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Denis G Knyazev, Roland Kuttner, Mirjam Zimmermann, Ekaterina Sobakinskaya, Peter Pohl
This review focusses on the energetics of protein translocation via the Sec translocation machinery. First we complement structural data about SecYEG's conformational rearrangements by insight obtained from functional assays. These include measurements of SecYEG permeability that allow assessment of channel gating by ligand binding and membrane voltage. Second we will discuss the power stroke and Brownian ratcheting models of substrate translocation and the role that the two models assign to the putative driving forces: (i) ATP (SecA) and GTP (ribosome) hydrolysis, (ii) interaction with accessory proteins, (iii) membrane partitioning and folding, (iv) proton motive force (PMF), and (v) entropic contributions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
O Awodele, O E Kale, A O Odewabi, M Ekor, B A Salau, A O Adefule-Ositelu
Background: The global increase in acceptance and use of herbal remedies in recent times is still accompanied with poor knowledge of their potential adverse effects and the toxicological implications of their use are underestimated. Methods: Bon-santé Cleanser® (BSC), a polyherbal containing Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia ivorensis, Massularia acuminate and Macuna pruriens, is an "energizer and hormone booster". We assessed the effect of BSC on reproductive function after administration for 60 days in male Wistar rats...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
L L Pavlik, I B Mikheeva, Ya M Al'-Mugkhrabi, V P Berest, Yu I Kirova, E L Germanova, L D Luk'yanova, G D Mironova
We performed ultrastructural study of cerebral cortex mitochondria in rats with different tolerance to oxygen deficiency (low resistant and highly resistant specimens). Low resistant rats were characterized by the prevalence of mitochondria with lightened matrix due to the nondense packing of cristae. By contrast, mitochondria of highly resistant animals had the dense packing of cristae. The structure of mitochondria underwent adaptive changes at 14-10% O2 in the inspired air. Under these conditions, structural characteristics of the cerebral cortex in hypoxia-sensitive rats resembled those in resistant animals...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Zuliang Wu, Zhoubin Zhu, Xiaodong Hao, Weili Zhou, Jingyi Han, Xiujuan Tang, Shuiliang Yao, Xuming Zhang
Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO2/diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO2/diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and COx selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%)...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sharon Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nursing Management
Vijaykumar Chennupati, Werner Held
The regulatory mechanisms governing T cell exhaustion remain incompletely understood. Man et al. (2017) and Wu et al. (2017) report that the T cell receptor responsive transcription factor Irf4 promotes T cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection but dampens exhaustion in response to tissue allografts.
December 19, 2017: Immunity
Mário J Ferreira, Aristides L Mendes, Isabel de Sá-Nogueira
Carbohydrates from plant cell walls are often found as heteropolysaccharides intertwined with each other. For competitive advantage against other microorganisms, and ability to fully exploit available carbon and energy sources, Bacillus subtilis possesses a high number of proteins dedicated to the uptake of mono- and oligosaccharides. Here, we characterize transporter complexes, belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, involved in the uptake of oligosaccharides commonly found in pectin. The uptake of these carbohydrates is shown to be MsmX-dependent, assigning a key role in pectin mobilization for MsmX, a multipurpose ATPase serving several distinct ABC-type I sugar importers...
