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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915481/effects-of-combination-treatment-of-alpha-1-adrenergic-receptor-antagonists-on-voiding-dysfunction-study-on-target-organs-in-overactive-bladder-rats
#1
Il Gyu Ko, Bo Min Moon, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Lakkyong Hwang, Eun Sang Ji, Chang Ju Kim, Tai Hyung Kim, Hyun Hee Choi, Kyung Jin Chung
PURPOSE: Overactive bladder (OAB) causes urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonists are known to improve lower urinary tract symptoms associated with OAB. The α1-AR antagonists constitute a variety of drugs according to the receptor subtype affinity. This study investigated the efficacy of tamsulosin, naftopidil, and a combination of the two on OAB rats. METHODS: The OAB rat model was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide for 14 days...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915476/translational-research-for-pediatric-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Akihiro Kanematsu
This review provides a comprehensive view of translational research aimed at elucidating the pathophysiology of pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). A web search was conducted according to combinations of keywords, and the significance of each article was defined by the author. The dramatic evolution of the mass analysis method of genomes, transcripts, and proteins has enabled a comprehensive analysis of molecular events underlying diseases, and these methodologies have also been applied to pediatric LUTD...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915472/pathomechanism-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-and-mapping-the-heterogeneity-of-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a heterogeneous syndrome which is usually characterized by urinary frequency, nocturia, and bladder pain. Several pathomechanisms have been proposed, including uroepithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation, autoimmunity, and occult urinary tract infections. It is possible that an inflammatory process alters regulation of urothelial homeostasis and results in dysfunction of the bladder epithelium. Different phenotypes of IC/BPS have been explored including Hunner and non-Hunner type IC, hypersensitive bladder, and bladder pain both with and without functional somatic syndrome...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915471/new-attempts-to-overcome-the-urinary-tract-disorders
#4
Khae Hawn Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915460/zinc-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-pneumonia-in-children-aged-2-months-to-59-months
#5
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Anoosh Moin, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily zinc supplements have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and reduce child mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months...
December 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915439/presence-of-ureaplasma-diversum-in-the-genital-tracts-of-female-dairy-cattle-in-mato-grosso-state-brazil
#6
Jaqueline B Azevedo, Gustavo S Silva, Priscylla S Rocha, Letícia C Pitchenin, Valéria Dutra, Luciano Nakazato, Anderson Castro Soares de Oliveira, Caroline A Pescador
Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915397/age-and-gender-interactions-in-white-matter-of-schizophrenia-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-compared-to-non-psychiatric-controls-commonalities-across-disorders
#7
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Natasha Radhu, David Rotenberg, Stephanie Ameis, Felicity A Backhouse, Mawahib Semeralul, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are psychiatric disorders with abnormalities in white matter structure. These disorders share high comorbidity and family history of OCD is a risk factor for SCZ which suggests some shared neurobiology. White matter was examined using diffusion tensor imaging in relativity large samples of SCZ (N = 48), OCD (N = 38) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 45). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated and tract based spatial statistics were used to compare groups...
December 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915065/assessment-of-white-matter-transgression-during-neuroendoscopic-procedures-using-dti-fiber-tracking
#8
Sergio García, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Arnau Benet, Laura Oleaga, José Juan González Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Presurgical planning allows anticipating intraoperative difficulties, increasing efficiency, and reducing risks. Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique whose related complications have been focused on cortical function and surface vessels injury. However, white matter disruption has been insufficiently acknowledged. OBJECTIVE: To present a new surgical planning method based on diffusion tensor image that allows quantifying subcortical transgression and optimizing neuroendoscopic trajectories...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915021/poly-aspartic-acid-with-adjustable-ph-dependent-solubility
#9
Csaba Németh, Benjámin Gyarmati, Timur Abdullin, Krisztina László, András Szilágyi
Poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) derivatives with adjustable pH-dependent solubility were synthesized and characterized to establish the relationship between their structure and solubility in order to predict their applicability as a basic material for enteric coatings. Polysuccinimide, the precursor of PASP, was modified with short chain alkylamines, and the residual succinimide rings were subsequently opened to prepare the corresponding PASP derivatives. Study of the effects of the type and concentration of the side groups on the pH-dependent solubility of PASP showed that solubility can be adjusted by proper selection of the chemical structure...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915009/exploring-gastrointestinal-variables-affecting-drug-and-formulation-behavior-methodologies-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Bart Hens, Maura Corsetti, Robin Spiller, Luca Marciani, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack, Arjang Talattof, Gordon L Amidon, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies, Clive G Wilson, Roelof J Bennink, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns
