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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724092/can-biochar-covers-reduce-emissions-from-manure-lagoons-while-capturing-nutrients
#1
Brian Dougherty, Myles Gray, Mark G Johnson, Markus Kleber
The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluated the potential of floating biochar covers to reduce odor and gas emissions while simultaneously sorbing nutrients from liquid dairy manure. This new approach has the potential to mitigate multiple environmental problems. Two biochars were tested: one made via gasification of Douglas fir chips at 650°C (FC650), and the other made from a mixture of Douglas fir [ (Mirb...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#2
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723889/distinct-timescales-of-population-coding-across-cortex
#3
Caroline A Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey
The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723728/memory-related-functional-connectivity-in-visual-processing-regions-varies-by-prior-emotional-context
#4
Holly J Bowen, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Memory retrieval involves the reactivation of processes that were engaged at encoding. Using a Generalized Linear Model to test for effects of valence, our prior study suggests that memory for information previously encoded in a negative context reengages sensory processing regions at retrieval to a greater extent than positive. Here, we used partial least squares analyses of the same dataset to determine whether this valence-specific processing was one of the dominant patterns in the retrieval data. Trials previously paired with a face revealed a strong pattern of emotion that did not vary by valence, but for trials previously paired with a scene, an extensive network of regions was active during recollection of trials paired with negative content...
July 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723388/region-specific-impairments-in-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-social-isolation-reared-mice
#5
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Many neuropsychiatric disorders show localized dysfunction in specific cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying such region-specific vulnerabilities are unknown. Post-mortem analyses have demonstrated a selective reduction in the expression of parvalbumin (PV) in GABAergic interneurons in the frontal rather than the sensory cortex of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorders. PV neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), and are protected from oxidative stress...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#6
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723226/improving-the-quality-and-safety-of-frozen-muscle-foods-by-emerging-freezing-technologies-a-review
#7
Ximing Zhan, Da-Wen Sun, Zhiwei Zhu, Qi-Jin Wang
Freezing is one of the most widespread used preservation methods for meats including fish meat. Traditional freezing methods such as air blast freezing and cryogenic freezing could induce some quality deterioration such as damage to cell structure, increased drip loss and poor sensory value. Therefore, novel freezing methods have been developed to minimize the disadvantages of traditional freezing methods. This review describes the enhancement of quality attributes of muscle tissues frozen by novel freezing technologies, including high pressure freezing, electrically and magnetically assisted freezing, ultrasound assisted freezing and antifreeze protein...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722821/sensory-strategies-of-postural-sway-during-quiet-stance-in-patients-with-haemophilic-arthropathy
#8
C Cruz-Montecinos, C De la Fuente, G Rivera-Lillo, S Morales-Castillo, V Soto-Arellano, F Querol, S Pérez-Alenda
INTRODUCTION: The sensory strategies of postural control in adult haemophilic arthropathy patients are still poorly understood. AIM: To determine sensorial posture-control strategies through postural sway frequency analysis when in a bipedal quiet stance with and without visual stimulus deprivation in healthy subjects and patients with haemophilic arthropathy. Secondarily, to determine the irregularity of postural balance control through sample entropy (SampEn)...
July 19, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722782/development-of-blueberry-liquor-influence-of-distillate-sweetener-and-fruit-quantity
#9
Ilda Caldeira, Daniel Lopes, Teresa Delgado, Sara Canas, Ofélia Anjos
BACKGROUND: In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterized based on their physicochemical and sensory characteristics. RESULTS: Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722752/application-of-a-sensory-instrumental-tool-to-study-apple-texture-characteristics-shaped-by-altitude-and-time-of-harvest
#10
Mathilde Charles, Maria Laura Corollaro, Luigi Manfrini, Isabella Endrizzi, Eugenio Aprea, Angelo Zanella, Luca Corelli Grappadelli, Flavia Gasperi
BACKGROUND: Texture is important in the preferences of apple consumers. Of the pre-harvest factors affecting fruit quality and especially texture, altitude and subsequent climatic conditions are crucial, determining differences in the physiological mechanisms of fruit growth, ripening stage and chemical composition, as demonstrated by several studies. This work applies a detailed sensory-instrumental protocol developed in a previous paper(1) to investigate the impact of altitude, time of harvest and their cross-effect on sensory characteristics of apple, with a focus on texture...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#11
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722693/ikk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-satellite-glia-activation-induces-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-after-nerve-injury
#12
Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunkyoung Lee, Kyungchul Noh, Sung Joong Lee
Increasing evidence indicates that both microglia and satellite glial cell (SGC) activation play causal roles in neuropathic pain development after peripheral nerve injury; however, the activation mechanisms and their contribution to neuropathic pain remain elusive. To address this issue, we generated Ikkβ conditional knockout mice (Cnp-Cre/Ikkβ; cIkkβ) in which IKK/NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory SGC activation was abrogated. In these mice, nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and pain hypersensitivity were significantly attenuated compared to those in control mice...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722648/perspectives-on-the-pure-tone-audiogram
#13
REVIEW
Frank E Musiek, Jennifer Shinn, Gail D Chermak, Doris-Eva Bamiou
BACKGROUND: The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722535/persistence-of-mercury-induced-motor-and-sensory-neurotoxicity-systematic-review-of-workers-previously-exposed-to-mercury-vapor
#14
Cheryl A Fields, Jonathan Borak, Elan D Louis
Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) is a well-recognized neurotoxicant, but it is uncertain whether and for how long its neurotoxicity persists. Among studies that evaluated previously-exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure had ceased. The objective of this review is to create a series of 'synthetic' longitudinal studies to address the question of persistence of Hg(0) neurotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. We systematically reviewed studies describing objective motor and sensory effects in previously-exposed mercury workers...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722491/comparative-effectiveness-of-plantar-massage-techniques-on-postural-control-in-those-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#15
Erik A Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Ashley Lea, Nastassia Brown
CONTEXT:   One of the major concerns after an acute lateral ankle sprain is the potential for development of chronic ankle instability (CAI). The existing research has determined that clinician-delivered plantar massage improves postural control in those with CAI. However, the effectiveness of self-administered treatments and the underlying cause of any improvements remain unclear. OBJECTIVES:   To determine (1) the effectiveness of a self-administered plantar-massage treatment in those with CAI and (2) whether the postural-control improvements were due to the stimulation of the plantar cutaneous receptors...
