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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#1
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646332/a-rational-approach-for-the-improvement-of-biomass-production-and-lipid-profile-in-cacao-cell-suspensions
#2
Adriana María Gallego Rúa, Luisa Fernanda Rojas, Aura Ines Urrea Trujillo, Oriana Parra Zuleta, Cristian David Correa Alvarez, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
Cocoa butter (CB) is produced in the seeds of Theobroma cacao representing 50% of its dry weight. The lipid composition plays an important role in the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of the CB, making this fat a valuable resource for the production of chocolates, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, are described experimental strategies used for a rational improvement of biomass production and fatty acids in cacao cell suspension cultures. First, the lipid profile in four cacao varieties is characterized, and then, one variety is selected to induce cell suspensions using a direct method without previous establishment of a callus phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#3
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646190/brain-to-brain-entrainment-eeg-interbrain-synchronization-while-speaking-and-listening
#4
Alejandro Pérez, Manuel Carreiras, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Electroencephalographic hyperscanning was used to investigate interbrain synchronization patterns in dyads of participants interacting through speech. Results show that brain oscillations are synchronized between listener and speaker during oral narratives. This interpersonal synchronization is mediated in part by a lower-level sensory mechanism of speech-to-brain synchronization, but also by the interactive process that takes place in the situation per se. These results demonstrate the existence of brain-to-brain entrainment which is not merely an epiphenomenon of auditory processing, during listening to one speaker...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645869/real-time-changes-in-brain-activity-during-sacral-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#5
Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro Berdichevsky, Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Thaddeus S Brink, Brian K Marks, Adrienne Quirouet, Sandip P Vasavada, Stephen E Jones, Howard B Goldman
PURPOSE: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) for identifying changes in brain activity during sacral neuromodulation(SNM) in women with overactive bladder(OAB) who were responsive to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with non-neurogenic refractory OAB who responded to SNM, had a stable program for at least 3 months, with no subsequent OAB treatment were recruited. Enrolled patients completed pre-fMRI validated symptom and quality of life instruments...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645749/a-population-of-g2-arrested-cells-are-selected-as-sensory-organ-precursors-for-the-interommatidial-bristles-of-the-drosophila-eye
#6
Joy H Meserve, Robert J Duronio
Cell cycle progression and differentiation are highly coordinated during the development of multicellular organisms. The mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated and how their coordination contributes to normal development are not fully understood. Here, we determine the developmental fate of a population of precursor cells in the developing Drosophila melanogaster retina that arrest in G2 phase of the cell cycle and investigate whether cell cycle phase-specific arrest influences the fate of these cells...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645748/developmental-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-neural-circuit-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta Tosches
No matter how a nervous system is genetically built, natural selection acts on the functional outcome of its activity. To understand how nervous systems evolve, it is essential to analyze how their functional units - the neural circuits - change and adapt over time. Different developmental and genetic mechanisms participate to the structural evolution of neural circuits. These mechanisms involve regulatory changes at the level of different gene sets. Functional constraints on neural circuit evolution suggest that these mechanisms are not employed randomly, and that the evolution of neuroanatomy might be biased...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645526/injury-induced-gp130-cytokine-signaling-in-peripheral-ganglia-is-reduced-in-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Jon P Niemi, Angela R Filous, Alicia DeFrancesco, Jane A Lindborg, Nisha A Malhotra, Gina N Wilson, Bowen Zhou, Samuel D Crish, Richard E Zigmond
Neuropathy is a major diabetic complication. While the mechanism of this neuropathy is not well-understood, it is believed to result in part from deficient nerve regeneration. Work from our laboratory established that gp130 family of cytokines are induced in animals after axonal injury and are involved in the induction of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and in the conditioning lesion response. Here, we examine whether a reduction of cytokine signaling occurs in diabetes. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to destroy pancreatic β cells, leading to chronic hyperglycemia...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644988/effect-of-marbling-on-volatile-generation-oral-breakdown-and-in-mouth-flavor-release-of-grilled-beef
#9
Damian Frank, Kornelia Kaczmarska, Janet Paterson, Udayasika Piyasiri, Robyn Warner
While the positive effect of intramuscular fat (IMF) on beef tenderness is well-established, its role in flavor generation and flavor release is less defined. To increase understanding, real-time volatile generation was monitored during grilling of beefsteaks (grass and grain-fed Angus and grass-fed Wagyu) with different amounts of IMF by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Volatile concentration increased significantly (p<0.001) when the IMF was >~10%, but did not differ (p>0.05) at lower IMF levels (5...
