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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145593/root-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homologue-dependent-h2o2-production-confers-salt-tolerance-on-a-grafted-cucumber-by-controlling-na-exclusion-and-stomatal-closure
#1
Mengliang Niu, Yuan Huang, Shitao Sun, Jingyu Sun, Haishun Cao, Sergey Shabala, Zhilong Bie
Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142296/the-dopamine-motive-system-implications-for-drug-and-food-addiction
#2
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135963/comprehensive-survey-on-improved-focality-and-penetration-depth-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-employing-multi-coil-arrays
#3
Xile Wei, Yao Li, Meili Lu, Jiang Wang, Guosheng Yi
Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123504/the-minimum-biological-energy-quantum
#4
REVIEW
Volker Müller, Verena Hess
Some anaerobic archaea and bacteria live on substrates that do not allow the synthesis of one mol of ATP per mol of substrate via substrate level phosphorylation (SLP). Energy conservation in these cases is only possible by a chemiosmotic mechanism that involves the generation of an electrochemical ion gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane that then drives ATP synthesis via an ATP synthase. The minimal amount of energy required for ATP synthesis is thus dependent on the magnitude of the electrochemical ion gradient, the phosphorylation potential in the cell and the ion/ATP ratio of the ATP synthase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116208/dynamic-self-assembly-and-self-organized-transport-of-magnetic-micro-swimmers
#5
Gašper Kokot, German V Kolmakov, Igor S Aranson, Alexey Snezhko
We demonstrate experimentally and in computer simulations that magnetic microfloaters can self-organize into various functional structures while energized by an external alternating (ac) magnetic field. The structures exhibit self-propelled motion and an ability to carry a cargo along a pre-defined path. The morphology of the self-assembled swimmers is controlled by the frequency and amplitude of the magnetic field.
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112389/electrode-electrolyte-interfaces-in-lithium-sulfur-batteries-with-liquid-or-inorganic-solid-electrolytes
#6
Xingwen Yu, Arumugam Manthiram
Electrode-electrolyte interfacial properties play a vital role in the cycling performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The issues at an electrode-electrolyte interface include electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring at the interface, formation mechanism of interfacial layers, compositional/structural characteristics of the interfacial layers, ionic transport across the interface, and thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors at the interface. Understanding the above critical issues is paramount for the development of strategies to enhance the overall performance of Li-S batteries...
November 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109253/a-transient-dopamine-signal-encodes-subjective-value-and-causally-influences-demand-in-an-economic-context
#7
Scott A Schelp, Katherine J Pultorak, Dylan R Rakowski, Devan M Gomez, Gregory Krzystyniak, Raibatak Das, Erik B Oleson
The mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly implicated in motivational processes. Currently accepted theories suggest that transient mesolimbic dopamine release events energize reward seeking and encode reward value. During the pursuit of reward, critical associations are formed between the reward and cues that predict its availability. Conditioned by these experiences, dopamine neurons begin to fire upon the earliest presentation of a cue, and again at the receipt of reward. The resulting dopamine concentration scales proportionally to the value of the reward...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105474/-preliminary-observation-on-imbalance-degree-of-blood-perfusion-on-the-twelve-yuan-source-points-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Peng-Na Zhao, Yan-Ping Wang, Fei-Fei Gu, Chao-Zheng Li, Yu-Long Wei, Guang-Jun Wang, Wei-Bo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To lay a foundation for meridian diagnosis by measuring the blood perfusion (BP) on yuan-source points of twelve meridians and calculating the normal range of imbalance degree (IBD) of left and right meridian (IBD-LRM), IBD of exterior-interior meridian (IBD-EIM) and IBD of hand-foot of the same name meridians (IBD-HFM) in healthy subjects. METHODS: BP at yuan-source points of twelve meridians was measured on 31 healthy volunteers by a Laser Doppler Line Scanner (LDLS)...
