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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922018/non-thermal-hydrogen-atoms-in-the-terrestrial-upper-thermosphere
#1
Jianqi Qin, Lara Waldrop
Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911552/relativistic-electrons-produced-by-foreshock-disturbances-observed-upstream-of-earth-s-bow-shock
#2
L B Wilson, D G Sibeck, D L Turner, A Osmane, D Caprioli, V Angelopoulos
Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-large-scale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (∼5-10  per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M>40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1≤M<20) bow shock...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902924/simple-mechanisms-of-early-life-simulation-model-on-the-origin-of-semi-cells
#3
Adrian Klein, Martin Bock, Wolfgang Alt
The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions...
November 27, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899503/postreplication-roles-of-the-brucella-virb-type-iv-secretion-system-uncovered-via-conditional-expression-of-the-virb11-atpase
#4
Erin P Smith, Cheryl N Miller, Robert Child, Jennifer A Cundiff, Jean Celli
: Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS)...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867796/highly-relativistic-radiation-belt-electron-acceleration-transport-and-loss-large-solar-storm-events-of-march-and-june-2015
#5
D N Baker, A N Jaynes, S G Kanekal, J C Foster, P J Erickson, J F Fennell, J B Blake, H Zhao, X Li, S R Elkington, M G Henderson, G D Reeves, H E Spence, C A Kletzing, J R Wygant
Two of the largest geomagnetic storms of the last decade were witnessed in 2015. On 17 March 2015, a coronal mass ejection-driven event occurred with a Dst (storm time ring current index) value reaching -223 nT. On 22 June 2015 another strong storm (Dst reaching -204 nT) was recorded. These two storms each produced almost total loss of radiation belt high-energy (E ≳ 1 MeV) electron fluxes. Following the dropouts of radiation belt fluxes there were complex and rather remarkable recoveries of the electrons extending up to nearly 10 MeV in kinetic energy...
July 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867795/magnetic-reconnection-in-saturn-s-magnetotail-a-comprehensive-magnetic-field-survey
#6
A W Smith, C M Jackman, M F Thomsen
Reconnection within planetary magnetotails is responsible for locally energizing particles and changing the magnetic topology. Its role in terms of global magnetospheric dynamics can involve changing the mass and flux content of the magnetosphere. We have identified reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data recorded during Cassini's exploration of Saturn's magnetotail. The events are identified from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, significant above a background level...
April 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860544/car-t-cell-therapy-for-solid-tumors
#7
Kheng Newick, Shaun O'Brien, Edmund Moon, Steven M Albelda
The field of cancer immunotherapy has been re-energized by the application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in cancers. These CAR T cells are engineered to express synthetic receptors that redirect polyclonal T cells to surface antigens for subsequent tumor elimination. Many CARs are designed with elements that augment T cell persistence and activity. To date, CAR T cells have demonstrated tremendous success in eradicating hematologic malignancies (e.g., CD19 CARs in leukemias). However, this success has yet to be extrapolated to solid tumors, and the reasons for this are being actively investigated...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821609/structure-and-mechanism-of-the-atp-synthase-membrane-motor-inferred-from-quantitative-integrative-modeling
#8
Vanessa Leone, José D Faraldo-Gómez
Two subunits within the transmembrane domain of the ATP synthase-the c-ring and subunit a-energize the production of 90% of cellular ATP by transducing an electrochemical gradient of H(+) or Na(+) into rotational motion. The nature of this turbine-like energy conversion mechanism has been elusive for decades, owing to the lack of definitive structural information on subunit a or its c-ring interface. In a recent breakthrough, several structures of this complex were resolved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), but the modest resolution of the data has led to divergent interpretations...
December 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816676/modeling-the-light-induced-electric-potential-difference-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-the-ph-difference-%C3%AE-ph-and-the-proton-motive-force-across-the-thylakoid-membrane-in-c3-leaves
#9
Hui Lyu, Dušan Lazár
A model was constructed which includes electron transport (linear and cyclic and Mehler type reaction) coupled to proton translocation, counter ion movement, ATP synthesis, and Calvin-Benson cycle. The focus is on modeling of the light-induced total electric potential difference (ΔΨ) which in this model originates from the bulk phase electric potential difference (ΔΨb), the localized electric potential difference (ΔΨc), as well as the surface electric potential difference (ΔΨs). The measured dual wavelength transmittance signal (ΔA515-560nm, electrochromic shift) was used as a proxy for experimental ΔΨ...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780711/mercury-and-protein-thiols-stimulation-of-mitochondrial-f1fo-atpase-and-inhibition-of-respiration
#10
Salvatore Nesci, Fabiana Trombetti, Maurizio Pirini, Vittoria Ventrella, Alessandra Pagliarani
In spite of the known widespread toxicity of mercury, its impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics is a still poorly explored topic. Even if many studies have dealt with mercury poisoning of mitochondrial respiration, as far as we are aware Hg(2+) effects on individual complexes are not so clear. In the present study changes in swine heart mitochondrial respiration and F1FO-ATPase (F-ATPase) activity promoted by micromolar Hg(2+) concentrations were investigated. Hg(2+) was found to inhibit the respiration of NADH-energized mitochondria, whereas it was ineffective when the substrate was succinate...
