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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#1
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 2, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535553/differences-in-pain-processing-between-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-recurrent-low-back-pain-and-fibromyalgia
#2
Dorien Goubert, Lieven Danneels, Thomas Graven-Nielsen, Filip Descheemaeker, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing in LBP remains ambiguous, partly due to the diversity in the LBP population...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535551/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-modulate-the-function-of-myelinated-fibers-after-chemotherapy-a-quantitative-sensory-testing-study
#3
Carlos J Roldan, Juhee Song, Mitchell P Engle, Patrick M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have sufficient scientific support for their use as tissue protectors. Preliminary studies suggest that their angiotensin-II type 2 receptor (AT2R)-blocking properties have a beneficial profile in the treatment of neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to quantify the extent of the somatosensory effects of ACEI and ARB in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535277/sensory-impairments-and-cognitive-function-in-middle-aged-adults
#4
Carla R Schubert, Karen J Cruickshanks, Mary E Fischer, Yanjun Chen, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, A Alex Pinto
Background: Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Methods: Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535116/is-mannitol-the-treatment-of-choice-for-patients-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#5
Michael E Mullins, Robert S Hoffman
CONTEXT: Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535097/comparative-effectiveness-of-plantar-massage-techniques-on-postural-control-in-those-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#6
Erik A Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Ashley Lea, Nastassia Brown
CONTEXT:   One of the major concerns after an acute lateral ankle sprain is the potential for development of chronic ankle instability (CAI). The existing research has determined that clinician-delivered plantar massage improves postural control in those with CAI. However, the effectiveness of self-administered treatments and the underlying cause of any improvements remain unclear. OBJECTIVES:   To determine (1) the effectiveness of a self-administered plantar-massage treatment in those with CAI as well and (2) whether the postural-control improvements were due to the stimulation of the plantar cutaneous receptors...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535050/model-studies-on-the-effect-of-aldehyde-structure-on-their-selective-trapping-by-phenolic-compounds
#7
Francisco J Hidalgo, Isabel Aguilar, Rosario Zamora
The reaction among flavor-relevant saturated aldehydes (propanal, 2-methylpropanal, butanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, and glyoxal) and phenolic compounds (resorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, 2,5-dimethylresorcinol, and orcinol) was studied both to identify and characterize the formed carbonyl-phenol adducts and to understand the differences in the carbonyl-trapping abilities of phenolic compounds. The obtained results showed that carbonyl-trapping by phenolics is selective and the formation of carbonyl-phenol adducts depends on the structure of both phenol and aldehyde involved...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534673/effects-of-preference-and-sensory-modality-on-behavioral-reaction-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#8
L Heine, B Tillmann, M Hauet, A Juliat, A Dubois, S Laureys, M Kandel, J Plailly, J Luauté, F Perrin
BACKGROUND: Reliable evaluation of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge. It has been suggested that the expression of residual cerebral function could be improved by allowing patients to listen to their favourite music. However, the potential effect of music on behavioural responsiveness, as well as the effect of preferred stimuli in other sensory modalities (e.g. olfaction), remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of sensory modality (auditory versus olfactory) and preference (preferred versus neutral) of the test stimuli on patients' subsequent performance on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R)...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#9
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534262/inflammatory-changes-in-paravertebral-sympathetic-ganglia-in-two-rat-pain-models
#10
Ai-Ling Li, Jing-Dong Zhang, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534141/touch-processing-and-social-behavior-in-asd
#11
Helga O Miguel, Adriana Sampaio, Rocío Martínez-Regueiro, Lorena Gómez-Guerrero, Cristina Gutiérrez López-Dóriga, Sonia Gómez, Ángel Carracedo, Montse Fernández-Prieto
Abnormal patterns of touch processing have been linked to core symptoms in ASD. This study examined the relation between tactile processing patterns and social problems in 44 children and adolescents with ASD, aged 6-14 (M = 8.39 ± 2.35). Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between touch processing and social problems. No such relationships were found for social problems and autism severity. Within touch processing, patterns of hyper-responsiveness and hypo-responsiveness best predicted social problems, whereas sensory-seeking did not...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534068/trust-in-haptic-assistance-weighting-visual-and-haptic-cues-based-on-error-history
#12
Tricia L Gibo, Winfred Mugge, David A Abbink
To effectively interpret and interact with the world, humans weight redundant estimates from different sensory cues to form one coherent, integrated estimate. Recent advancements in physical assistance systems, where guiding forces are computed by an intelligent agent, enable the presentation of augmented cues. It is unknown, however, if cue weighting can be extended to augmented cues. Previous research has shown that cue weighting is determined by the reliability (inversely related to uncertainty) of cues within a trial, yet augmented cues may also be affected by errors that vary over trials...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534048/the-first-report-of-cadasil-in-peru-olfactory-dysfunction-on-initial-presentation
#13
Anastasia Vishnevetsky, Miguel Inca-Martinez, Karina Milla-Neyra, Danny Moises Barrientos-Iman, Ivan Cornejo-Herrera, Carlos Cosentino, Mario Cornejo-Olivas
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare, heritable, small vessel vascular disease caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene that is characterized by migraines, subcortical vascular events, cognitive decline, and mood disturbances. However, many CADASIL cases present with unusual symptoms such as status epilepticus, a movement disorder, or sensory dysfunction. This study describes the clinical, genetic, and radiologic characteristics of a Peruvian family with CADASIL in which multiple family members presented with severe olfactory deficits...