October 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103319/in-vivo-evaluation-of-electron-mediators-for-the-reduction-of-methemoglobin-encapsulated-in-liposomes-using-electron-energies-produced-by-red-blood-cell-glycolysis
#9
Semhar Ghirmai, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Earlier studies have clarified that NADH and NADPH, re-energized repeatedly by red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, can be used in extracellular chemical reactions, where electron energies are extracted by electron mediators, such as methylene blue (MB). The electron mediators, which are reduced by NAD(P)H, permeate both the membranes of RBC and phospholipid bilayer of liposomes encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb-vesicles, HbV) and reduce autoxidized ferric methemoglobin (metHb) in HbV to ferrous Hb. Moreover, in vitro screening study clarified some other potential electron mediators with comparable capacity to reduce metHb...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098898/the-pharmacological-treatment-of-acute-hiv-infections-in-neonates
#10
Louise Kuhn, Stephanie Shiau
Recent goals of antiretroviral treatment of neonates have expanded from reducing morbidity and mortality to also aiming to facilitate HIV remission. Areas covered: In this review, we present and discuss the rationale and evidence-bases for each of these distinct goals. Next we discuss the challenges of how to identify HIV-infected neonates. Finally, we discuss the specific antiretroviral drugs that are preferred for this group, making distinctions between the use of these agents in prevention and treatment...
November 3, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097275/comparison-of-mechanistic-transport-cycle-models-of-abc-exporters
#11
REVIEW
Dániel Szöllősi, Dania Rose-Sperling, Ute A Hellmich, Thomas Stockner
ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life, carry out essential substrate transport reactions across cell membranes. Their transmembrane domains bind and translocate substrates and are connected to a pair of nucleotide binding domains, which bind and hydrolyze ATP to energize import or export of substrates. Over four decades of investigations into ABC transporters have revealed numerous details from atomic-level structural insights to their functional and physiological roles...
October 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091971/the-effect-of-respiration-buffer-composition-on-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-function
#12
Lucas C Wollenman, Matthew R Vander Ploeg, Mackinzie L Miller, Yizhu Zhang, Jason N Bazil
Functional studies on isolated mitochondria critically rely on the right choice of respiration buffer. Differences in buffer composition can lead to dramatically different respiration rates leading to difficulties in comparing prior studies. The ideal buffer facilities high ADP-stimulated respiratory rates and minimizes substrate transport effects so that the ability to distinguish between various treatments and conditions is maximal. In this study, we analyzed a variety of respiration buffers and substrate combinations to determine the optimal conditions to support mitochondrial function through ADP-stimulated respiration and uncoupled respiration using FCCP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078971/acupuncture-effect-on-pain-mouth-opening-limitation-and-on-the-energy-meridians-in-patients-with-temporomandibular-dysfunction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Vera Lr Zotelli, Cássia M Grillo, Maria Lb Gil, Ronaldo S Wada, Jorge E Sato, Maria da Luz Rosário de Sousa
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD), recognized as the most common conditions of chronic orofacial pain, have a multifactorial etiology. Acupuncture can help to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with these conditions, because it can rebalance the energy (Qi) circulating in the meridians. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating the pain; mouth opening limitation, and energy circulating in the meridians of patients with TMD of muscular or mixed origin. This was a controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp), in Piracicaba SP, Brazil...
October 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078392/exploitation-of-an-iron-transporter-for-bacterial-protein-antibiotic-import
#14
Paul White, Amar Joshi, Patrice Rassam, Nicholas G Housden, Renata Kaminska, Jonathan D Goult, Christina Redfield, Laura C McCaughey, Daniel Walker, Shabaz Mohammed, Colin Kleanthous
Unlike their descendants, mitochondria and plastids, bacteria do not have dedicated protein import systems. However, paradoxically, import of protein bacteriocins, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood, underpins competition among pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike. Here, using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo photoactivatable cross-linking of stalled translocation intermediates, we demonstrate how the iron transporter FpvAI in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is hijacked to translocate the bacteriocin pyocin S2 (pyoS2) across the outer membrane (OM)...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076571/type-iii-secretion-pore-formed-by-flagellar-protein-flip
#15
Elizabeth Ward, Thibaud T Renault, Eun A Kim, Marc Erhardt, Kelly T Hughes, David F Blair
During assembly of the bacterial flagellum, protein subunits that form the exterior structures are exported through a specialized secretion apparatus energized by the proton gradient. This category of protein transport, together with the similar process that occurs in the injectisomes of gram-negative pathogens, is termed type-III secretion. The membrane-embedded part of the flagellar export apparatus contains five essential proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. Here, we have undertaken a variety of experiments that together support the proposal that the protein-conducting conduit is formed primarily, and possibly entirely, by FliP...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072001/-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials-of-eye-acupuncture-therapy-for-patients-with-post-stroke-insomnia
#16
Lu-Yang Liu, Peng-Qin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of eye-acupuncture therapy for post-stroke insomnia. METHODS: Sixty patients (45-70 years in age) with post-stroke insomnia were randomized into eye-acupuncture group and routine acupuncture (body acupuncture) group (30 cases in each). Patients of the eye-acupuncture group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of bilateral Shangjiao (Upper-energizer) and Xin (Heart) regions and those of the routine acupuncture group treated by acupuncture stimulation of Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Anmian (EX-HN 16), etc...
