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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136602/saffron-in-the-treatment-of-depression-anxiety-and-other-mental-disorders-current-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#1
REVIEW
Mojtaba Shafiee, Soheil Arekhi, Alireza Omranzadeh, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems with high economic and social costs. Currently, a number of treatments are available for patients with depression and anxiety disorders such as psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressant drugs. Due to safety concerns, adverse effects, limited efficacy and low tolerability associated with many antidepressant and anti-anxiety medications, identification of novel agents with less toxicity and more favorable outcome is warranted...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114100/successful-treatment-of-severe-tardive-dyskinesia-with-valbenazine-including-a-patient-s-perspective
#2
Richard C Josiassen, Dawn M Filmyer, Jack Gillean, Syed Sikandar Shah, Tyler E Dietterich, Rita A Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a chronic involuntary movement disorder frequently induced by dopamine receptor blockers, particularly first-generation antipsychotics. Until recently, management of TD was restricted to lowering the dose of the current medication, switching to another medication, or using off-label treatments with insufficient evidence of efficacy. Valbenazine, a vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, became the first drug to be approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of TD...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099060/clinical-pharmacogenetics-of-cytochrome-p450-associated-drugs-in-children
#3
Ida Aka, Christiana J Bernal, Robert Carroll, Angela Maxwell-Horn, Kazeem A Oshikoya, Sara L Van Driest
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are commonly involved in drug metabolism, and genetic variation in the genes encoding CYPs are associated with variable drug response. While genotype-guided therapy has been clinically implemented in adults, these associations are less well established for pediatric patients. In order to understand the frequency of pediatric exposures to drugs with known CYP interactions, we compiled all actionable drug-CYP interactions with a high level of evidence using Clinical Pharmacogenomic Implementation Consortium (CPIC) data and surveyed 10 years of electronic health records (EHR) data for the number of children exposed to CYP-associated drugs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079874/study-on-the-effect-of-emd386088-a-5-ht6-receptor-partial-agonist-in-enhancing-the-anti-immobility-action-of-some-antidepressants-in-rats
#4
Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Agata Siwek, Anna Partyka, Marcin Kołaczkowski, Maria Walczak, Magdalena Smolik, Gniewomir Latacz, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Anna Wesołowska
The effect of some antidepressants co-administered with EMD386088 in the modified forced swim test in rats was investigated. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics, metabolic stability, and the effect of EMD386088 on P450 cytochromes were determined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) coadministration of EMD386088 (2.5 mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg), reboxetine (5 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), or bupropion (10 mg/kg) evoked significant antidepressant-like activity, whereas no effect was observed after joint administration of EMD386088 with s-citalopram (10 mg/kg)...
October 27, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075638/citalopram-ameliorates-impairments-in-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-female-3xtgad-mice
#5
Zhang Wei, Guo Junhong, Niu Xiaoyuan, Wang Jie, Wang Zhaojun, Wu Meina, Yang Wei, Zhang Jun, Qi Jinshun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066038/assessing-responsiveness-of-health-systems-to-drug-safety-warnings
#6
Lauren B Gerlach, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Matheos Yosef, Anne E Sales, Claire Stano, Helen C Kales, Kara Zivin
OBJECTIVE: In 2011-2012 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued safety announcements cautioning providers against prescribing high doses of citalopram given concerns for QT prolongation. The authors evaluated Veterans Affairs (VA) national trends in citalopram use and dose compared with alternative antidepressants after the FDA warnings. METHODS: Time series analyses estimated the effect of the FDA warnings on citalopram and other antidepressant across three periods: before the first FDA warning in August 2011, after the 2011 FDA warning until the second warning in March 2012, and after the 2012 FDA warning...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058178/developmental-exposure-to-the-ssri-citalopram-causes-long-lasting-behavioural-effects-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#7
M Kellner, T Porseryd, I Porsch-Hällström, B Borg, C Roufidou, K H Olsén
Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. In order to study effects of developmental SSRI exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1...
