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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929454/thermostabilization-expression-purification-and-crystallization-of-the-human-serotonin-transporter-bound-to-s-citalopram
#1
Jonathan A Coleman, Evan M Green, Eric Gouaux
The serotonin transporter is a sodium and chloride-coupled transporter that "pumps" extracellular serotonin into cells. S-citalopram is a drug used to treat depression and anxiety by binding to the serotonin transporter with high-affinity, blocking serotonin reuptake. Here we report an efficient procedure and a set of tools to stabilize, express, purify, and crystallize serotonin transporter-antibody complexes bound to S-citalopram and other antidepressants. Mutations which stabilize the serotonin transporter were identified using an S-citalopram binding assay...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915141/a-review-of-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-indian-water-bodies
#2
REVIEW
Keshava Balakrishna, Amlan Rath, Yerabham Praveenkumarreddy, Keerthi Siri Guruge, Bikram Subedi
Little information exists on the occurrence and the ultimate fate of pharmaceuticals in the water bodies in India despite being one of the world leaders in pharmaceutical production and consumption. This paper has reviewed 19 published reports of pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment in India [conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), hospital WTPs, rivers, and groundwater]. Carbamazepine (antipsychoactive), atenolol (antihypertensive), triclocarban and triclosan (antimicrobials), trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (antibacterials), ibuprofen and acetaminophen (analgesics), and caffeine (stimulant) are the most commonly detected at higher concentrations in Indian WTPs that treat predominantly the domestic sewage...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908769/chronic-citalopram-administration-desensitizes-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-somatodendritic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-rat-brain
#3
Begoña Fernández-Pastor, Jorge E Ortega, Laura Grandoso, Elena Castro, Luisa Ugedo, Ángel Pazos, J Javier Meana
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) regulate brain noradrenergic neurotransmission both at somatodendritic and nerve terminal areas. Previous studies have demonstrated that noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors are able to desensitize α2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of repeated treatment with the SSRI citalopram on the α2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), by using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiological techniques, and in vitro stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography...
November 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899308/insight-gained-from-genome-wide-interaction-and-enrichment-analysis-on-weight-gain-during-citalopram-treatment
#4
Henrik Thyge Corfitsen, Antonio Drago
Weight gain is a possible side effect of the pharmacological antidepressant treatments. Defining antidepressant prescriptions based on personal genetic makeups would decrease the risk of weight gain and increase the quality of the current antidepressant pharmacological treatments. 643 depressed, citalopram treated individuals with available clinical and genome-wide genetic information were investigated to identify the molecular pathways associated with weight gain. 111 individuals experienced weight gain during citalopram treatment...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895323/elevated-cyp2c19-expression-is-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-and-hippocampal-homeostasis-impairment
#5
M M Jukić, N Opel, J Ström, T Carrillo-Roa, S Miksys, M Novalen, A Renblom, S C Sim, E M Peñas-Lledó, P Courtet, A Llerena, B T Baune, D J de Quervain, A Papassotiropoulos, R F Tyndale, E B Binder, U Dannlowski, M Ingelman-Sundberg
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891703/an-investigation-into-the-inhibitory-function-of-serotonin-in-diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-in-the-neuropathic-rat
#6
K Bannister, S Lockwood, L Goncalves, R Patel, A H Dickenson
BACKGROUND: Following neuropathy α2-adrenoceptor-mediated diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), whereby a noxious conditioning stimulus inhibits the activity of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons, are abolished, and spinal 5-HT7 receptor densities are increased. Here, we manipulate spinal 5-HT content in spinal nerve ligated (SNL) animals and investigate which 5-HT receptor mediated actions predominate. METHODS: Using in vivo electrophysiology we recorded WDR neuronal responses to von frey filaments applied to the hind paw before, and concurrent to, a noxious ear pinch (the conditioning stimulus) in isoflurane-anaesthetised rats...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891399/effect-of-citalopram-in-combination-with-omega-3-on-depression-in-post-menopausal-women-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi, Farideh Kazemi, Samira Tavakolian, Alireza Rahimi, Khodayar Oshvandi, Alireza Soltanian, Fatemeh Shobeiri
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorder is a common and disabling disorder that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) class that has been used for geriatric depression since a long time ago. Prescription of omega-3 in geriatric depression has been increased recently; because of more favorable profile of their side effects. Some of the studies reported that omega-3 is effective in prevention or treatment of depressive disorders than Citalopram...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879187/recent-trends-in-primary-care-antidepressant-prescribing-to-children-and-young-people-an-e-cohort-study
#8
A John, A L Marchant, D L Fone, J I McGregor, M S Dennis, J O A Tan, K Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Concerns relating to increased use of psychotropic medication contrast with those of under-treatment and under-recognition of common mental disorders in children and young people (CYP) across developed countries. Little is known about the indications recorded for antidepressant prescribing in primary care in CYP. METHOD: This was an electronic cohort study of routinely collected primary-care data from a population of 1.9 million, Wales, UK. Poisson regression was undertaken to model adjusted counts of recorded depression symptoms, diagnoses and antidepressant prescriptions...
