad. By elucidating the active signaling pathways in migratory PGCs in vivo, we were able to create culture conditions that recapitulate this embryonic germ cell environment. In defined medium conditions without feeder cells, the growth factors FGF2, insulin, and Activin A, signaling through their cognate-signaling pathways, were sufficient for self-renewal of germline-competent PGCs...
December 8, 2015: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26535780/inhibition-of-fgfr-signaling-with-pd173074-ameliorates-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-rescues-bmpr-ii-expression
#6
Yaguo Zheng, Hong Ma, Enci Hu, Zhiwei Huang, Xiaoling Cheng, Changming Xiong
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling may play a pivotal role in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Excessive endothelial FGF-2 contributes to smooth muscle hyperplasia and disease progression. PD173074 is a potent FGF receptor 1 (FGFR-1) inhibitor that displays high activity and selectivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PD173074 on monocrotaline-induced PAH. We also evaluated whether FGFR-1 inhibition could attenuate bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR-II) downregulation in the monocrotaline model...
November 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26284287/hoxb1-regulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-second-heart-field-progenitors-in-pharyngeal-mesoderm-and-genetically-interacts-with-hoxa1-during-cardiac-outflow-tract-development
#7
Marine Roux, Brigitte Laforest, Mario Capecchi, Nicolas Bertrand, Stéphane Zaffran
Outflow tract (OFT) anomalies are among the most common congenital heart defects found at birth. The embryonic OFT grows by the progressive addition of cardiac progenitors, termed the second heart field (SHF), which originate from splanchnic pharyngeal mesoderm. Development of the SHF is controlled by multiple intercellular signals and transcription factors; however the relationship between different SHF regulators remains unclear. We have recently shown that Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 are expressed in a sub-population of the SHF contributing to the OFT...
October 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26003864/fibrosis-in-the-lens-sprouty-regulation-of-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-prevents-lens-emt-leading-to-cataract
#8
REVIEW
F J Lovicu, E H Shin, J W McAvoy
Cataract is a common age-related condition that is caused by progressive clouding of the normally clear lens. Cataract can be effectively treated by surgery; however, like any surgery, there can be complications and the development of a secondary cataract, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), is the most common. PCO is caused by aberrant growth of lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the capsular bag after surgical removal of the fiber mass. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is central to fibrotic PCO and forms of fibrotic cataract, including anterior/posterior polar cataracts...
January 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25919028/a-bmp7-variant-inhibits-tumor-angiogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-direct-modulation-of-endothelial-cell-biology
#9
Courtney M Tate, Jacquelyn Mc Entire, Roberto Pallini, Eliza Vakana, Lisa Wyss, Wayne Blosser, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Liliana Morgante, Stefano Giannetti, Luigi Maria Larocca, Matilde Todaro, Antonina Benfante, Maria Luisa Colorito, Giorgio Stassi, Ruggero De Maria, Scott Rowlinson, Louis Stancato
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25121599/an-otx-nodal-regulatory-signature-for-posterior-neural-development-in-ascidians
#10
Agnès Roure, Patrick Lemaire, Sébastien Darras
In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acquisition downstream of FGF...
August 2014: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24735795/the-differential-proliferative-response-of-fetal-and-adult-human-skin-fibroblasts-to-tgf-%C3%AE-is-retained-when-cultured-in-the-presence-of-fibronectin-or-collagen
#11
Andreas A Armatas, Harris Pratsinis, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Maria T Angelopoulou, Anastasios Kouroumalis, Nikos K Karamanos, Dimitris Kletsas
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β is a multifunctional and pleiotropic factor with decisive role in tissue repair. In this context, we have shown previously that TGF-β inhibits the proliferation of fetal human skin fibroblasts but stimulates that of adult ones. Given the dynamic reciprocity between fibroblasts, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue homeostasis, the present study aims to investigate the role of fibronectin and collagen in the proliferative effects of TGF-β on fetal and adult cells...
August 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24677428/the-influence-of-biodegradable-magnesium-alloys-on-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Rachel W Li, Nicholas T Kirkland, John Truong, Jian Wang, Paul N Smith, Nick Birbilis, David R Nisbet
The postdegradation effect of pure Mg, Mg-1Y, Mg-5Al, and Mg-2Ca alloys on the differentiation, proliferation and gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was investigated. It was revealed that that Mg(2+) ions result in an increase in cell proliferation. However, we observed a maximum concentration (approximately 8.0 × 10(-4) M) that was favourable to ATP production, above which ATP production began to decrease. In contrast to proliferation, no maximum concentration for osteogenic differentiation was observed, with increasing concentration of Mg(2+) ions resulting in an increase in osteogenic differentiation across the entire tested range...
December 2014: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24657641/fgfr3-induces-degradation-of-bmp-type-i-receptor-to-regulate-skeletal-development
#13
Huabing Qi, Min Jin, Yaqi Duan, Xiaolan Du, Yuanquan Zhang, Fangli Ren, Yinyin Wang, Qingyun Tian, Xiaofeng Wang, Quan Wang, Ying Zhu, Yangli Xie, Chuanju Liu, Xu Cao, Yuji Mishina, Di Chen, Chu-xia Deng, Zhijie Chang, Lin Chen
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) play significant roles in vertebrate organogenesis and morphogenesis. FGFR3 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and multiple mutations with constitutive activity of FGFR3 result in achondroplasia, one of the most common dwarfisms in humans, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we found that chondrocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor a (Bmpr1a) rescued the bone overgrowth phenotype observed in Fgfr3 deficient mice by reducing chondrocyte differentiation...
