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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933737/testing-the-influence-of-surfactant-based-wound-dressings-on-proteinase-activity
#1
Sunyoung Jeong, Gregory S Schultz, Daniel J Gibson
Proteinases are enzymes that can digest other proteins. In chronic wounds, a sub-class of these enzymes with the ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) have been found to both inhibit healing and to be able to aid in enzymatically debriding a wound. Enzymatic debridement using the enzymes present in a wound is generally called autolytic debridement. Clinicians seeking to employ autolytic debridement typically use occlusive materials such as medical honey, alginate dressings and other occlusive dressings...
December 8, 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933550/effect-of-variable-doses-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-male-albino-mice-behavior
#2
Javeria Zahra, Shahid Iqbal, Kiran Zahra, Zulha Javed, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Atif Akbar, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq, Furhan Iqbal
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933364/behavioral-alterations-of-zebrafish-larvae-after-early-embryonic-exposure-to-ketamine
#3
Luís M Félix, Luís M Antunes, Ana M Coimbra, Ana M Valentim
RATIONALE: Ketamine has been associated with pediatric risks that include neurocognitive impairment and long-term behavioral disorders. However, the neurobehavioral effects of ketamine exposure in early development remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test stage- and dose-dependent effects of ketamine exposure on certain brain functions by evaluating alterations in locomotion, anxiety-like and avoidance behaviors, as well as socialization. METHODS: Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of ketamine (0, 0...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933361/biotransformation-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-n-n-diallyltryptamine-dalt-derivatives-5-fluoro-dalt-7-methyl-dalt-and-5-6-methylenedioxy-dalt-in-urine-using-gc-ms-lc-ms-n-and-lc-hr-ms-ms
#4
Julian A Michely, Simon D Brandt, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Derivatives of N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) can be classified as new psychoactive substances. Biotransformation and detectability of 5-fluoro-DALT (5-F-DALT), 7-methyl-DALT (7-Me-DALT), and 5,6-methylenedioxy-DALT (5,6-MD-DALT) are described here. Their metabolites detected in rat urine and pooled human liver microsomes were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In addition, the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the main metabolic steps were identified and detectability tested in urine by the authors' urine screening approaches using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
December 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932882/sustained-release-liquisolid-compact-tablets-containing-artemether-lumefantrine-as-alternate-day-regimen-for-malaria-treatment-to-improve-patient-compliance
#5
Petra Obioma Nnamani, Agatha Adaora Ugwu, Emmanuel Chinedu Ibezim, Franklin Chimaobi Kenechukwu, Paul Achile Akpa, John-Dike Nwabueze Ogbonna, Nicholas Chinedu Obitte, Amelia Ngozi Odo, Maike Windbergs, Claus-Michael Lehr, Anthony Amaechi Attama
The present study aimed to develop low-dose liquisolid tablets of two antimalarial drugs artemether-lumefantrine (AL) from a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) of lumefantrine (LUM) and estimate the potential of AL as an oral delivery system in malariogenic Wistar mice. LUM-NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization using Precirol(®) ATO 5/Transcutol(®) HP and tallow fat/Transcutol(®) HP optimized systems containing 3:1 ratios of the lipids, respectively, as the matrices. LUM-NLC characteristics, including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, yield, pH-dependent stability, and interaction studies, were investigated...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932863/non-imidazole-based-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-different-seizure-models-in-male-adult-rats
#6
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Gniewomir Latacz, Kamil Kuder, Agnieszka Olejarz, Tadeusz Karcz, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932549/proteolytic-degradation-of-heat-shock-protein-a2-occurs-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-male-germ-cells-of-the-mouse
#7
Elizabeth G Bromfield, R John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does oxidative stress compromise the protein expression of heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in the developing germ cells of the mouse testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress leads to the modification of HSPA2 by the lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and initiates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous work has revealed a deficiency in HSPA2 protein expression within the spermatozoa of infertile men that have failed fertilization in a clinical setting...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932443/pd-l1-blockade-enhances-response-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-to-radiotherapy
#8
Abul Azad, Su Yin Lim, Zenobia D'Costa, Keaton Jones, Angela Diana, Owen J Sansom, Philipp Kruger, Stanley Liu, W Gillies McKenna, Omer Dushek, Ruth J Muschel, Emmanouil Fokas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a non-immunogenic tumor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy lacks efficacy in this disease. Radiotherapy (RT) can stimulate the immune system. Here, we show that treatment of KPC and Pan02 murine PDAC cells with RT and gemcitabine upregulated PD-L1 expression in a JAK/Stat1-dependent manner. In vitro, PD-L1 inhibition did not alter radio- and chemosensitivity. In vivo, addition of anti-PD-L1 to high (12, 5 × 3, 20 Gy) but not low (6, 5 × 2 Gy) RT doses significantly improved tumor response in KPC and Pan02 allografts...