October 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051549/chronic-antidepressant-potentiates-spontaneous-activity-of-dorsal-raphe-serotonergic-neurons-by-decreasing-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-l-type-calcium-channels
#8
Nozomi Asaoka, Naoya Nishitani, Haruko Kinoshita, Hiroyuki Kawai, Norihiro Shibui, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) regulates mood and motivational state. Potentiation of serotonergic function is one of the therapeutic strategies for treatment of various psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the control mechanisms of the serotonergic firing activity are still unknown. In this study, we examined the control mechanisms for serotonergic spontaneous activity and effects of chronic antidepressant administration on these mechanisms by using modified ex vivo electrophysiological recording methods...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035921/biphasic-effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-anxiety-rapid-reversal-of-escitalopram-s-anxiogenic-effects-in-the-novelty-induced-hypophagia-test-in-mice
#9
Wouter Koek, Nathan C Mitchell, Lynette C Daws
In humans, chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) decreases anxiety, unlike acute treatment, which can increase anxiety. Although this biphasic pattern is observed clinically, preclinical demonstrations are rare. In an animal model of antidepressant-induced anxiolytic effects, the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a single administration of the SSRI citalopram reportedly elicited anxiogenic-like effects, whereas three administrations over 24 h were sufficient to produce anxiolytic-like effects...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024681/potentiation-of-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-locomotion-by-citalopram-is-accompanied-by-anxiolytic-like-effects
#10
María J Varela, Arlet M Acanda de la Rocha, Alvaro Díaz, Juan F Lopez-Gimenez
Morphine and related opioids are the mainstay of analgesic treatment, especially in patients suffering chronic pain. Besides their antinociceptive effects they may also exhibit anxiolytic-like properties that could contribute to pain relief. The pharmacological manipulation of the serotonergic system may not only modulate pain transmission and processing but also other behavioral effects of opioids. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the concurrent treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the antinociceptive, locomotor and anxiety-related effects induced by acute and subchronic administration of morphine in mice...
October 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017090/combinatory-effects-of-low-concentrations-of-17%C3%AE-etinylestradiol-and-citalopram-on-non-reproductive-behavior-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Tove Porseryd, Martin Kellner, Nasim Reyhanian Caspillo, Kristina Volkova, Lubna Elabbas, Shahid Ullah, Håkan Olsén, Patrik Dinnétz, Inger Porsch Hällström
Sewage effluents contain pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, exposing aquatic organisms to complex mixtures. The consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs in fish are largely unknown. In this study, we exposed adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females for two weeks to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyzed behaviors of importance for population fitness, scototaxis (light/dark preference), the novel tank test and shoal cohesion...
October 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971527/investigation-of-maltodextrin-based-synergistic-system-with-amino-acid-chiral-ionic-liquid-as-additive-for-enantioseparation-in-capillary-electrophoresis
#12
Jiaquan Chen, Yingxiang Du, Xiaodong Sun
The combined use of chiral ionic liquids (ILs) and chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to establish a synergistic system has proven to be an effective approach for enantioseparation. In this article, tetramethylammonium-L-arginine, a kind of amino acid chiral IL, was applied to investigate its potential synergistic effect with maltodextrin in CE enantioseparation. The established maltodextrin-based synergistic system showed markedly improved enantioseparations compared with the single maltodextrin system...
