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cardiac Medicine

Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tariq Alhogbani, Fuad A Awwad, Abdullah S Aljasser
Objectives: To evaluate knowledge and attitude of physicians involved in the management of patients with heart failure regarding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Methods: We conducted personal interviews with physicians involved in treating patients with heart failure. Between October 2015 and February 2016, the study was conducted in hospitals in the Riyadh region where no cardiac electrophysiology service was available. Every participant was met in person and received an oral questionnaire that aimed to assess basic knowledge regarding ICD indications and benefits...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Gemma D Banham, Shaun M Flint, Nicholas Torpey, Paul A Lyons, Don N Shanahan, Adele Gibson, Christopher J E Watson, Ann-Marie O'Sullivan, Joseph A Chadwick, Katie E Foster, Rachel B Jones, Luke R Devey, Anna Richards, Lars-Peter Erwig, Caroline O Savage, Kenneth G C Smith, Robert B Henderson, Menna R Clatworthy
BACKGROUND: B cells produce alloantibodies and activate alloreactive T cells, negatively affecting kidney transplant survival. By contrast, regulatory B cells are associated with transplant tolerance. Immunotherapies are needed that inhibit B-cell effector function, including antibody secretion, while sparing regulators and minimising infection risk. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a cytokine that promotes B-cell activation and has not previously been targeted in kidney transplant recipients...
June 14, 2018: Lancet
Aldo L Schenone, Venu Menon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is an in-depth review on the mechanism of action, clinical utility, and drug-drug interactions of colchicine in the management of pericardial disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence about therapeutic targets on pericarditis has demonstrated that NALP3 inflammasome blockade is the cornerstone in the clinical benefits of colchicine. Such benefits extend from acute and recurrent pericarditis to transient constriction and post-pericardiotomy syndrome...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Yabo Huang, Zhong Wang, Qingdong Han
RATIONALE: Tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of intracranial segments has been rarely presented. Effective treatment as to the complex lesions may be complicated. Tumor resection and cerebrovascular protection should be both taken into consideration. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented one case of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tasneem F Hasan, Walter Duarte, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Eric D Goldstein, Rebecca Hurst, Neil Haranhalli, David A Miller, Robert E Wharen, Rabih G Tawk, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical and neurosurgical emergency from ruptured brain aneurysm. Aneurysmal SAH is identified on brain computed tomography (CT) as increased density of basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces from acute blood products. Aneurysmal SAH-like pattern on CT appears as an optical illusion effect of hypodense brain parenchyma and/or hyperdense surrounding cerebral cisterns and blood vessels termed as "pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage" (pseudo-SAH)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Chiao-Fang Teng, Long-Bin Jeng, Woei-Cherng Shyu
Evidence has emerged that stem cells represent a promising therapeutic tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thus, identifying functional markers for selecting stem cells capable of superior self-renewal and pluripotency (or multipotency) and maintaining stem cell identity under appropriate culture conditions are critical for guiding the use of stem cells toward clinical applications. Many investigations have implicated the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling in maintenance of stem cell characteristics and enhancement of stem cell therapy efficacy...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Aditi Kalla, Parasuram M Krishnamoorthy, Akshaya Gopalakrishnan, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Cannabis for medicinal and/or recreational purposes has been decriminalized in 28 states as of the 2016 election. In the remaining states, cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug. Cardiovascular effects of cannabis use are not well established due to a limited number of studies. We therefore utilized a large national database to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events amongst patients with cannabis use. METHODS: Patients aged 18-55 years with cannabis use were identified in the National Inpatient Sample 2009-2010 database using the Ninth Revision of International Classification of Disease code 304...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Evren Erten, Yavuz Emre Arslan
Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhiyong Du, Zeliu Shu, Wei Lei, Chun Li, Kewu Zeng, Xiaoyu Guo, Mingbo Zhao, Pengfei Tu, Yong Jiang
Myocardial ischemia (MI) is an escalating public health care burden worldwide. Baoyuan decoction (BYD) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula with cardioprotective activity; however, its pharmacological characteristics and mechanisms are obscured. Herein, a multi-omics strategy via incorporating the metabonomics, transcriptomics, and pharmacodynamics was adopted to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of BYD for treating MI in a rat model of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Malay Sarkar, Rajeev Bhardwaz, Irappa Madabhavi, Srinivas Gowda, Kushal Dogra
OBJECTIVES: Reviewed the etiologies, pathophysiologic mechanisms, detection and clinical significance of pulsus paradoxus in various conditions. DATA SOURCE: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the CINAHL from inception to June 2017. We used the following search terms: Pulsus paradoxus, pericardial effusion, acute asthma, ventricular interdependence and so forth. All types of study were chosen. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Legendary physician Sir William Osler truly said that "Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Shuai Mao, Peipei Chen, Ting Li, Liheng Guo, Minzhou Zhang
