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Alireza Mousavi Majd, Forough Ebrahim Tabar, Arghavan Afghani, Sahand Ashrafpour, Samaneh Dehghan, Mohammad Gol, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein
Cognitive impairment and memory deficit are common features in multiple Sclerosis patients. The mechanism of memory impairment in MS is unknown, but neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal demyelination is involved. Here, we investigate the role of GABA A receptor on spatial memory in the local model of hippocampal demyelination. Demyelination was induced in male Wistar rats by bilaterally injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 1% into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The treatment groups were received daily intraventricular injection of bicuculline (0...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
M Agiela
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a common demylinating and inflamatory disease of the CNS with a presumed autoimmune etiology. Interferon β have been used for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis through its regulatory properties on T-cell activation and cytokines production. OBJECTIVES: During the war Benghazi-Libya (17 February 2011 revolution) multiple sclerosis patients have got stopped β interferon because unavailability of drugs which allow to evaluate the efficacy of β interferon on relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis regarding frequency and severity of relapses during months of stopping it...
November 2014: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
S K Kritas, A Saggini, G Cerulli, A Caraffa, P Antinolfi, A Pantalone, M Rosati, M Tei, A Speziali, R Saggini, A Frydas, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) derive from a distinct precursor in the bone marrow and are predominantly found in tissues at the interface between the host and the external environment where they can secrete mediators without overt degranulation. Mast cells mature under local tissue microenvironmental factors and are necessary for the development of allergic reactions, through crosslinking of their surface receptors for IgE (FcεRI), leading to degranulation and the release of vasoactive, pro-inflammatory and nociceptive mediators that include histamine, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes...
July 2014: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Zaki N Hasan, Haider H Zalzala, Hyam R Mohammedsalih, Batool M Mahdi, Laheeb A Abid, Zena N Shakir, Maithem J Fadhel
OBJECTIVE: To find an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 alleles frequencies in a sample of Iraqi patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and compare with a healthy control group. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study consisting of 30 Iraqi Arab patients with GBS attending the Neurological Department in the Neuroscience Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq between September 2012 and June 2013. The control group comprised 42 apparently healthy volunteers...
October 2014: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Ranjit Hazarika
Organophosphate pesticide phosphomedon was exposed to albino rat at a concentration of 35 ppm in the time interval of 30, 45 and 60 days. During the exposure period neurobehavioral symptoms such as reduce food intake, weight loss, increase water intake, low defecation frequency, increase locomotion frequency at high dose were observed. Locomotion frequency were less initially but higher in increasing dose concentration. The result was also different in both the sexes. A decrease social interaction and increase force swimming with increasing dose concentration, which was not significant as comparison to control...
March 2014: Journal of Environmental Biology
Bruno Mattos Coutinho, Osvaldo José Moreira Nascimento, Marcos Raimundo de Freitas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Erin Harberts, Dibyadeep Datta, Selby Chen, Jillian E Wohler, Unsong Oh, Steven Jacobson
Translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is a marker of inflammation in the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with ligands for this receptor show increased expression of TSPO in many neuropathologic conditions. However, expression of TSPO in the periphery and its possible correlation to central nervous system (CNS) inflammation has been largely unstudied. In this paper PBR28, a recently synthesized ligand for TSPO that is shown to have 80-fold higher specific binding than its predecessor PK11195, is used to quantify peripheral TSPO...
March 2013: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Kirit Pindolia, Jieli Chen, Cisley Cardwell, Xu Cui, Michael Chopp, Barry Wolf
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous abnormalities. We have developed a transgenic knock-out mouse with biotinidase deficiency to better understand aspects of pathophysiology and natural history of the disorder in humans. Neurological deficits observed in symptomatic mice with biotinidase deficiency are similar to those seen in symptomatic children with the disorder. Using a battery of functional neurological assessment tests, the symptomatic mice performed poorly compared to wild-type mice...
September 2012: Neurobiology of Disease
Satish V Khadilkar, Shrikant S Deshmukh, Pramod D Dhonde
The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy), sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy), exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy) and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy) constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients...
April 2011: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Fenghua Lan, Zhihong Wang, Longfeng Ke, Haihua Xie, Lianghu Huang, Huijuan Huang, Xiangdong Tu, Dezhu Zheng, Jian Zeng, Huizhong Li, Na Xin, Bosheng Yang
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disease characterized by progressive demylination of the brain, adrenal insufficiency and elevated VLCFA level. ABCD1gene is the disease gene and more than 500 unique mutations in the ABCD1gene have been recorded in the database, approximately 60% of which are noncurrent ones. Although great progress has been made in the treatment of X-ALD, prenatal diagnosis is still badly needed by X-ALD-stricken families...