Various gastrointestinal (GI) factors affect drug and formulation behavior after oral administration, including GI transfer, motility, pH and GI fluid volume and composition. An in-depth understanding of these physiological and anatomical variables is critical for a continued progress in oral drug development. In this review, different methodologies (invasive versus non-invasive) to explore the impact of physiological variables on formulation behavior in the human GI tract are presented, revealing their strengths and limitations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914901/medical-treatment-of-male-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-does-one-fit-all
#11
EDITORIAL
Malte Rieken, Christian Gratzke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914813/normal-human-gingival-fibroblasts-undergo-cytostasis-and-apoptosis-after-long-term-exposure-to-butyric-acid
#12
Michihiro Shirasugi, Keisuke Nishioka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Takaaki Nakaya, Narisato Kanamura
The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#13
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914715/prostate-cancer-in-young-adults-seventeen-year-clinical-experience-of-a-single-center
#14
Tzu-Hao Huang, Junne-Yih Kuo, Yi-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Jen Chung, William J S Huang, Howard H H Wu, Yen-Hwa Chang, Alex T L Lin, Kuang-Kuo Chen
BACKGROUND: In the general population, prostate adenocarcinoma affects predominately older men. If fact, most current guidelines suggest that males over the age of 50 years should undergo prostate cancer screening. However, the clinical behavior and prognosis of prostate cancer in young adults is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical behavior, pathological characteristics, and prognosis of prostate cancer in young adults. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of young patients (age, ≤50 years) in our hospital with prostate adenocarcinoma between 1997 and 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914602/severe-infection-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-taking-anakinra-rituximab-or-abatacept-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#16
Vanderlea Poeys Cabral, Carlos Augusto Ferreira de Andrade, Sonia Regina Lambert Passos, Maria de Fátima Moreira Martins, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg
A question is raised about an increased risk of severe infection from the use of biological drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This systematic review of observational studies aimed at assessing the risk of severe infection associated with the use of anakinra, rituximab, and abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Cochrane, Exerpta Medica Database, Scielo, and Lilacs up to July 2010. Severe infections were defined as those life-threatening ones in need of the use of parenteral antibiotics or of hospitalization...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914459/mechanisms-of-changes-in-immune-response-during-bacterial-coinfections-of-the-respiratory-tract
#17
REVIEW
E N Sviriaeva, K V Korneev, M S Drutskaya, D V Kuprash
Acute diseases of the respiratory tract are often caused by viral pathogens and accompanying secondary bacterial infections. It is known that the development of such bacterial complications is caused mainly by a decreased infiltration with immune system cells and by suppressed inflammation in the lungs. There are significant advances in understanding the mechanisms of secondary infections, although many details remain unclear. This review summarizes current knowledge of the molecular and cellular changes in the host organism that can influence the course of bacterial coinfections in the respiratory tract...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914393/influence-of-vocal-tract-geometry-simplifications-on-the-numerical-simulation-of-vowel-sounds
#18
Marc Arnela, Saeed Dabbaghchian, Rémi Blandin, Oriol Guasch, Olov Engwall, Annemie Van Hirtum, Xavier Pelorson
For many years, the vocal tract shape has been approximated by one-dimensional (1D) area functions to study the production of voice. More recently, 3D approaches allow one to deal with the complex 3D vocal tract, although area-based 3D geometries of circular cross-section are still in use. However, little is known about the influence of performing such a simplification, and some alternatives may exist between these two extreme options. To this aim, several vocal tract geometry simplifications for vowels [ɑ], [i], and [u] are investigated in this work...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914355/characterisation-of-fine-grained-tailings-from-a-marble-processing-plant-and-their-acute-effects-on-the-copepod-calanus-finmarchicus
#19
Julia Farkas, Dag Altin, Karen M Hammer, Kaja C Hellstrøm, Andy M Booth, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Submarine tailing disposal (STD) of mining waste is practiced as an alternative to land fill disposal in several countries. Knowledge regarding the environmental implications of STD on fjord and other marine ecosystems, including the pelagic environment, is scarce. In this study, we characterised the particle shape, size and metal content of the fine-grained fraction of tailings (FGT) from a Norwegian marble processing plant and investigated their acute toxicity and impact on feeding rate in adult Calanus finmarchicus...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#20
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
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