June 15, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644914/the-role-of-expectation-in-multisensory-body-representation-neural-evidence
#10
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Paola Pinti, Arcangelo Merla, Marcello Costantini
Sensory events contribute to body ownership, the feeling that the body belongs to me. However, the encoding of sensory events is not only reactive, but also proactive in that our brain generates prediction about forthcoming stimuli. In previous studies we have shown that prediction of sensory events is a sufficient condition to induce the sense of body ownership. In this study we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms. Participants were seated with their right arm resting upon a table just below another smaller table...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644883/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-high-concentrations-of-crude-glycerin-on-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-feedlot-fed-nellore-bulls
#11
Eric H C B van Cleef, André P D'Áurea, Vanessa R Fávaro, Flavia O S van Cleef, Robson S Barducci, Marco T C Almeida, Otávio R Machado Neto, Jane M B Ezequiel
Crude glycerin, the main by-product of biodiesel production, can replace dietary energy sources, such as corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% of crude glycerin in dry matter (DM) of the total diets, and its effects on meat quality parameters of feedlot Nellore bulls. Thirty animals (227.7 ± 23.8 kg body weight; 18 months old) were housed in individual pens and fed 5 experimental diets, containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30% crude glycerin (DM basis). After 103 d (21 d adaptation) animals were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#12
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644253/spectrum-of-autonomic-nervous-system-impairment-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#13
Brent P Goodman, Amy Crepeau, Priya S Dhawan, Julie A Khoury, Lucinda A Harris
OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of autonomic dysfunction in a uniformly evaluated cohort of patients with Sjögren syndrome. METHODS: A series of 13 patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation for suspected autonomic impairment, including a neurological examination, autonomic testing, and laboratory studies. A diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome was established as the cause of autonomic dysfunction in all. Clinical features, findings on autonomic testing, and laboratory results are described...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644199/structure-and-function-of-the-human-insula
#14
Lucina Q Uddin, Jason S Nomi, Benjamin Hébert-Seropian, Jimmy Ghaziri, Olivier Boucher
The insular cortex, or "Island of Reil," is hidden deep within the lateral sulcus of the brain. Subdivisions within the insula have been identified on the basis of cytoarchitectonics, sulcal landmarks, and connectivity. Depending on the parcellation technique used, the insula can be divided into anywhere between 2 and 13 distinct subdivisions. The insula subserves a wide variety of functions in humans ranging from sensory and affective processing to high-level cognition. Here, we provide a concise summary of known structural and functional features of the human insular cortex with a focus on lesion case studies and recent neuroimaging evidence for considerable functional heterogeneity of this brain region...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644160/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-targeted-therapies-for-migraine-and-cluster-headache-a-review
#15
Nathaniel M Schuster, Alan M Rapoport
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a signaling neuropeptide released from activated trigeminal sensory afferents in headache and facial pain disorders. There are a handful of CGRP-targeted therapies currently in phase 3 studies for migraine acute treatment or prevention. Currently, 4 monoclonal antibodies targeting either the CGRP ligand or receptor are being studied for migraine prevention: ALD403 (eptinezumab), AMG 334 (erenumab), LY2951742 (galcanezumab), and TEV-48125 (fremanezumab). Meanwhile, 1 small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonist (ubrogepant, MK-1602) is currently in phase 3 studies for the acute treatment of migraine...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644071/age-invariance-in-rapid-facial-affective-reactions-to-emotionally-valenced-stimuli
#16
Matthew R Nangle, Phoebe E Bailey, Julie D Henry, Georgina S Khlentzos, Kandice J Varcin, Alexis E Whitton
It has been suggested that an age-related positivity effect may only occur in the context of explicit information processing, but it is unclear whether this bias extends to the processing of rapid facial reactions. In addition, most studies that have looked for evidence of age-related implicit positivity have used attentional (as opposed to sensory) unawareness paradigms, or used broad-based indicators of attentional awareness that do not speak to the nature of the affective response. In the present study, younger and older adults were therefore asked to view non-facial images presented supraliminally (i...
June 23, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643802/optogenetic-rewiring-of-thalamocortical-circuits-to-restore-function-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#17
Kelly A Tennant, Stephanie L Taylor, Emily R White, Craig E Brown
To regain sensorimotor functions after stroke, surviving neural circuits must reorganize and form new connections. Although the thalamus is critical for processing and relaying sensory information to the cortex, little is known about how stroke affects the structure and function of these connections, or whether a therapeutic approach targeting these circuits can improve recovery. Here we reveal with in vivo calcium imaging that stroke in somatosensory cortex dampens the excitability of surviving thalamocortical circuits...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643576/sensory-organization-test-principally-reflects-utricular-function
#18
Jia Liu, Renhong Zhou, Bo Liu, Yangming Leng, Jingjing Liu, Dongdong Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that sensory organization test (SOT) could principally reflect utricular function, and our cut-score of VEST ratio (the indicator of inputs from the vestibular system in balance performance) in SOT could help to screen patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction in non-fallers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to know SOT reflects the function of which vestibular end organs and to assess the possibility of screening patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction in non-fall population by means of SOT...
June 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643417/congenital-deafness-affects-deep-layers-in-primary-and-secondary-auditory-cortex
#19
Christoph Berger, Daniela Kühne, Verena Scheper, A Kral
Congenital deafness leads to functional deficits in the auditory cortex for which early cochlear implantation can effectively compensate. Most of these deficits have been demonstrated functionally. Furthermore, the majority of previous studies on deafness have involved the primary auditory cortex; knowledge of higher-order areas is limited to effects of cross-modal reorganization. In this study, we compared the cortical cytoarchitecture of four cortical areas in adult hearing and congenitally deaf cats (CDCs): the primary auditory field A1, two secondary auditory fields, namely the dorsal zone (DZ) and second auditory field (A2); and a reference visual association field (area 7) in the same section stained either using Nissl or SMI-32 antibodies...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#20
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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