December 14, 2010: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
D Rajasekaran, G Subbaraghavalu, P Jayapandian
Acute manifestations of Organophosphate Compound (OPC) poison are due to effect cholinergic excess. Others are intermediate syndrome [IMS], organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy [OPIND] and chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorder [COPIND]. All these manifestation have specific period of occurrence and duration. There are very sparse reports of toxic demylination due to OPC poisoning. We report a case of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) due to toxic demyelination following OPC poison.
October 2009: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Zhixing Hu, Tianqing Li, Xiuzhen Zhang, Yongchang Chen
Generation of homogeneous oligodendrocytes as donor cells is essential for human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based cell therapy for demylinating diseases. Herein we present a novel method for efficiently obtaining mature oligodendrocytes from hESCs with high purity (79.7+/-6.9%), using hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and G5 supplement (containing insulin, transferrin, selenite, biotin, hydrocortisone, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor) in a four-step method. We induced hESCs into neural progenitors (NP) with HGF (5ng/ml) and G5 (1x) supplemented medium in an adherent differentiation system...
September 2009: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Adel Mohamed, H M Waris, H Ramadan, M Quereshi, J Kalra
Axonal damage, demylination and inflammation of the central nervous system are the major pathological features of the human multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is thought to be due to abnormal T cell mediated immune response. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the advancement of MS. The management of oxidative stress by outlining central role of reduced glutathione. In our experiment we used Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model that mimic human MS and tested the effect of Thymoquinone (TQ), an oil constituent of Nigella Sativa also known as black seed...
2009: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Kurt E Weaver, Todd L Richards, Olivia Liang, Mercy Y Laurino, Ali Samii, Elizabeth H Aylward
Serial diffusion tensor imaging scans were collected at baseline and 1 year follow-up to investigate the neurodegenerative profile of white matter (WM) in seven individuals with the Huntington's Disease (HD) gene mutation and seven control subjects matched on age and gender. In the HD subjects, but not controls, a significant reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM integrity, between baseline and followup was evident throughout the brain. In addition, a DTI scalar associated with the stability of axons, axial diffusivity, showed significant longitudinal decreases from year 1 to year 2 in HD subjects, declines that overlapped to greater degree with FA discrepancies than longitudinal increases in radial diffusivity, a DTI variable sensitive to demylinization...
April 2009: Experimental Neurology
John W Young, John N Fink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2009: New Zealand Medical Journal
Shivani Lamba, Veerasamy Ravichandran, Eugene O Major
14-3-3 Isoforms are shown to be upregulated or accumulated in the glial cells of autopsied patient brains affected with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demylinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV). The possible involvement of 14-3-3 in JCV tropism, however, has never been examined. To investigate a potential relationship between 14-3-3 isoforms and JCV in vitro, we examined the localization of six 14-3-3 isoforms in human neural progenitors and progenitor-derived astrocytes (PDAs) in cells without JCV exposure...
July 2009: Glia
Alireza Nikseresht, Mohammad Ali Azizi, Behrouz Gharesi-Fard, Eskandar Kamali Sarvestani
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the most common demylinating disease of the CNS, is immunologically mediated in genetically susceptible individuals. Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG (FcgammaR) might induce inflammatory responses through linking the humoral and cellular immune responses by targeting immune complexes to effector cells. Polymorphisms in some FcgammaR genes are associated with various infectious and autoimmune diseases, probably due to their effects on different binding capacities of encoded receptors for IgG containing immune complexes...
September 2006: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
S Rizvi
Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory and degenerative disorder involving the central nervous system. It primarily affects young adults and may result in significant long-term disability. The most common initial presentation is relapsing remitting, followed by a chronic progressive course. In a small number of patients the disease tends to be progressive from onset. Multiple sclerosis has traditionally been described as a demylinating disorder. There is now overwhelming evidence pointing to a very significant degenerative component...
December 2007: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Yingyun Cai, Yin Liu, Xuming Zhang
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) causes encephalitis and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible rodents. Astrocytes are one of the major targets for MHV infection in the CNS, and respond to MHV infection by expressing diverse molecules that may contribute to CNS pathogenesis. Here we characterized the activation of an immediate-early transcription factor Egr-1 by MHV infection in an astrocytoma cell line. We found that the expression of Egr-1 was dramatically increased following virus infection...
November 25, 2006: Virology
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