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Ulrike H Mitchell, J Daniel Obray, Erik Hunsaker, Brandon T Garcia, Travis J Clarke, Sandra Hope, Scott C Steffensen
Objective/Background: Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a dopamine-dependent disorder characterized by a strong urge to move. The objective of this study was to evalulate blood levels of dopamine and other catecholamines and blood D2-subtype dopamine receptors (D2Rs) in RLS. Patients/Methods: Dopamine levels in blood samples from age-matched unmedicated RLS subjects, medicated RLS subjects and Controls were evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography and dopamine D2R white blood cell (WBC) expression levels were determined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kaicheng Li, Bing Cai, Changlin Li, Xu Zhang
Noxious stimuli cause pain by activating cutaneous nociceptors. The Aδ- and C-fibers of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey the nociceptive signals to the laminae I-II of spinal cord. In the dorsal horn of spinal cord, the excitatory afferent synaptic transmission is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and modulators such as opioid peptides released from the spinal interneurons, and by serotonin, norepinepherine and dopamine from the descending inhibitory system. In contrast to the accumulated evidence for these central inhibitors and their neural circuits in the dorsal spinal cord, the knowledge about the endogenous suppressive mechanisms in nociceptive DRG neurons remains very limited...
June 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
Ann Petro, Hannah G Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H Freedman, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning and potentiated the learning impairment caused by developmental mercury exposure. The current study examined the neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of MTKO with the developmental copper (Cu) supplementation. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and MTKO mice were given supplemental Cu (0, 10 or 50 mg/l) in their drinking water during gestation and until weaning...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Edward D Levin, Brandon J Hall, Autri Chattopadhyay, Susan Slade, Corinne Wells, Amir H Rezvani, Jed E Rose
RATIONALE: Chronic nicotine infusion via transdermal patches has been widely shown to assist with smoking cessation. In particular, transdermal nicotine treatment prior to quitting smoking helps reduce ad libitum smoking and aids cessation Rose et al. (Nicotine Tob Res 11:1067-75, 2009). However, despite this success, the majority of smokers who use transdermal nicotine fail to permanently quit smoking. Additional treatments are needed. Tobacco addiction does not just depend on nicotinic receptor systems; a variety of neural systems are involved, including dopamine, norepinepherine, serotonin, and histamine...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kara E Hannibal, Mark D Bishop
Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success...
December 2014: Physical Therapy
Suneel Kumar, Suman Jain, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Yury Petrovich Gerasimenko, Valery D Avelev, Jitendra Behari, Madhuri Behari, Rashmi Mathur
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is unequivocally reported to produce hyperalgesia to phasic stimuli, while both hyper- and hypoalgesia to tonic stimuli. The former is spinally mediated and the latter centrally. Besides, its management is unsatisfactory. We report the effect of magnetic field (MF; 17.96 μT, 50 Hz) on tonic pain behavior and related neurotransmitters in the brain of complete thoracic (T13) SCI rats at week 8. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into Sham, SCI and SCI+MF groups. Formalin-pain behavior was compared utilizing 5 min block pain rating (PR), 60 min session-PR, time spent in various categories of increasing pain (T0-T3) and flinch incidences...
December 2013: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
K Aftab, Atta-Ur-Rahman, K Usmanghani
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Syn. Carum copticum (L.) Bth. (Apiaceae) is locally known as Ajowan. Bioassay-directed fractionation of Trachyspermum ammi has resulted in the isolation of thymol which is present in other plants as well. However, its action on blood pressure has not been studied so far. In anaesthetized rats, thymol (1-10mg/kg) produced dose-dependent fall in blood pressure and heart rate. These effects were not blocked by atropine (1 mg/kg) and thymol did not modify presser response of norepinepherine, which rules out the possibility of cholinergic stimulation or adrenergic blockade...