February 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071898/-distribution-of-press-sensitive-acupoints-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#17
Mei-Qi Ji, Shan-Shan Tian, Dai Liu, Wei Zhang, Jie-Ping Xie, Ya-Li Zhang, Chun-Hua Li, Yan Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the regularity of distribution of press-sensitive acupoints on the body surface in tinnitus patients, so as to provide evidence for selecting suitable acupuncture points in the treatment of tinnitus. METHODS: Sixty-three cases of tinnitus patients (from 25 to 75 years in age) were recruited in the present study. The patient was asked to take a sitting, supine and prone position, successively, and the operator used the thumb to moderately press the subject's head, neck, back, four limbs below the knee- and elbow joints along the three Hand- and three Foot-yang and yin meridians...
December 25, 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071869/-effects-of-wine-processed-rheum-palmatum-on-tissue-distribution-of-aloe-emodin-rhein-and-emodin-in-rats
#18
Yu Wu, Xiao-Qing Peng, Xiao-Yan Jiang, Mei-Qin Shi, Shui-Ying Yang, Ying-Jun Fu, Min Peng, Yan Cai, Sheng-Shi Jiang, Yan Xu
Under the traditional processing theory "wine processing could promote the efficacy", Rhubarb after wine processing could treat the upper energizer diseases such as red swelling, and breath sores. Processing changes the medicinal properties of rhubarb, and thus results in different focuses in clinical application. In this study, a sensitive and specific method was developed for the determination of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats tissue. Rhubarb raw materials and its wine processed decoction were given to SD rats respectively by gavage administration, and then the contents of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in the tissues (heart, lung, brain, liver, kidney) were determined by HPLC-MS to explore the effect of wine processing on free anthraquinones in rat tissues...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071287/collaborative-noise-data-collected-from-smartphones
#19
Erwan Bocher, Gwendall Petit, Judicaël Picaut, Nicolas Fortin, Gwenaël Guillaume
Noise stands for an important human health and environmental issue. Indeed, noise causes annoyance and fatigue, interferes with communication and sleep, damages hearing and entails cardiovascular problems (WHO, 2011) [1]. From an environmental point of view, noise implies a lessening of both the richness and abundance of the animal species, an alteration of the communication, which can threaten the reproduction and predation, etc. (Newport et al., 2014; Shannon et al., 2014) [2], [3]. Consequently, effects related to environmental noise result in a huge cost for society, with 2...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061052/conserving-coherence-and-storing-energy-during-internal-conversion-photoinduced-dynamics-of-cis-and-trans-azobenzene-radical-cations
#20
Kristin Munkerup, Dmitri Romanov, Timothy Bohinski, Anne B Stephansen, Robert J Levis, Theis I Sølling
Light harvesting via energy storage in azobenzene has been a key topic for decades and the process of energy distribution over the molecular degrees of freedom following photoexcitation remains to be understood. Dynamics of a photoexcited system can exhibit high degrees of nonergodicity when it is driven by just a few degrees of freedom. Typically, an internal conversion leads to the loss of such localization of dynamics as the intramolecular energy becomes statistically redistributed over all molecular degrees of freedom...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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