Left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling and the concomitant functional deterioration contributes to the poor prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Thus, a more effective treatment strategy is needed. Tongguan capsule (TGC), a patented Chinese medicine, has been shown to be cardioprotective in both humans and animals following ischemic injury, although its precise mechanism remains unclear. To investigate whether TGC can improve cardiac remodeling in the post-infarct heart, adult C57/BL6 mice underwent coronary artery ligation and were administered TGC or vehicle (saline) for 6 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yi Zhang, Chun Li, Hui Meng, Dongqing Guo, Qian Zhang, Wenji Lu, Qixin Wang, Yong Wang, Pengfei Tu
Aim: Heart failure (HF) post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) contributes to increasing mortality and morbidity worldwide. Baoyuan decoction (BYD) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula that exhibits myocardial protection clinically. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of BYD on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HF post-AMI and characterize the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results: In our study, we constructed left anterior descending (LAD)-induced AMI rat models and a macrophage-conditioned media (CM)-induced H9C2 injury model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xinyu Yang, Nian Liu, Xinye Li, Yihan Yang, Xiaofeng Wang, Linling Li, Le Jiang, Yonghong Gao, Hebin Tang, Yong Tang, Yanwei Xing, Hongcai Shang
Anthracyclines are effective agents generally used to treat solid-tumor and hematologic malignancies. The use of anthracyclines for over 40 years has improved cancer survival statistics. Nevertheless, the clinical utility of anthracyclines is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity that adversely affects 10-30% of patients. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity may be classified as acute/subacute or chronic/late toxicity and leads to devastating adverse effects resulting in poor quality of life, morbidity, and premature mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Saritha Adepu, Erik F J Oosterwerff, Vincent M Christoffels, Gerard J J Boink
The regenerative medicine field has been revolutionized by the direct conversion of one cell type to another by ectopic expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. The direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced cardiac myocytes (iCMs) by core cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5) both in vitro and in vivo has paved the way in cardiac regeneration and repair. Several independent research groups have successfully reported the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts in injured myocardium to cardiac myocytes employing a variety of approaches that rely on transcription factors, small molecules, and micro RNAs (miRNAs)...
June 4, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jeffrey P Jacobs, Shama S Alam, Sherry L Owens, Devin M Parker, Michael Rezaee, Donald S Likosky, David M Shahian, Marshall L Jacobs, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook BMath, Moritz Wyler von Ballmoos, Kevin Lobdell, Todd MacKenzie, Allen D Everett, Chirag R Parikh, Jeremiah R Brown
BACKGROUND: Novel cardiac biomarkers including sST2, Galectin-3 and NT-proBNP may be associated with long-term adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery. We sought to measure the association between cardiac biomarker levels and 1-year hospital readmission or mortality. METHODS: Plasma biomarkers from 1,047 patients discharged alive after isolated CABG surgery from eight medical centers were measured in a cohort from the NNE Cardiovascular Disease Study Group between 2004 and 2007...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rong-Rong Gao, Xiao-Dong Wu, Hui-Min Jiang, Yu-Jiao Zhu, Yan-Li Zhou, Hai-Feng Zhang, Wen-Ming Yao, Yong-Qin Li, Xin-Li Li
Background: Clinical study has demonstrated that the traditional Chinese medicine Qiliqiangxin (QLQX) has protective effects on heart failure. Phenylephrine (PE) is an important inducing factor for cardiac hypertrophy and our previous studies have showed that QLQX attenuates PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Besides, QLQX protects against cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction via activating PPARγ. However, whether QLQX prevents PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy through PPARγ and its coactivator PGC-1α is still unknown...
April 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
B S Chandrashekar, S Prabhakara, T Mohan, D Shabeer, Basavaraj Bhandare, M Nalini, P S Sharmila, D L Meghana, Basanth Kumar Reddy, H M Hanumantha Rao, H Sahajananda, K Anbazhagan
OBJECTIVES: Rubia cordifolia L. (RC) is a well-known and highly valuable medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic system. The present study involves evaluating antioxidant and cardioprotective property of RC root extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of RC root extract was carried out using standard phytochemical and biochemical analysis. The functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and phytotherapeutic compounds were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Joshua T Maxwell, Chunhui Xu
Engineering cardiac tissue that accurately recapitulates adult myocardium is critical for advancing disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. Ronaldson-Bouchard et al. report a new strategy for generating cardiac tissues from stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes that reach a maturation level closer to human adult cardiac structure and function.
June 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Yueli Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Rongjuan Li, Ya Yang, Jie Du
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue, typically characteristic of cardiovascular manifestations, valve prolapse, left ventricle enlargement, and cardiac failure. Fibrillin-1 (FBN1 ) is the causative gene in the pathogenesis of MFS. Patients with different FBN1 mutations often present more considerable phenotypic variation. In the present study, three affected MFS pedigrees were collected for genetic analysis. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, 3 novel frameshift pathogenic mutations which are cosegregated with affected subjects in 3 pedigrees were identified...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
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