October 3, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961662/major-depressive-disorder-in-patients-with-doctoral-degrees-patient-reported-depressive-symptom-severity-functioning-and-quality-of-life-before-and-after-initial-treatment-in-the-star-d-study
#13
Alexander J Steiner, Nathalie Boulos, Stephanie M Wright, James Mirocha, Kimberly Smith, Enrique López, Sherif H Gohar, Waguih W Ishak
OBJECTIVE: This study examined patients with medical or doctoral degrees diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) by analyzing patient-reported depressive symptom severity, functioning, and quality of life (QOL) before and after treatment of MDD. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in a sample of 2280 adult outpatient participants with MDD from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study with complete entry and exit scores for the level 1 (citalopram monotherapy) trial...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953843/what-are-the-risks-associated-with-different-selective-serotonin-re-uptake-inhibitors-ssris-to-treat-depression-and-anxiety-in-pregnancy-an-evaluation-of-current-evidence
#14
Kate Womersley, Katherine Ripullone, Mark Agius
A literature review was conducted to elucidate the respective reproductive safety profiles of different SSRIs to inform the prescribing practices of doctors treating pregnant women with anxiety and depression. BACKGROUND: Women are most likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety between the ages of 25 and 44 years, which are also the years of childbearing potential (Burke et al., 1991). Therefore a substantial number of women face a decision about whether or not to take an antidepressant or anxiolytic during pregnancy...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#15
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946193/anticonvulsant-activity-organotypic-hippocampal-neuroprotection-assay-and-in-silico-sodium-channel-blocking-potential-of-2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole-derived-semicarbazones
#16
Rati Kailash Prasad Tripathi, Senthil Raja Ayyannan
Epilepsy is one of the dreadful neurodegenerative disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Currently available antiepileptic drugs are still associated with enormous side effects resulting in search of newer, more effective and safer agents. In view of this, we have investigated anticonvulsant activity of 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole derived semicarbazones (7-32) in various in-vivo animal seizure models viz. maximal electroshock (MES), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) and 6Hz psychomotor seizure model...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942593/psychoactive-drugs-occurrence-in-aquatic-environment-analytical-methods-and-ecotoxicity-a-review
#17
Deivisson Lopes Cunha, Frederico Goytacazes de Araujo, Marcia Marques
This review focused on seven psychoactive drugs being six benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, and oxazepam) and one antidepressant (citalopram) widely consumed by modern society and detected in different aqueous matrices (drinking water, surface water, groundwater, seawater, estuary water, influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants). The review included 219 selected scientific papers from which 1642 data/entries were obtained, each entry corresponding to one target compound in one aqueous matrix...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892734/acute-change-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-gaba-but-not-glutamine-glutamate-mediates-antidepressant-response-to-citalopram
#18
Brian P Brennan, Roee Admon, Chris Perriello, Erin M LaFlamme, Alison J Athey, Diego A Pizzagalli, James I Hudson, Harrison G Pope, J Eric Jensen
Little is known about the acute effects of antidepressant treatments on brain glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) levels, and their association with clinical response. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) we examined longitudinally the effects of citalopram on glutamine/glutamate ratios and GABA levels in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). We acquired (1)H-MRS scans at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 42 of citalopram treatment in nineteen unmedicated individuals with MDD...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888484/prediction-of-human-efficacious-antidepressant-doses-using-the-mouse-forced-swim-test
#19
Eunice Yuen, Steven Swanson, Jeffrey M Witkin
The forced swim test (FST) is a commonly used preclinical animal behavioural model for prediction of antidepressant activity in humans. While the FST may qualitatively predict efficacy, less is known about the quantitative translation of FST data to human efficacious doses. Assessing quantitative translation allows better predictions of human efficacious doses and a higher chance of success in the drug development process. Dose-response and time-course FST experiments were carried out on mice using four marketed antidepressants (citalopram, desipramine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine) in addition to ketamine, all with varying mechanisms of action...
October 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859218/incidence-of-early-anxiety-aggravation-in-trials-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-in-depression
#20
J Näslund, F Hieronymus, J F Emilsson, A Lisinski, S Nilsson, E Eriksson
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may aggravate anxiety and agitation during the first days of treatment but the frequency of such reactions remains unknown. METHOD: We analysed patient-level data from placebo-controlled trials of sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram in depressed adults. Somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety and psychomotor agitation as assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were analysed in all trials (n = 8262); anxiety-related adverse events were analysed in trials investigating paroxetine and citalopram (n = 5712)...
October 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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