December 8, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932068/rovalpituzumab-tesirine-a-dll3-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-recurrent-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-first-in-human-first-in-class-open-label-phase-1-study
#9
Charles M Rudin, M Catherine Pietanza, Todd M Bauer, Neal Ready, Daniel Morgensztern, Bonnie S Glisson, Lauren A Byers, Melissa L Johnson, Howard A Burris, Francisco Robert, Tae H Han, Sheila Bheddah, Noah Theiss, Sky Watson, Deepan Mathur, Bharathi Vennapusa, Hany Zayed, Satwant Lally, Donald K Strickland, Ramaswamy Govindan, Scott J Dylla, Stanford L Peng, David R Spigel
BACKGROUND: Rovalpituzumab tesirine is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), a novel target identified in tumour-initiating cells and expressed in more than 80% of patients with small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients who progressed after one or more previous regimen. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 open-label study at ten cancer centres in the USA...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931821/evaluation-of-the-rbc-pig-a-assay-and-the-pigret-assay-using-benzo-a-pyrene-in-rats
#10
Ryuta Kikuzuki, Haruka Sato, Ai Fujiwara, Tomoko Takahashi, Yosuke Ogiwara, Mihoko Sugiura
The red blood cell (RBC) Pig-a assay has the potential to detect the in vivo mutagenicity of chemicals. Recently, use of the Pig-a assay with reticulocytes (the PIGRET assay) reportedly enabled the in vivo mutagenicity of chemicals to be detected earlier than using the RBC Pig-a assay. To evaluate whether the PIGRET assay is useful and effective as a short-term test, compared with the RBC Pig-a assay, we performed both assays using benzo[a]pyrene (BP), which is a well-known mutagen. BP was used to dose 8-week-old male rats orally at 0, 75...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931820/evaluation-for-a-mutagenicity-of-aristolochic-acid-by-pig-a-and-pigret-assays-in-rats
#11
Naomi Koyama, Yutaka Yonezawa, Michi Nakamura, Hisakazu Sanada
The Pig-a assay, which uses the endogenous phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter of mutation, has been developed as a method for evaluating in vivo mutagenicity. Pig-a gene mutation can be detected by identifying the presence of CD59, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein, on the surface of erythrocytes (RBC Pig-a assay) and reticulocytes (PIGRET assay). The International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) showed the usefulness of the RBC Pig-a assay through the evaluation of several compounds...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931819/results-of-rat-pig-a-pigret-assay-with-a-single-dose-regimen-of-1-3-propane-sultone-and-2-acetyl-aminofluorene
#12
Miyuki Shigano, Nana Ishii, Rie Takashima, Hideki Harada, Hironao Takasawa, Shuichi Hamada
The Pig-a assay is a useful in vivo mutation detecting test and is easier to perform than the in vivo transgenic mutation assay. This assay is now recognized to be able to detect a number of mutagenic chemicals administered to rats in sub-acute or sub-chronic dose studies. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of peripheral blood Pig-a assays with total red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay) and with reticulocytes (PIGRET assay) using two genotoxic rodent carcinogens, 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931818/evaluation-of-the-pigret-assay-as-a-short-term-test-using-a-single-dose-of-diethylnitrosamine
#13
Kunio Wada, Risako Nishino, Tomoki Fukuyama, Kyomu Matsumoto
The PIGRET assay, which was developed as the Pig-a assay in reticulocytes, can detect mutagenicity of compounds earlier than the Pig-a assay in total red blood cells (RBC; RBC Pig-a assay). The usefulness of the PIGRET assay as a short-term test has been confirmed in a collaborative study in Japan with 24 chemicals. One of these chemicals, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), which mainly induces liver tumors in both sexes of rats, was tested. To determine the appropriate doses, DEN was dissolved in physiological saline and administered orally with a single dose to male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats in a preliminary dose-range finding study...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931817/evaluation-of-the-pigret-assay-in-rats-by-single-oral-dosing-with-azidothymidine
#14
Hisakazu Sanada, Tomoka Ohsumi, Naomi Koyama, Taishi Miyashita, Kazuto Hashimoto
In vivo phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A (Pig-a) gene mutation assay using peripheral blood is known to be a novel and useful tool to evaluate the mutagenicity of compounds. Recently, the rat PIGRET assay which is an improved method for measuring Pig-a mutant cells in reticulocytes with magnetic enrichment of CD71 positive cells has been developed. Several reports showed that the PIGRET assay could detect the increase of Pig-a mutant frequency earlier than the Pig-a assay in total red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay)...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931815/evaluation-of-mutagenicity-of-acrylamide-using-rbc-pig-a-and-pigret-assays-by-single-peroral-dose-in-rats
#15
Katsuyoshi Horibata, Akiko Ukai, Masamitsu Honma
