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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156496/sensation-mechanoreceptor-and-nerve-fiber-function-after-nerve-regeneration
#1
Christian Krarup, Birgitta Rosén, Michel Boeckstyns, Allan Ibsen Sørensen, Göran Lundborg, Mihai Moldovan, Simon J Archibald
OBJECTIVE: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function after nerve regeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to non-injured hands...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155975/induced-cortical-responses-require-developmental-sensory-experience
#2
Prasandhya Astagiri Yusuf, Peter Hubka, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate the sensory inputs with the ongoing activity. We studied how complete absence of auditory experience affects this process in a higher mammal model of complete sensory deprivation, the congenitally deaf cat. Cortical responses were elicited by intracochlear electric stimulation using cochlear implants in adult hearing controls and deaf cats. Additionally, in hearing controls, acoustic stimuli were used to assess the effect of stimulus mode (electric versus acoustic) on the cortical responses...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#3
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155757/dissection-of-human-retina-and-rpe-choroid-for-proteomic-analysis
#4
Thiago Cabral, Marcus A Toral, Gabriel Velez, James E DiCarlo, Anuradha M Gore, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
The human retina is composed of the sensory neuroretina and the underlying retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), which is firmly complexed to the vascular choroid layer. Different regions of the retina are anatomically and molecularly distinct, facilitating unique functions and demonstrating differential susceptibility to disease. Proteomic analysis of each of these regions and layers can provide vital insights into the molecular process of many diseases, including Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, and glaucoma...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155722/automated-gait-analysis-in-mice-with-chronic-constriction-injury
#5
Dong-Wook Kang, Jae-Gyun Choi, Ji-Young Moon, Suk-Yun Kang, Yeonhee Ryu, Jin Bong Park, Hyun-Woo Kim
The von Frey test is a classical method that has been widely used to examine the sensory function of neuropathic pain animals. However, it has some disadvantages such as subjective data and the requirement of a skilled, experienced experimenter. To date, a variety of modifications have improved the von Frey method, but it still has a few limitations. Recent reports have suggested that gait analysis produces more accurate and objective data from the neuropathic animals. This protocol demonstrates how to perform the automated gait analysis to determine the degree of neuropathic pain in mice...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155276/cortical-plasticity-as-a-basis-of-phantom-limb-pain-fact-or-fiction
#6
J Andoh, C Milde, J W Tsao, H Flor
Cortical reorganization has been proposed as a major factor involved in phantom pain with prior nociceptive input to the deafferented region and input from the non-deafferented cortex creating neuronal activity that is perceived as phantom pain. There is substantial evidence that these processes play a role in neuropathic pain, although causal evidence is lacking. Recently it has been suggested that a maintenance of the cortical representation of the former hand area is related to phantom pain. Although interesting, evidence for this process is so far scarce...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155254/association-of-riluzole-and-dantrolene-improves-significant-recovery-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#7
Bernardo De Caro Martins, Bruno Benetti Junta Torres, Karen Maciel de Oliveira, Mario Sergio Lavor, Carla Maria Osório, Fabiola Bono Fukushima, Isabel Rodrigues Rosado, Eliane Gonçalves de Melo
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Damage to the spinal cord can result in irreversible impairment or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. Riluzole and dantrolene have been shown to provide neuroprotection by reducing neuronal apoptosis after brain and spinal cord injury (SCI) in several animal models of neurological disorders. As these drugs protect the injured spinal cord through different mechanisms, we investigated the cumulative effects of riluzole and dantrolene. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of the combined administration of riluzole and dantrolene in experimental thoracic SCI...