October 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764663/re-energizing-the-development-of-pain-therapeutics-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#11
Phil Skolnick, Nora D Volkow
Limited options for treating moderate-severe pain led to an overreliance on opioids and the current opioid epidemic. Addressing the factors contributing to a dearth of effective alternatives and re-energizing the development of pain therapeutics is necessary to quell this epidemic.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755472/physical-activity-to-overcome-the-adversity-of-widowhood-benefits-beyond-physical-health
#12
Chu-Shiu Li, June Han Lee, Chwen-Chi Liu, Yan-Lan Chan, Christopher Wen, Mu-Lin Chiu, Min Kuang Tsai, Shan Pou Tsai, Jackson Pui Man Wai, Chwen Keng Tsao, Xifeng Wu, Chi Pang Wen
Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737373/stem-cell-research-in-brazil-the-production-of-a-new-field-of-science
#13
Rafaela Teixeira Zorzanelli, Angela Vasconi Speroni, Rachel Aisengart Menezes, Annette Leibing
Based on a review of the literature published in the early twenty-first century by Brazilian researchers, the article offers an overview of stem cell research in Brazil. Three central topics were detected in these papers: (1) the funding of stem cell research in Brazil; (2) preclinical and clinical trials in Brazil; and (3) social anthropological analysis focused on ethical and legal matters. Our review identifies controversial questions in the construction of this scientific field, especially issues involving the media as a disseminator of values and of certain social representations, where new kinds of hope figure large...
October 10, 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734824/-cannabinoid-and-cathinone-designer-drugs-the-workings-and-selected-methods-of-analysis
#14
Jadwiga Nędza, Renata Polaniak, Rafał J Bułdak, Milena Majchrzak, Joanna Margasiń-Ska, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
Recently, there has been an increase in the consumption of designer drugs, substances aimed at producing psychoactive, energizing, euphoric or anesthetic effects. Designer drugs are substitutes of actual narcotics, whose possession is banned under Polish law according to the Act of 29 July 2005. The latest reports suggest that the number of synthetic psychoactive substances is increasing. In the span of 2012, a total of 28 new synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in member states of the European Union. Synthetic psychoactive substances appear in different forms on the market: tablets (often very colourful and interestingly-shaped), seeds, dried product (sprayed with synthetic substance and redried), crystals or powder...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692950/changes-in-united-states-heart-allocation-a-community-energized-to-improve-policy
#15
Joseph G Rogers
Donor heart allocation in the United States has not evolved in concert with changes in the characteristics of patients on the waiting list or evolution in technology. Data showing the growing population of patients with advanced heart failure coupled with the relatively fixed number of cardiac donors and regional access disparities motivated the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Thoracic Committee to reexamine candidate prioritization and broader organ sharing. The resultant proposed policy change stratifies patients in a more granular manner based primarily on wait-list mortality and is designed to expand the geographic boundaries to permit greater access to donor hearts for the most critically ill patients awaiting transplant...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687123/how-power-affects-people-activation-wanting-and-goal-seeking
#16
Ana Guinote
Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self ), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668293/a-cure-for-hiv-infection-not-in-my-lifetime-or-just-around-the-corner
#17
Michael M Lederman, Paula M Cannon, Judith S Currier, Carl H June, Hans Peter Kiem, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Sharon R Lewin, David M Margolis, Joseph M McCune, John W Mellors, Timothy W Schacker, Rafick P Sekaly, Pablo Tebas, Bruce D Walker, Daniel C Douek
With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding "a cure." The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663071/endogenous-trpv1-stimulation-leads-to-the-activation-of-the-inositol-phospholipid-pathway-necessary-for-sustained-ca-2-oscillations
#18
László Pecze, Walter Blum, Thomas Henzi, Beat Schwaller
Sensory neuron subpopulations as well as breast and prostate cancer cells express functional transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channels; however little is known how TRPV1 activation leads to biological responses. Agonist-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer-derived cells. Capsaicin (CAPS; 50μM) evoked intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations and/or intercellular Ca(2+) waves in all cell lines. As evidenced in prostate cancer Du 145 cells, oscillations were largely dependent on the expression of functional TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane, phospholipase C activation and on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659710/emerging-pathways-driving-early-synaptic-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann
The current state of the AD research field is highly dynamic is some respects, while seemingly stagnant in others. Regarding the former, our current lack of understanding of initiating disease mechanisms, the absence of effective treatment options, and the looming escalation of AD patients is energizing new research directions including a much-needed re-focusing on early pathogenic mechanisms, validating novel targets, and investigating relevant biomarkers, among other exciting new efforts to curb disease progression and foremost, preserve memory function...
September 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647942/persistent-current-switch-for-pancake-coils-of-rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide-high-temperature-superconductor-design-and-test-results-of-a-double-pancake-coil-operated-in-liquid-nitrogen-77-65-k-and-in-solid-nitrogen-60-57-k
#20
Timing Qu, Philip C Michael, John Voccio, Juan Bascuñán, Seungyong Hahn, Yukikazu Iwasa
We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ∼10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77-65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60-57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil field decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i...
August 22, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
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