July 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24445281/paracrine-effects-of-embryo-derived-fgf4-and-bmp4-during-pig-trophoblast-elongation
#14
Griselda Valdez Magaña, Aida Rodríguez, Haixin Zhang, Robert Webb, Ramiro Alberio
The crosstalk between the epiblast and the trophoblast is critical in supporting the early stages of conceptus development. FGF4 and BMP4 are inductive signals that participate in the communication between the epiblast and the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) of the developing mouse embryo. Importantly, however, it is unknown whether a similar crosstalk operates in species that lack a discernible ExE and develop a mammotypical embryonic disc (ED). Here we investigated the crosstalk between the epiblast and the trophectoderm (TE) during pig embryo elongation...
March 1, 2014: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24315941/active-signals-gradient-formation-and-regional-specificity-in-neural-induction
#15
REVIEW
Edgar M Pera, Helena Acosta, Nadège Gouignard, Maria Climent, Igor Arregi
The question of how the vertebrate embryo gives rise to a nervous system is of paramount interest in developmental biology. Neural induction constitutes the earliest step in this process and is tightly connected with development of the embryonic body axes. In the Xenopus embryo, perpendicular gradients of BMP and Wnt signals pattern the dorsoventral and anteroposterior body axes. Both pathways need to be inhibited to allow anterior neural induction to occur. FGF8 and IGF are active neural inducers that together with BMP and Wnt signals are integrated at the level of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation...
February 1, 2014: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24098142/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinate-to-induce-a-threshold-response-in-a-chordate-embryo
#16
Naoyuki Ohta, Yutaka Satou
In animal development, secreted signaling molecules evoke all-or-none threshold responses of target gene transcription to specify cell fates. In the chordate Ciona intestinalis, the neural markers Otx and Nodal are induced at early embryonic stages by Fgf9/16/20 signaling. Here we show that three additional signaling molecules act negatively to generate a sharp expression boundary for neural genes. EphrinA signaling antagonizes FGF signaling by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation more strongly in epidermal cells than in neural cells, which accentuates differences in the strength of ERK activation...
2013: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24060635/crosstalk-between-tyrosine-kinase-receptors-gsk3-and-bmp2-signaling-during-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Emmanuel Biver, Cyril Thouverey, David Magne, Joseph Caverzasio
Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) promote mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation, whereas platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate their proliferation through receptors tyrosine kinase (RTK). The effects of PDGF or FGF receptor signaling pathway on BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation was investigated in human MSC (HMSC). Inhibition of PDGF or/and FGF receptors enhanced BMP2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Osterix, ALP and Bone sialoprotein, and matrix calcification...
January 25, 2014: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23715864/bmp-2-differentially-modulates-fgf-2-isoform-effects-in-osteoblasts-from-newborn-transgenic-mice
#18
Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Dimitrios Agas, Luigi Marchetti, J Douglas Coffin, Liping Xiao, Marja M Hurley
We previously generated separate lines of transgenic mice that specifically overexpress either the Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 low-molecular-mass isoform (Tg(LMW)) or the high-mass isoforms (Tg(HMW)) in the osteoblast lineage. Vector/control (Tg(Vector)) mice were also made. Here we report the use of isolated calvarial osteoblasts (COBs) from those mice to investigate whether the FGF-2 protein isoforms differentially modulate bone formation in vitro. Our hypothesis states that FGF-2 isoforms specifically modulate bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) function and subsequently bone differentiation genes and their related signaling pathways...
August 2013: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23559326/fgf-2-enhances-runx-2-smads-nuclear-localization-in-bmp-2-canonical-signaling-in-osteoblasts
#19
Dimitrios Agas, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Luigi Marchetti, Liping Xiao, Marja M Hurley
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is one of the most potent regulators of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. R-Smads (Smads 1/5/8) are the major transducers for BMPs receptors and, once activated, they are translocated in the nucleus regulating transcription target genes by interacting with various transcription factors. Runx-2 proteins have been shown to interact through their C-terminal segment with Smads and this interaction is required for in vivo osteogenesis. In particular, recruitment of Smads to intranuclear sites is Runx-2 dependent, and Runx-2 factor may accommodate the dynamic targeting of signal transducer to active transcription sites...
November 2013: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23416071/interactions-between-fgf21-and-bmp-2-in-osteogenesis
#20
Kazunari Ishida, Dominik R Haudenschild
Lifestyle-related diseases are increasing and the challenge to create innovative drugs to treat such diseases is a main focus in medical science research. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a powerful modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, and is an innovative candidate drug already in clinical trials for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Bone fragility and impaired fracture healing induced by such lifestyle-related conditions are also a growing problem. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are well known osteogenic growth factors, and BMP-2 is used to augment bone formation in difficult clinical situations...
March 22, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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