December 2016: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534043/familiarity-detection-is-an-intrinsic-property-of-cortical-microcircuits-with-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity
#14
Xiaoyu Zhang, Han Ju, Trevor B Penney, Antonius M J VanDongen
Humans instantly recognize a previously seen face as "familiar." To deepen our understanding of familiarity-novelty detection, we simulated biologically plausible neural network models of generic cortical microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with random recurrent synaptic connections. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented to allow for unsupervised learning and bidirectional modifications. Network spiking activity evoked by sensory inputs consisting of face images altered synaptic efficacy, which resulted in the network responding more strongly to a previously seen face than a novel face...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#15
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533749/corrigendum-both-attention-and-prediction-are-necessary-for-adaptive-neuronal-tuning-in-sensory-processing
#16
Yi-Fang Hsu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Florian Waszak
[This corrects the article on p. 152 in vol. 8, PMID: 24723871.].
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533743/neonatal-hypoxia-ischaemia-mechanisms-models-and-therapeutic-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Lancelot J Millar, Lei Shi, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár
Neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is the most common cause of death and disability in human neonates, and is often associated with persistent motor, sensory, and cognitive impairment. Improved intensive care technology has increased survival without preventing neurological disorder, increasing morbidity throughout the adult population. Early preventative or neuroprotective interventions have the potential to rescue brain development in neonates, yet only one therapeutic intervention is currently licensed for use in developed countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533607/a-neurocognitive-approach-for-recovering-upper-extremity-movement-following-subacute-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#18
Laia Sallés, Patricia Martín-Casas, Xavier Gironès, María José Durà, José Vicente Lafuente, Carlo Perfetti
[Purpose] This study aims to describe a protocol based on neurocognitive therapeutic exercises and determine its feasibility and usefulness for upper extremity functionality when compared with a conventional protocol. [Subjects and Methods] Eight subacute stroke patients were randomly assigned to a conventional (control group) or neurocognitive (experimental group) treatment protocol. Both lasted 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 10 weeks and assessments were blinded. Outcome measures included: Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, Motricity Index, Revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment and Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533595/interrelationship-between-the-general-characteristics-of-korean-stroke-patients-and-the-variables-of-the-sexual-functions-random-forest-and-boosting-algorithm
#19
Jung-Gyu Yoon, Neda Zarayeneh, Sang C Suh
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine patient preferences for counseling related to sexuality post-stroke in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted on 200 stroke patients. Among the 200 submitted questionnaires, 156 responded but 147 cases are available. The questionnaire is composed of 27 questions such as 8 independent variables related to the general characteristics of the patients, 7 dependent variables in conjunction with sexual intercourse and changed muscle tone, 6 questions regarding to changed sexual function, and 6 questions about a changed motor and a sensory function after stroke...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533593/effects-of-repeated-vibratory-stimulation-of-wrist-and-elbow-flexors-on-hand-dexterity-strength-and-sensory-function-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#20
Won-Ho Choi
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions on dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 10 stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a) Experimental and b) Control, with five randomly selected subjects for each group. The experimental group received vibratory stimulation, while the control group received the traditional physical therapy...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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