December 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871747/impact-of-external-carbon-dose-on-the-removal-of-micropollutants-using-methanol-and-ethanol-in-post-denitrifying-moving-bed-biofilm-reactors
#9
Elena Torresi, Mònica Escolà Casas, Fabio Polesel, Benedek G Plósz, Magnus Christensson, Kai Bester
Addition of external carbon sources to post-denitrification systems is frequently used in wastewater treatment plants to enhance nitrate removal. However, little is known about the fate of micropollutants in post-denitrification systems and the influence of external carbon dosing on their removal. In this study, we assessed the effects of two different types and availability of commonly used carbon sources -methanol and ethanol- on the removal of micropollutants in biofilm systems. Two laboratory-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs), containing AnoxKaldnes K1 carriers with acclimated biofilm from full-scale systems, were operated in continuous-flow using wastewater dosed with methanol and ethanol, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869315/aminoalkyl-derivatives-of-8-alkoxypurine-2-6-diones-multifunctional-5-ht1a-5-ht7-receptor-ligands-and-pde-inhibitors-with-antidepressant-activity
#10
Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa, Agnieszka Zagórska, Paweł Żmudzki, Adam Bucki, Marcin Kołaczkowski, Anna Partyka, Anna Wesołowska, Grzegorz Kazek, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Agata Siwek, Gabriela Starowicz, Maciej Pawłowski
In the search for potential psychotropic agents, a new series of 3,7-dimethyl- and 1,3-dimethyl-8-alkoxypurine-2,6-dione derivatives of arylpiperazines, perhydroisoquinolines, or tetrahydroisoquinolines with flexible alkylene spacers (5-16 and 21-32) were synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor affinities as well as PDE4B1 and PDE10A inhibitory properties. The 1-(4-(4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-3,7-dimethyl-8-propoxypurine-2,6-dione (16) and 7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazinylalkyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-ethoxypurine-2,6-diones (31 and 32) as potent dual 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor ligands with antagonistic activity produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test in mice...
December 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866243/monitoring-of-adherence-to-headache-treatments-by-means-of-hair-analysis
#11
Anna Ferrari, Manuela Licata, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi, Daniele Vandelli, Filippo Marchesi, Federica Palazzoli, Patrizia Verri, Enrico Silingardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hair analysis to monitor medication adherence in headache patients undergoing chronic therapy. For this purpose, the following parameters were analyzed: the detection rate of 23 therapeutic drugs in headache patients' hair, the degree of agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair, and whether the levels found in hair reflected the drug intake reported by the patients. METHODS: The study included 93 patients suffering from primary headaches declaring their daily intake of at least one of the following drugs during the 3 months before the hair sampling: alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, topiramate, trazodone, triazolam, venlafaxine, and zolpidem...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859667/seasonal-variations-in-3-h-citalopram-platelet-binding-between-healthy-controls-and-violent-offenders-in-finland
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851687/determination-of-antidepressants-in-hair-via-uhplc-ms-ms-as-a-complementary-informative-tool-for-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-assessments
#13
María Del Mar Ramírez Fernández, Sarah M R Wille, Virginia Hill, Nele Samyn
BACKGROUND: Hair analysis is a complementary approach for the detection of antidepressants (ADs) in clinical and forensic schemes because it yields a picture of long-term exposure over a time window depending on the length of the hair. METHODS: A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using a BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/acetonitrile was developed and validated according to international guidelines for the simultaneous analysis of 24 ADs in hair...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822048/analysis-of-treatment-patterns-and-persistence-on-branded-and-generic-medications-in-major-depressive-disorder-using-retrospective-claims-data
#14
Caitlyn T Solem, Ahmed Shelbaya, Yin Wan, Chinmay G Deshpande, Jose Alvir, Elizabeth Pappadopulos
BACKGROUND: In major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment persistence is critical to optimize symptom remission, functional recovery, and health care costs. Desvenlafaxine tends to have fewer drug interactions and better tolerability than other MDD drugs; however, its use has not been assessed in the real world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare medication persistence and concomitant MDD drug use with branded desvenlafaxine (Pristiq(®)) compared with antidepressant drug groups classified as 1) branded selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; ie, escitalopram [Lexapro™]) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; ie, venlafaxine [Effexor(®)], duloxetine [Cymbalta(®)]) and 2) generic SSRIs/SNRIs (ie, escitalopram, citalopram, venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818278/effect-of-amitriptyline-treatment-on-neurofilament-h-protein-in-an-experimental-model-of-depression
