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Fgf ppar

Varman T Samuel, Gerald I Shulman
NAFLD is closely linked with hepatic insulin resistance. Accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol activates PKC-ε, impairing insulin receptor activation and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. Peripheral insulin resistance indirectly influences hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing flux of substrates that promote lipogenesis (glucose and fatty acids) and gluconeogenesis (glycerol and fatty acid-derived acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase). Weight loss with diet or bariatric surgery effectively treats NAFLD, but drugs specifically approved for NAFLD are not available...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Wen Chien, Chung-Tiang Liang, Ching-Hung Chan, Meng-Han Fan, Hui-Yu Huang
Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
John D Griner, Carl J Rogers, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of lysine residues in collagen and elastin, key components of connective tissue. LOX is synthesized as an inactive 50 kD pre-proenzyme, and secreted to the extracellular matrix where it is cleaved into an active 32 kD LOX, and an 18kD free propeptide (LOX-PP), purportedly an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling. Given that adipocytes are distributed inside the connective tissue, it is likely that LOX-PP has an important regulatory role in adipogenesis, which has not been studied...
January 2, 2017: Adipocyte
Bilin Xu, Tian Shen, Lin Chen, Juan Xia, Cuiping Zhang, Hongping Wang, Ming Yu, Tao Lei
BACKGROUND In clinics, patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been shown to receive significant improvements in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and liver function after sitagliptin treatment, although the mechanism of drug action remains poorly understood. This study investigated the possible mechanism of sitagliptin on lipid metabolism of NAFLD mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male C57/BL6 mice were induced for NAFLD via 16 weeks of a high-fat diet, and were treated with 15 mg/kg/day sitagliptin for 16 consecutive weeks...
March 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Aihua Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Hongwei Zhao, Shiyu Zou, Chung Wah Ma, Qi Liu, Hui Sun, Liang Liu, Xijun Wang
An integrative metabolomics and proteomics approach can provide novel insights in the understanding of biological systems. We have integrated proteome and metabolome data sets for a holistic view of the molecular mechanisms in disease. Using quantitative iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS proteomics coupled with UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS based metabolomics, we determined the protein and metabolite expression changes in the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) rat model and further investigated the intervention effects of the Jinkui Shenqi Pill (JSP)...
January 31, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Dong-Jie Li, Hui Fu, Ting Zhao, Min Ni, Fu-Ming Shen
OBJECTIVE: Physical exercise induces many adaptive changes in skeletal muscle and the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Fibroblast growth-factor 23 (FGF23) is a unique member of the FGF family that acts as a hormone regulating phosphate metabolism, calcitriol concentration, and kidney functions. The role of FGF23 in exercise and skeletal muscle is largely unknown yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a motor treadmill. Mice serum FGF23 levels; FGF23 mRNA expression in various organs including the liver, heart, skeletal muscle tissue, and thyroid; and FGF23 receptor Klotho mRNA expression were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, respectively, after a single bout of acute exercise (60min), exhaustive exercise, and chronic prolonged exercise (60min every day for one week)...
May 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jennifer Jager, Fenfen Wang, Bin Fang, Hee-Woong Lim, Lindsey C Peed, David J Steger, Kyoung-Jae Won, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Andrew C Adams, Mitchell A Lazar
FGF21 is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as a hormone to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrate that the actions of FGF21 in mouse adipose tissue, but not in liver, are modulated by the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a potent transcriptional repressor. Interrogation of genes induced in the absence of Rev-erbα for Rev-erbα-binding sites identified βKlotho, an essential coreceptor for FGF21, as a direct target gene of Rev-erbα in white adipose tissue but not liver...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
D Avtanski, Y Hirth, N Babushkin, V Sy, D Sharma, L Poretsky, D Seto-Young
Pioglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione (TZD) whose use is associated with bone loss. We examined the effects of pioglitazone on components of the Wnt signaling pathway (Wnt1, β-catenin) and markers of bone mineralization [osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23] as well as mineral content in human osteoblast hFOB 1.19 cells. hFOB 1.19 cells were cultured in K12/DMD medium with or without pioglitazone. PPARγ Wnt1, OPG, BSP, or FGF23 mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR; β-catenin, OPG, BSP, or FGF23 using ELISA; and calcium or phosphate content using colorimetry...
July 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Koshi Hashimoto
Nutritional condition in the fetus and neonate might affect the susceptibility to adult-onset lifestyle disease, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. DNA methylation of the gene promoter region is a major epigenetic modification for gene expression, which can be affected by environmental factors. In the neonatal liver, fatty acid β-oxidation progressively increases to produce energy from the absorbed milk lipids. Here we show that upon the onset of breast feeding, DNA demethylation and increased mRNA expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation genes occur in the postnatal mouse liver...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Ke Li, Xiaoying Zhu, Danwen Zhao, Jonathan P Whitehead, Jianqun Yan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course and potential mechanism of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) in the regulation of adipogenesis.