July 1995: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
M Febin Farook, Michael DeCuypere, Keith Hyland, Toru Takumi, Mark S LeDoux, Lawrence T Reiter
Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders like Angelman syndrome and autism may be the result of underlying defects in neuronal plasticity and ongoing problems with synaptic signaling. Some of these defects may be due to abnormal monoamine levels in different regions of the brain. Ube3a, a gene that causes Angelman syndrome (AS) when maternally deleted and is associated with autism when maternally duplicated has recently been shown to regulate monoamine synthesis in the Drosophila brain. Therefore, we examined monoamine levels in striatum, ventral midbrain, frontal cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and hippocampus in Ube3a deficient and Ube3a duplication animals...
2012: PloS One
Hanan Sayed Mohamed Farghaly, Ahmed Osman Abdel-Zaher, Mostafa Galal Mostafa, Hassan Ibrahim Kotb
The analgesic effect of acute i.p. administration of amitriptyline (norepinepherine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor), clomipramine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and desipramine (norepinepherine reuptake inhibitor) was studied in chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of sciatic nerve in rats and mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were also investigated. Acute treatment with amitriptyline and clomipramine produced antinociceptive effects after sciatic nerve injury and blockade of norepinephrine reuptake using desipramine did not demonstrate antinociceptive effects...
August 15, 2012: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Nadia M Hamdy, Lamiaa El-Wakeel, Salwa M Suwailem
The EGF-R, also known as HER-1 or erbB-1 (EGF-R/HER-1/erbB-1), is a member of the human epithelial receptor tyrosine kinase family. sEGF-R is considered to play a role in cardiac (patho)physiology. We aimed to investigate whether soluble EGF-R is increased in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients and if related to disease severity. Soluble EGF-R, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) was studied, and being evaluated in relation to Ca(2+), lipids, hsCRP, fibrinogen, serotonin, norepinepherine (NE). The study compared non-smoker, non-obese male CHF patients (n = 50) with age and gender-matched essential hypertension (HTN) patients (n = 20)...
April 2011: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Xiaofei Wang, Yanzhou Zhang, Jun Bu, Linghong Shen, Ben He
The effects of testosterone on norepinephrine release were investigated in the isolated rat hearts. Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=120) were randomized to testosterone and control groups. The rats in testosterone group were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing different concentrations of testosterone (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 nmol/L, respectively). Myocardial ischemia was induced by globally stopping the perfusion flow. Exocytotic norepinephrine release was induced by electrical field stimulation at 5 V (effective voltage) and 6 Hz (pulse width of 2 ms) for 1 min...
February 2012: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Damiyon Sledge, Jerry Yen, Terrell Morton, Laura Dishaw, Ann Petro, Susan Donerly, Elwood Linney, Edward D Levin
Developmental exposure of rats to the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent neurobehavioral impairment. In a parallel series of studies with zebrafish, we have also found persisting behavioral dysfunction after developmental CPF exposure. We have developed a battery of measures of zebrafish behavior, which are reliable and sensitive to toxicant-induced damage. This study determined the critical duration of developmental CPF exposure for causing persisting neurobehavioral effects. Tests of sensorimotor response (tap startle response and habituation), stress response (novel tank diving test) and learning (3-chamber tank spatial discrimination) were conducted with adult zebrafish after early developmental CPF exposure...
November 2011: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Edward D Levin, Damiyon Sledge, Stephanie Roach, Ann Petro, Susan Donerly, Elwood Linney
As more adults take the stimulant medication methylphenidate to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) residual type, the risk arises with regard to exposure during early development if people taking the medication become pregnant. We studied the neurobehavioral effects of methylphenidate in zebrafish. Zebrafish offer cellular reporter systems, continuous visual access and molecular interventions such as morpholinos to help determine critical mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral teratogenicity...
November 2011: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
M Patricia Ball, Kimberly R Warren, Stephanie Feldman, Robert P McMahon, Deanna L Kelly, Robert W Buchanan
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have examined ways to prevent or treat weight gain in people receiving second-generation antipsychotics. While there has been some success, in general, results have not been compelling. Atomoxetine is a selective norepinepherine reuptake inhibitor found to be associated with appetite suppression. Therefore, we examined whether atomoxetine may be of benefit for those who have gained weight on either clozapine or olanzapine...