2017: PloS One
Lizhi Zhang, Nenggui Xu
Inverted horse acupuncture (acupuncture with three needles) at Hegu (LI 4) is different from triple needling, a traditional needling method. Based on DONG's warming yang and tonifying qi by simultaneous acu-puncture at Linggu (Extra) and Dabai (Extra), we palpate points along the large intestine meridian of hand-yangming, and Linggu (Extra), Hegu (LI 4), and Dabai (Extra) are pricked perpendicularly to smooth triple energizer directly. Thus, functions of zangfu organs are holistically adjusted and clinical effect is better...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Fereshteh Heidari Tajabadi, Arturo Medrano-Soto, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Milton H Saier
Bdellovibrio, δ-proteobacteria, including B. bacteriovorus (Bba) and B. exovorus (Bex), are obligate predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. While Bba grows in the periplasm of the prey cell, Bex grows externally. We have analyzed and compared the transport proteins of these 2 organisms based on the current contents of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; Bba has 103 transporters more than Bex, 50% more secondary carriers, and 3 times as many MFS carriers. Bba has far more metabolite transporters than Bex as expected from its larger genome, but there are 2 times more carbohydrate uptake and drug efflux systems, and 3 times more lipid transporters...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jessica A Klein, Jesse R Grenz, James M Slauch, Leigh A Knodler
The Salmonella invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS1) is an essential virulence factor required for entry into nonphagocytic cells and consequent uptake into a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). While Salmonella is typically regarded as a vacuolar pathogen, a subset of bacteria escape from the SCV in epithelial cells and eventually hyperreplicate in the cytosol. T3SS1 is downregulated following bacterial entry into mammalian cells, but cytosolic Salmonella cells are T3SS1 induced, suggesting prolonged or resurgent activity of T3SS1 in this population...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Nathan Duong, Hailey Davis, Paula D Robinson, Sapna Oberoi, Danielle Cataudella, S Nicole Culos-Reed, Faith Gibson, Miriam Götte, Pamela Hinds, Sanne L Nijhof, Deborah Tomlinson, Patrick van der Torre, Elena Ladas, Sandra Cabral, L Lee Dupuis, Lillian Sung
PURPOSE: To determine whether non-physical activity mind and body practices reduce the severity of fatigue in patients with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients compared to control interventions. METHODS: We included randomized trials which compared non-physical activity mind and body practices compared with control interventions for the management of fatigue in cancer and HSCT patients. RESULTS: Among 55 trials (4975 patients), interventions were acupuncture or acupressure (n=12), mindfulness (n=11), relaxation techniques (n=10), massage (n=6), energy therapy (n=5), energizing yogic breathing (n=3) and others (n=8)...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Daniel P Zaleski, Lawrence B Harding, Stephen J Klippenstein, Branko Ruscic, Kirill Prozument
Chirped-pulse Fourier transform millimeter-wave spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool for studying chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics. Branching ratios of multiple reaction products and intermediates can be measured with unprecedented chemical specificity: molecular isomers, conformers and vibrational states have distinct rotational spectra. Here we demonstrate chirped-pulse spectroscopy of vinyl cyanide photoproducts in a flow-tube reactor at ambient temperature of 295 K and pressures of 1-10 µbar...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Nature
Gašper Kokot, Shibananda Das, Roland G Winkler, Gerhard Gompper, Igor S Aranson, Alexey Snezhko
Colloidal particles subject to an external periodic forcing exhibit complex collective behavior and self-assembled patterns. A dispersion of magnetic microparticles confined at the air-liquid interface and energized by a uniform uniaxial alternating magnetic field exhibits dynamic arrays of self-assembled spinners rotating in either direction. Here, we report on experimental and simulation studies of active turbulence and transport in a gas of self-assembled spinners. We show that the spinners, emerging as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking of clock/counterclockwise rotation of self-assembled particle chains, generate vigorous vortical flows at the interface...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mengliang Niu, Yuan Huang, Shitao Sun, Jingyu Sun, Haishun Cao, Sergey Shabala, Zhilong Bie
Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Xile Wei, Yao Li, Meili Lu, Jiang Wang, Guosheng Yi
Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volker Müller, Verena Hess
Some anaerobic archaea and bacteria live on substrates that do not allow the synthesis of one mol of ATP per mol of substrate via substrate level phosphorylation (SLP). Energy conservation in these cases is only possible by a chemiosmotic mechanism that involves the generation of an electrochemical ion gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane that then drives ATP synthesis via an ATP synthase. The minimal amount of energy required for ATP synthesis is thus dependent on the magnitude of the electrochemical ion gradient, the phosphorylation potential in the cell and the ion/ATP ratio of the ATP synthase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gašper Kokot, German V Kolmakov, Igor S Aranson, Alexey Snezhko
We demonstrate experimentally and in computer simulations that magnetic microfloaters can self-organize into various functional structures while energized by an external alternating (ac) magnetic field. The structures exhibit self-propelled motion and an ability to carry a cargo along a pre-defined path. The morphology of the self-assembled swimmers is controlled by the frequency and amplitude of the magnetic field.
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xingwen Yu, Arumugam Manthiram
Electrode-electrolyte interfacial properties play a vital role in the cycling performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The issues at an electrode-electrolyte interface include electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring at the interface, formation mechanism of interfacial layers, compositional/structural characteristics of the interfacial layers, ionic transport across the interface, and thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors at the interface. Understanding the above critical issues is paramount for the development of strategies to enhance the overall performance of Li-S batteries...
November 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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