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Fgf ppar

Dong-Jie Li, Hui Fu, Ting Zhao, Min Ni, Fu-Ming Shen
OBJECTIVE: Physical exercise induces many adaptive changes in skeletal muscle and the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Fibroblast growth-factor 23 (FGF23) is a unique member of the FGF family that acts as a hormone regulating phosphate metabolism, calcitriol concentration, and kidney functions. The role of FGF23 in exercise and skeletal muscle is largely unknown yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a motor treadmill. Mice serum FGF23 levels; FGF23 mRNA expression in various organs including the liver, heart, skeletal muscle tissue, and thyroid; and FGF23 receptor Klotho mRNA expression were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, respectively, after a single bout of acute exercise (60min), exhaustive exercise, and chronic prolonged exercise (60min every day for one week)...
May 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jennifer Jager, Fenfen Wang, Bin Fang, Hee-Woong Lim, Lindsey C Peed, David J Steger, Kyoung-Jae Won, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Andrew C Adams, Mitchell A Lazar
FGF21 is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as a hormone to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrate that the actions of FGF21 in mouse adipose tissue, but not in liver, are modulated by the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a potent transcriptional repressor. Interrogation of genes induced in the absence of Rev-erbα for Rev-erbα-binding sites identified βKlotho, an essential coreceptor for FGF21, as a direct target gene of Rev-erbα in white adipose tissue but not liver...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
D Avtanski, Y Hirth, N Babushkin, V Sy, D Sharma, L Poretsky, D Seto-Young
Pioglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione (TZD) whose use is associated with bone loss. We examined the effects of pioglitazone on components of the Wnt signaling pathway (Wnt1, β-catenin) and markers of bone mineralization [osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23] as well as mineral content in human osteoblast hFOB 1.19 cells. hFOB 1.19 cells were cultured in K12/DMD medium with or without pioglitazone. PPARγ Wnt1, OPG, BSP, or FGF23 mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR; β-catenin, OPG, BSP, or FGF23 using ELISA; and calcium or phosphate content using colorimetry...
July 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Koshi Hashimoto
Nutritional condition in the fetus and neonate might affect the susceptibility to adult-onset lifestyle disease, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. DNA methylation of the gene promoter region is a major epigenetic modification for gene expression, which can be affected by environmental factors. In the neonatal liver, fatty acid β-oxidation progressively increases to produce energy from the absorbed milk lipids. Here we show that upon the onset of breast feeding, DNA demethylation and increased mRNA expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation genes occur in the postnatal mouse liver...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Ke Li, Xiaoying Zhu, Danwen Zhao, Jonathan P Whitehead, Jianqun Yan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course and potential mechanism of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) in the regulation of adipogenesis.
 METHODS: We cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocytes with recombinant FGF-1 and harvested cells at various stages prior to and during differentiation; at cell proliferation (D-3), confluence (D0), early (D3), middle (D7) and mature (D14) stages of differentiation. We determined lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes by morphological observation and quantitative measurement of oil red O staining...
August 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Chengying Gu, Yipeng Zeng, Zhaosheng Tang, Chaoxun Wang, Yanju He, Xinge Feng, Ligang Zhou
The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)‑peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α/PPARα‑fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch‑up growth group and an APS‑treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum...
November 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mako Yasuda-Yamahara, Shinji Kume, Kosuke Yamahara, Jun Nakazawa, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Shin-ichi Araki, Daisuke Koya, Masakzu Haneda, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Takashi Uzu
Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes...
September 18, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shin-ichi Nakano, Katsuyuki Nakamura, Naomi Teramoto, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara
Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is a hallmark of marbling in cattle. IMAT is considered to originate from skeletal muscle progenitor cells with adipogenic potential. However, the mechanism involved in IMAT formation from these progenitor cells in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, among the growth factors tested, which were known to be expressed in skeletal muscle, we found only basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a pro-adipogenic effect on skeletal muscle derived adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11 cells...