April 2011: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Kevin Y Zhu, Qiang Fu, K Wing Leung, Zack C F Wong, Roy C Y Choi, Karl W K Tsim
An effective way to determine the amount of different neurotransmitters is vital to the study of brain function. Here, a highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously measure γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinepherine, glutamate and serotonin in one sample. The quantification of the neurotransmitters was achieved by a tandem mass spectrometer using the selected reaction monitoring scan mode. The method validation included selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, recovery and matrix effect...
April 1, 2011: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Lila Mayahi, Lydia Mason, Katherine Bleasdale-Barr, Ann Donald, Iris Trender-Gerhard, Mary G Sweeney, Mary B Davis, Nicholas Wood, Christopher J Mathias, Laura Watson, Denis Pellerin, Simon Heales, John E Deanfield, Kailash Bhatia, Judith Murray-Rust, Aroon D Hingorani
BACKGROUND: (6R)-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-l-biopterin (BH4) is a cofactor for enzymes involved in catecholamine and nitric oxide generation whose synthesis is initiated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-1), encoded by GCH1. In the absence of a potent, specific GTPCH-1 inhibitor, natural BH4 deficiency caused by mutations in GCH1 in the rare movement disorder, DOPA-responsive dystonia (OMIM DYT5), offers the opportunity to study the role of endogenous BH4 in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 DOPA-responsive dystonia patients with mutations predicted to affect GTPCH-1 expression or function and in age- and sex-matched control subjects, we measured plasma biopterin and nitrogen oxides by high-performance liquid chromatography and the Griess reaction, respectively, endothelial function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), sympathetic function by measurement of plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, and heart rate and blood pressure in response...
December 2010: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
G Killian
The mammalian oviduct has long been recognized as an organ essential for successful reproduction. Bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine animal models have offered clear advantages for oviduct study related to gamete physiology, fertilization, and early embryonic development. Livestock species are amenable to surgical alteration of the reproductive tract, estrous cycle manipulation, gamete cryopreservation, and AI, as well as in vitro fertilization and embryo production. Although most reproductive technology developed for livestock was intended to benefit production animal agriculture, these techniques are a treasure trove of tools for researchers to better understand how the oviduct influences gamete function...
May 2011: Journal of Animal Science
Anthony R White, Sungwoo Ryoo, Lukasz Bugaj, David O Attarzadeh, Srikanth Thiyagarajan, Kexun Chen, Sarah Attwater, Bryce Abbot, Dechun Li, Hunter C Champion, Artin A Shoukas, Daniel Nyhan, Joshua M Hare, Dan E Berkowitz, Eric C Tuday
Emerging evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of vascular hyporesponsiveness contributing to microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance. The cellular and enzymatic source of the NO, however, remains controversial. In addition, the time course of the endothelial-dependent contribution remains unstudied. We tested the hypotheses that the change in vasoresponsiveness seen in acute (3-day) hindlimb unweighted (HLU) animals is due to an endothelium-dependent mechanism and that endothelial-dependent attenuation in vasoreactivity is due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) dependent activation...
September 2010: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ateegh Al-Arabi, J F Andrews
NPY has been reported to co-exist within catecholaminergic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional significance in noradrenergic neurons has been related to the vasomotor effects of NPY which complement and interact with NE which is known to have central and peripheral effects on resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake and body weight of rats. We have studied the effect of chronic peripheral administration of NPY on the metabolic action of NE in lean and obese adult male rats...
2010: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Rachel Navarra, Radka Graf, Youping Huang, Sheree Logue, Thomas Comery, Zoe Hughes, Mark Day
Deficits in attention and response inhibition are apparent across several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders for which current pharmacotherapy is inadequate. The 5-choice serial reaction time test (5-CSRTT), which originated from the continuous performance test (CPT) in humans, may serve as a useful translational assay for efficacy in these key behavioral domains. The selective norepinepherine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, represents the first non-stimulant based drug approved for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and has replaced methylphenidate (Ritalin) as the first line in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of ADHD...
January 1, 2008: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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