July 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722281/collagen-organization-regulates-stretch-initiated-pain-related-neuronal-signals-in-vitro-implications-for-structure-function-relationships-in-innervated-ligaments
#16
Sijia Zhang, Sagar Singh, Beth A Winkelstein
Injury to the spinal facet capsule, an innervated ligament with heterogeneous collagen organization, produces pain. Although mechanical facet joint trauma activates embedded afferents, it is unclear if, and how, the varied extracellular microstructure of its ligament affects sensory transduction for pain from mechanical inputs. To investigate the effects of macroscopic deformations on afferents in collagen matrices with different organizations, an in vitro neuron-collagen construct (NCC) model was used. NCCs with either randomly organized or parallel aligned collagen fibers were used to mimic the varied microstructure in the facet capsular ligament...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722176/comparative-study-of-submerged-and-surface-culture-acetification-process-for-orange-vinegar
#17
Cristina Cejudo-Bastante, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Carmelo García-Barroso, Remedios Castro-Mejías
BACKGROUND: The two main acetification methodologies generally employed in the production of vinegar (surface and submerged cultures) were studied and compared for the production of orange vinegar. Polyphenols (UPLC/DAD) and volatiles compounds (SBSE-GC/MS) were considered as the main variables in the comparative study. Sensory characteristics of the obtained vinegars were also evaluated. RESULTS: Seventeen polyphenols and twenty four volatile compounds were determined in the samples during both acetification processes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722023/potential-involvement-of-impaired-bkca-channel-function-in-sensory-defensiveness-and-some-behavioral-disturbances-induced-by-unfamiliar-environment-in-a-mouse-model-of-fxs
#18
Maria Isabel Carreno-Munoz, Fabienne Martins, Maria Carmen Medrano, Elisabetta Aloisi, Susanna Pietropaolo, Corentin Dechaud, Enejda Subashi, Guillaume Bony, Melanie Ginger, Abdelmalik Moujahid, Andreas Frick, Xavier Leinekugel
In Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), sensory-hypersensitivity and impaired habituation is thought to result in attention overload and various behavioral abnormalities in reaction to the excessive and remanent salience of environment-features that would normally be ignored. This phenomenon, termed sensory defensiveness, has been proposed as the potential cause of hyperactivity, hyperarousal, and negative reactions to changes in routine that are often deleterious for FXS patients. However, the lack of tools for manipulating sensory-hypersensitivity has not allowed the experimental testing required to evaluate the relevance of this hypothesis...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722015/trpv1-regulates-excitatory-innervation-of-olm-neurons-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Joaquin I Hurtado-Zavala, Binu Ramachandran, Saheeb Ahmed, Rashi Halder, Christiane Bolleyer, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Robin J Wagener, Kristin Anderson, Ryan M Drenan, Henry A Lester, Julie M Miwa, Jochen F Staiger, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
TRPV1 is an ion channel activated by heat and pungent agents including capsaicin, and has been extensively studied in nociception of sensory neurons. However, the location and function of TRPV1 in the hippocampus is debated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in oriens-lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the hippocampus, and promotes excitatory innervation. TRPV1 knockout mice have reduced glutamatergic innervation of OLM neurons. When activated by capsaicin, TRPV1 recruits more glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, terminals to OLM neurons in vitro...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721518/illusory-visual-depth-reversal-can-modulate-sensations-of-contact-surface
#20
Yuka Igarashi, Keiko Omori, Tetsuya Arai, Yasunori Aizawa
To perceive the external world stably, humans must integrate and manage continuous streams of information from various sensory modalities, in addition to drawing on past experiences and knowledge. In this study, we introduce a novel visuo-tactile illusion elicited by a visual-depth-reversal stimulus. The stimulus (a model of a building) was constructed so as to produce the same retinal image as an opaque cuboid, although it actually consisted of only three PVC boards forming a three-dimensional corner with the hollow inside facing the observer...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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