January 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Su-Guo Yu, Cheng-Jie Zhang, Xiu-E Xu, Ji-Hua Sun, Li Zhang, Peng-Fei Yu
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate bone deteriorations of diabetic mice in response to the treatment of ursolic acid derivative (UAD). METHODS: The biomarkers in serum and urine were measured, tibias were taken for the measurement on gene and protein expression and histomorphology analysis, and femurs were taken for the measurement on bone Ca and three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. RESULTS: UAD showed a greater increase in bone Ca, BMD and significantly increased FGF-23 and OCN, reduced PTH and CTX in diabetic mice...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Marta H Kubala, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Helen L Barrett
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with alterations of placental function. The incidence of PE is higher in insulin resistant states. Women with PE have high circulating levels of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is synthesized in the placenta. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of FGF21, its receptors, downstream targets and transcriptional regulators in placental tissue from pregnancies with and without late-onset PE. Circulating FGF21 in maternal and cord blood was also studied...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
W Y So, Q Cheng, A Xu, K S L Lam, P S Leung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor that normalizes glucose homeostasis and reduces insulin resistance in diabetes. Although the pancreas is an FGF21 target organ, its role in pancreatic islets remains obscure. This study aimed to elucidate the physiological role of FGF21 in pancreatic islets using FGF21-knockout (FGF21-KO) mice. Twenty-four-week-old male global FGF21-KO mice were used in this study. Glucose and insulin tolerance were assessed. Expression of genes and proteins related to islet function and underlying mechanisms were also examined...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Marta H Kubala, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Helen L Barrett
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with alterations of placental function. The incidence of PE is higher in insulin resistant states. Women with PE have high circulating levels of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is synthesized in the placenta. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of FGF21, its receptors, downstream targets and transcriptional regulators in placental tissue from pregnancies with and without late-onset PE. Circulating FGF21 in maternal and cord blood was also studied...
December 2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Qingning Liang, Ling Zhong, Jialiang Zhang, Yu Wang, Stefan R Bornstein, Chris R Triggle, Hong Ding, Karen S L Lam, Aimin Xu
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a main source of blood glucose during prolonged fasting and is orchestrated by endocrine and neural pathways. Here we show that the hepatocyte-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) induces fasting gluconeogenesis via the brain-liver axis. Prolonged fasting induces activation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the liver and subsequent hepatic production of FGF21, which enters into the brain to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for release of corticosterone, thereby stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis...
December 2014: Diabetes
Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
OBJECTIVE: Hepatokine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 takes part in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue. We investigated whether exendin-4 regulates the expression of FGF21 in the liver, and whether the effects of exendin-4 on the regulation of FGF21 expression are mediated via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT) 1 or SIRT6. MATERIALS/METHODS: The C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet with 1 nmol/kg/day exendin-4 intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks...
August 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katsunori Nonogaki, Miki Hazama, Noriko Satoh
Social isolation contributes to the development of obesity and insulin-independent diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Here we show that systemic administration of liraglutide, a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels at 24 h after its administration while having no significant effects on plasma insulin and glucagon levels in individually housed KKA(y) mice. In addition, the systemic administration of liraglutide significantly increased plasma fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 levels (1...
2014: BioMed Research International
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Helen L Barrett, Marta H Kubala, Katherin Scholz Romero, Kerina J Denny, Trent M Woodruff, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. The placenta actively synthesizes and secretes many hormones, but it is unknown whether this includes FGF21. This study aimed to analyze the placental expression of FGF21 in women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: FGF21 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α mRNA and protein expression were measured in the placentae of 20 women with and 18 without GDM...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
So Young Gwon, Ji Yun Ahn, Chang Hwa Jung, Bo Kyung Moon, Tae Youl Ha
BACKGROUND: The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to have various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. METHODS: To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0-2 μM shikonin...
2013: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tomoya Yamada, Mikito Higuchi, Naoto Nakanishi
We hypothesized that fattening Wagyu cattle fed conventional low-vitamin fattening diets are exposed to oxidative stress. In this experiment, we studied the plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostane and the fat depot-specific effects of the diet-induced adipogenic (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ2) and adipokine (VEGF, FGF-2, leptin and adiponectin) gene expressions in fattening Wagyu steers. Animals were fed a high-vitamin (α-tocopherol and β-carotene) diet (HV) or a control diet (CT) during the fattening period (from 10 to 30 months of age)...
2013: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
M S Duarte, P V R Paulino, A K Das, S Wei, N V L Serão, X Fu, S M Harris, M V Dodson, M Du
Intramuscular fat and collagen content are major factors affecting beef quality, but mechanisms regulating intramuscular adipose and connective tissue deposition are far from clear. Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling. The objective of this study was to evaluate intramuscular fat (IMF) and collagen deposition in the muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle. Animals were managed under the same condition and slaughtered at an averaging 585 ± 12.1 kg of BW. Samples of sternomandibularis muscle were collected from Wagyu (n = 3) and Angus (n = 3) for molecular and histological investigations of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis...
June 2013: Journal of Animal Science
Jingbo Pang, Davina H Rhodes, Maria Pini, Rand T Akasheh, Karla J Castellanos, Robert J Cabay, Dianne Cooper, Mauro Perretti, Giamila Fantuzzi
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO) WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production of acute-phase proteins, number of circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes and development of neutrophilia, microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis in 20-week-old Lean and DIO male Gal-3 KO mice...
2013: PloS One
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