November 15, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155208/inflammatory-renin-angiotensin-system-disruption-attenuates-sensory-hyperinnervation-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-provoked-vestibulodynia
#8
Anuradha Chakrabarty, Zhaohui Liao, Ying Mu, Peter G Smith
Vestibulodynia is characterized by peri-vaginal mechanical hypersensitivity, hyperinnervation, and abundant inflammatory cells expressing renin-angiotensin system proteins. We developed a tractable rat model of vestibulodynia to further assess the contributions of the renin-angiotensin system. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the posterior vestibule induced marked vestibular hypersensitivity throughout a 7-day test period. Numbers of axons immunoreactive for PGP9.5, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and GFRα2 were increased...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155200/recent-advances-on-polysaccharides-lipids-and-protein-based-edible-films-and-coatings-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Bilal Hassan, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Naseem Akhtar
Food is a vital product for the survival of human beings and with passage of time quality concerns of consumers are rising. Edible films and coatings are thin layers applied on food products to protect them and improve their quality. Films/coatings are prepared from naturally occurring renewable sources (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composites) which we can eat without disposing them. These films are environment friendly and contain antioxidants, anti-browning agents and colorants. Various methods (spraying, brushing, electro-spraying) are used to apply a coating on food material to protect them from microbial growth, prolonging their shelf life and improving other quality aspects like sensory attributes, appearance, originality and freshness of ingredients...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154979/small-fiber-neuropathy-diagnosis-causes-and-treatment
#10
Damien Sène
Small fiber neuropathy, which affects the sensory A≏ and C fibers, is now a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Nearly 7% of the general population have chronic neuropathic pain responsible for severe quality-of-life impairments. Awareness must therefore be raised among clinicians of the somatosensory and autonomic symptoms that can reveal small fiber neuropathy, appropriate diagnostic investigations, most common causes, and best treatment options for each patient profile. To help achieve this goal, the present review article discusses the clinical presentation of neuropathic pain and paresthesia and/or autonomic dysfunction due to involvement of nerves supplying exocrine glands and smooth muscle; normal findings from standard electrophysiological investigations; most informative diagnostic tests (epidermal nerve fiber density in a skin biopsy, laser-evoked potentials, heat- and cold-detection thresholds, electrochemical skin conductance); main causes, which consist chiefly of metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance), dysimmunity syndromes (Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, monoclonal gammopathy), and genetic abnormalities (familial amyloidosis due to a transthyretin mutation, Fabry disease, sodium channel diseases); and the available symptomatic and etiological treatments...
November 15, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154684/brain-functional-connectivity-in-headache-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-mri-investigations
#11
Catherine D Chong, Todd J Schwedt, Anders Hougaard
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is used to interrogate the functional connectivity and network organization amongst brain regions. Functional connectivity is determined by measuring the extent of synchronization in the spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we review current rs-fMRI studies in headache disorders including migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and medication overuse headache. We discuss (1) brain network alterations that are shared amongst the different headache disorders and (2) network abnormalities distinct to each headache disorder...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154642/sensory-processing-sensitivity-as-a-marker-of-differential-susceptibility-to-parenting
#12
Meike Slagt, Judith Semon Dubas, Marcel A G van Aken, Bruce J Ellis, Maja Deković
In this longitudinal multiinformant study negative emotionality and sensory processing sensitivity were compared as susceptibility markers among kindergartners. Participating children (N = 264, 52.9% boys) were Dutch kindergartners (Mage = 4.77, SD = 0.60), followed across three waves, spaced seven months apart. Results show that associations between parenting and child behavior did not depend on children's negative emotionality. Sensory processing sensitivity, however, interacted with both (changes in) negative and (changes in) positive parenting in predicting externalizing, but not prosocial, behavior...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154626/attentional-effect-on-contrast-appearance-from-enhancement-to-attenuation
#13
Liu-Fang Zhou, Simona Buetti, Shena Lu, Yong-Chun Cai