#15
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Nicoletta Galeotti
It has been proposed that depression is associated with dysfunction of hippocampal plasticity. Novel hypotheses suggest that antidepressants induce neuronal structural plasticity, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of amitriptyline on levels of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) in the hippocampus of mice exposed to acute and chronic behavioral despair paradigms. Immunoblotting experiments showed that animals exposed to the tail suspension test (TST) displayed diminished levels of pNF-H 24h after testing...
November 3, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811556/duloxetine-augmentation-in-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
Arash Mowla, Sanaz Boostani, Seyed Ali Dastgheib
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of duloxetine augmentation in treatment of resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: This augmentation trial was designed as an 8-week randomized controlled, double-blind study. Forty-six patients experiencing OCD who had failed to respond to at least 12 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, citalopram, or fluvoxamine) were randomly allocated to receive duloxetine or sertraline plus their current anti-OCD treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810346/effects-of-psychotropic-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expressions-of-emotion-critical-analysis-of-literature
#17
REVIEW
Alini Daniéli Viana Sabino, Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Flávia L Osório
Deficits in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (RFEE) play a central role in the manifestation of anxiety disorders (AD). We systematically reviewed the literature to determine effects of drugs used in AD treatment on RFEE, based on outcomes of accuracy rate, reaction time, and intensity. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scielo, were used without time constraints. Twenty-six clinical/experimental studies on healthy subjects, focusing on 11 drugs, published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were selected...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804252/application-of-tandem-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-determination-of-doxepin-citalopram-and-fluvoxamine-in-complicated-samples
#18
Bahareh Fahimirad, Alireza Asghari, Mohammad Bazregar, Maryam Rajabi, Ebrahim Fahimi
A new type of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is used for the determination of doxepin, citalopram, and fluvoxamine in aqueous matrices. This method is based upon the tandem utilization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and by providing a high sample clean-up, it efficiently improves the applicability of the method in complicated matrices. For this purpose, in the first step, the analytes contained in an aqueous sample solution (8.0 mL) were extracted into an organic solvent, and then these analytes were simply back-extracted into an aqueous acceptor phase (50 μL)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788407/determination-of-clozapine-and-five-antidepressants-in-human-plasma-serum-and-whole-blood-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-a-simple-tool-for-clinical-and-postmortem-toxicological-analysis
#19
Vassiliki A Boumba, George Rallis, Petros Petrikis, Theodore Vougiouklakis, Venetsanos Mavreas
In this study, we describe a simple and rapid method for the determination of the antipsychotic drug clozapine and five commonly co-administered antidepressants - bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline, clomipramine and citalopram - in serum, plasma and whole blood. Sample preparation includes solid phase extraction of analytes and determination of drug concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without any derivatization steps. The method was fully validated according to international criteria and can be successfully applied for routine analyses...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773594/5-ht2c-receptors-in-the-bnst-are-necessary-for-the-enhancement-of-fear-learning-by-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#20
Eliza Pelrine, Sara Diana Pasik, Leyla Bayat, Debora Goldschmiedt, Elizabeth P Bauer
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, yet they paradoxically increase anxiety during initial treatment. Acute administration of these drugs prior to learning can also enhance Pavlovian cued fear conditioning. This potentiation has been previously reported to depend upon the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Here, using temporary inactivation, we confirmed that the BNST is not necessary for the acquisition of cued or contextual fear memory...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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