 METHODS: We cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocytes with recombinant FGF-1 and harvested cells at various stages prior to and during differentiation; at cell proliferation (D-3), confluence (D0), early (D3), middle (D7) and mature (D14) stages of differentiation. We determined lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes by morphological observation and quantitative measurement of oil red O staining...
August 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Chengying Gu, Yipeng Zeng, Zhaosheng Tang, Chaoxun Wang, Yanju He, Xinge Feng, Ligang Zhou
The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)‑peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α/PPARα‑fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch‑up growth group and an APS‑treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum...
November 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mako Yasuda-Yamahara, Shinji Kume, Kosuke Yamahara, Jun Nakazawa, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Shin-ichi Araki, Daisuke Koya, Masakzu Haneda, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Takashi Uzu
Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes...
September 18, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shin-ichi Nakano, Katsuyuki Nakamura, Naomi Teramoto, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara
Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is a hallmark of marbling in cattle. IMAT is considered to originate from skeletal muscle progenitor cells with adipogenic potential. However, the mechanism involved in IMAT formation from these progenitor cells in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, among the growth factors tested, which were known to be expressed in skeletal muscle, we found only basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a pro-adipogenic effect on skeletal muscle derived adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11 cells...
January 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Su-Guo Yu, Cheng-Jie Zhang, Xiu-E Xu, Ji-Hua Sun, Li Zhang, Peng-Fei Yu
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate bone deteriorations of diabetic mice in response to the treatment of ursolic acid derivative (UAD). METHODS: The biomarkers in serum and urine were measured, tibias were taken for the measurement on gene and protein expression and histomorphology analysis, and femurs were taken for the measurement on bone Ca and three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. RESULTS: UAD showed a greater increase in bone Ca, BMD and significantly increased FGF-23 and OCN, reduced PTH and CTX in diabetic mice...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Marta H Kubala, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Helen L Barrett
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with alterations of placental function. The incidence of PE is higher in insulin resistant states. Women with PE have high circulating levels of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is synthesized in the placenta. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of FGF21, its receptors, downstream targets and transcriptional regulators in placental tissue from pregnancies with and without late-onset PE. Circulating FGF21 in maternal and cord blood was also studied...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
W Y So, Q Cheng, A Xu, K S L Lam, P S Leung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor that normalizes glucose homeostasis and reduces insulin resistance in diabetes. Although the pancreas is an FGF21 target organ, its role in pancreatic islets remains obscure. This study aimed to elucidate the physiological role of FGF21 in pancreatic islets using FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice. Twenty-four-week-old male global FGF21-KO mice were used in this study. Glucose and insulin tolerance were assessed. Expression of genes and proteins related to islet function and underlying mechanisms were also examined...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Marta H Kubala, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Helen L Barrett
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with alterations of placental function. The incidence of PE is higher in insulin resistant states. Women with PE have high circulating levels of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is synthesized in the placenta. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of FGF21, its receptors, downstream targets and transcriptional regulators in placental tissue from pregnancies with and without late-onset PE. Circulating FGF21 in maternal and cord blood was also studied...
December 2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Qingning Liang, Ling Zhong, Jialiang Zhang, Yu Wang, Stefan R Bornstein, Chris R Triggle, Hong Ding, Karen S L Lam, Aimin Xu
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a main source of blood glucose during prolonged fasting and is orchestrated by endocrine and neural pathways. Here we show that the hepatocyte-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) induces fasting gluconeogenesis via the brain-liver axis. Prolonged fasting induces activation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the liver and subsequent hepatic production of FGF21, which enters into the brain to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for release of corticosterone, thereby stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis...
December 2014: Diabetes
Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
OBJECTIVE: Hepatokine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 takes part in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue. We investigated whether exendin-4 regulates the expression of FGF21 in the liver, and whether the effects of exendin-4 on the regulation of FGF21 expression are mediated via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT) 1 or SIRT6. MATERIALS/METHODS: The C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with 1 nmol/kg/day exendin-4 intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks...
August 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katsunori Nonogaki, Miki Hazama, Noriko Satoh
Social isolation contributes to the development of obesity and insulin-independent diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Here we show that systemic administration of liraglutide, a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels at 24 h after its administration while having no significant effects on plasma insulin and glucagon levels in individually housed KKA(y) mice. In addition, the systemic administration of liraglutide significantly increased plasma fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 levels (1...
2014: BioMed Research International
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