Does attention alter appearance? Recent studies have shown that an exogenous cue tends to increase the perceived contrast of a low-contrast stimulus. In the present study we systematically studied the attentional effect over a wide range of contrast levels (15% to 60%). Besides replicating the enhancement at lower contrast levels with higher comparative tasks (Experiment 1), the data revealed a cue-induced attenuation in apparent contrast at higher contrast levels with lower comparative tasks (Experiment 2) and same/different judgment task (Experiment 3)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154621/sensory-constraints-on-perceptual-simulation-during-sentence-reading
#14
Xuefei Gao, Ting Jiang
Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154616/do-we-see-it-or-not-sensory-attenuation-in-the-visual-domain
#15
Katharina A Schwarz, Roland Pfister, Michel Kluge, Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde
Sensory consequences of an agent's actions are perceived less intensely than sensory stimuli that are not caused (and thus not predicted) by the observer. This effect of sensory attenuation has been discussed as a key principle of perception, potentially mediating various crucial functions such as agency and the discrimination of self-caused sensory stimulation from stimuli caused by external factors. Precise models describe the theoretical underpinnings of this phenomenon across a variety of modalities, especially the auditory, tactile, and visual domain...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154502/if-it-is-absurd-then-why-do-you-do-it-the-richer-the-obsessional-experience-the-more-compelling-the-compulsion
#16
Steffen Moritz, Christine Purdon, Lena Jelinek, Brenda Chiang, Marit Hauschildt
Mounting evidence suggests that obsessive intrusions are often accompanied and amplified by perceptual experiences of different modalities (e.g., feeling dirt on one's skin while experiencing intrusive thoughts about contamination). Pilot studies conducted online with individuals endorsing mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms have linked the co-occurrence of perceptual experiences and obsessions to the severity of subsequent compulsive behaviour as well as low insight. However, it is presently unclear whether sensory experiences accompany all types of obsessional thoughts or are restricted to certain preoccupations (e...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154486/relationships-between-atypical-sensory-processing-patterns-maladaptive-behaviour-and-maternal-stress-in-spanish-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
C Nieto, B López, H Gandía
BACKGROUND: This study investigated sensory processing in a sample of Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the study aimed to explore (1) the prevalence and distribution of atypical sensory processing patterns, (2) the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive behaviour with atypical sensory processing and (3) the possible relationship between sensory subtype and maternal stress. METHODS: The short sensory profile 2 (Dunn 2014) and the vineland adaptive behavior scale (Sparrow et al...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154407/exercise-dynamic-stability-under-unstable-conditions-increases-muscle-strength-and-balance-ability-in-the-elderly
#18
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific exercise intervention of mechanisms to control dynamic postural stability under unstable conditions in old adults. Forty-seven old adults (65-80 years) were assigned to two experimental groups (muscle strength group, n=15, perturbation-based group, n=16) and a control group (n=16). The strength group performed resistance exercises for legs and trunk muscles, while the perturbation-based group exercised mechanisms of dynamic stability under unstable conditions...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154261/electrical-impedance-of-the-torso-is-associated-with-the-pressure-pain-threshold-on-myofascial-trigger-points-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho, Marília Artese Barros, Alessandra Kelly de Oliveira, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus Guirro
BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger points are dysfunctional structures present in skeletal muscles and are related to sensory, motor, and autonomic changes. Despite scientific advances in recent decades in the measurement of musculoskeletal pain, evaluation of this clinical phenomenon is supported with instruments that, although valid and reliable, have a considerable degree of subjectivity. OBJECTIVE: To correlate electrical impedance of the upper limbs and torso with pain intensity, functional capacity, catastrophizing, pressure pain threshold, and skin temperature on myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle of patients with neck pain...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154235/the-use-of-neurodynamic-techniques-in-the-conservative-treatment-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-critical-appraisal-of-the-literature
#20
Tomasz Wolny
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy, characterized by the presence of many sensory and motor abnormalities. In the physiotherapy of patients with CTS, neurodynamic tech-niques are very common, while the scientific literature does not show clear evidence of beneficial effects obtained by using these techniques. Therefore, the aim of this work was to critically evaluate the use of neurodynamic techniques in the conservative treatment of CTS...
October 31, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
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