The Pig-a gene mutation assay, a powerful tool for evaluating in vivo genotoxicity, is based on flow cytometric enumeration of red blood cells (RBCs), which are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins caused by mutation(s) in the Pig-a gene. Various approaches for measuring cells with mutated Pig-a gene have been developed. The Pig-a assay targeting concentrated reticulocytes - the PIGRET assay - has the potential to detect genotoxicity in early stages of the study. To verify the potential and usefulness of the PIGRET assay for short-term testing, we conducted a joint research with the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931814/pyrene-did-not-induce-gene-mutation-in-red-blood-cell-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay-in-rats
#16
Ikuma Yoshida, Akemi Matsumoto, Yumi Sakai, Yumiko Harada, Tsuneo Hashizume
A new in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed based on the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, Class A gene (Pig-a in rodents) as an endogenous reporter. Although a large number of chemicals have been evaluated in the rat Pig-a assay in 28-day repeat dose regimens, there was limited reporting of rat Pig-a assay after a single dose. A collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, was conducted to verify the usefulness of the rat Pig-a assay after a single dose as a short-term genotoxicity test...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931813/evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-melamine-by-the-rbc-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay
#17
Takahiro Kyoya, Masami Hori, Megumi Terada
The Pig-a assay is a new in vivo genotoxicity test for detecting mutagens in the bodies of animals, using the endogenous Pig-a gene as the target. There are two types of Pig-a assays: the red blood cell (RBC) Pig-a assay, which uses RBCs, and the PIGRET assay, which uses reticulocytes. The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group collaborative study of the Pig-a assay was carried out to investigate the usefulness of the PIGRET assay. The mutagenicity of melamine was evaluated as part of this study...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931812/evaluation-of-the-rbc-pig-a-and-pigret-assays-using-single-doses-of-hydroxyurea-and-melphalan-in-rats
#18
Hideki Adachi, Yasuaki Uematsu, Toru Yamada
To evaluate the suitability of the rat Pig-a assay on reticulocytes (PIGRET assay) as a short-term test, red blood cell (RBC) Pig-a and PIGRET assays after single doses with hydroxyurea (HU) and melphalan (L-PAM) were conducted and the results of both assays were compared. HU was administered once orally to male SD rats at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg, and both assays were conducted using peripheral blood withdrawn from the jugular vein at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after dosing. L-PAM was administered at 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg in the same manner...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931811/the-pigret-assay-a-method-for-measuring-pig-a-gene-mutation-in-reticulocytes-is-reliable-as-a-short-term-in-vivo-genotoxicity-test-summary-of-the-mms-jems-collaborative-study-across-16-laboratories-using-24-chemicals
#19
Takafumi Kimoto, Katsuyoshi Horibata, Daishiro Miura, Satsuki Chikura, Yuki Okada, Akiko Ukai, Satoru Itoh, Shiho Nakayama, Hisakazu Sanada, Naomi Koyama, Shigeharu Muto, Yoshifumi Uno, Mika Yamamoto, Yuta Suzuki, Takayuki Fukuda, Ken Goto, Kunio Wada, Takahiro Kyoya, Miyuki Shigano, Hironao Takasawa, Shuichi Hamada, Hideki Adachi, Yasuaki Uematsu, Eri Tsutsumi, Hisako Hori, Ryuta Kikuzuki, Yosuke Ogiwara, Ikuma Yoshida, Akihisa Maeda, Kazunori Narumi, Yohei Fujiishi, Takeshi Morita, Masami Yamada, Masamitsu Honma
The in vivo mutation assay using the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a in rodents, PIG-A in humans) is a promising tool for evaluating the mutagenicity of chemicals. Approaches for measuring Pig-a mutant cells have focused on peripheral red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs) from rodents. The recently developed PIGRET assay is capable of screening >1×10(6) RETs for Pig-a mutants by concentrating RETs in whole blood prior to flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, due to the characteristics of erythropoiesis, the PIGRET assay can potentially detect increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) sooner after exposure compared with a Pig-a assay targeting total RBCs (RBC Pig-a assay)...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931810/evaluation-of-in-vivo-gene-mutation-with-etoposide-using-pig-a-and-pigret-assays
#20
Mika Yamamoto, Akihiro Wakata
The Pig-a assay detects the expression of the endogenous phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter of mutations and shows promise for detecting mutations in vivo. This assay requires two to four weeks to detect mutations in erythrocytes after animals are administered a single dose of test compound. In contrast, the more recently developed PIGRET assay using reticulocytes detects mutation sensitively one week after dosing, which is an advantage for conducting short-term genotoxicity studies in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
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