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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319777/encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-case-report
#1
Gabriel Caetano Pereira, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho Vieira, Eliezer Moreno Romano, Luiz Eduardo Bersani Amado
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CDK) can develop several diseases caused by the renal replacement therapy. Here we report a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis, the encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) in which the peritoneal tissue is gradually replaced by fibrous tissue. The patient in question, after late loss of renal graft and conversion to peritoneal dialysis, evolved with multiple hospitalizations for spontaneous bacterial infections, in recent admission, he was diagnosed with sub-occlusive abdomen secondary to the EPS...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#2
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313695/prognostic-factors-of-liver-cirrhosis-mortality-after-a-first-episode-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-multicenter-study
#3
Luigi Melcarne, Julia Sopeña, Francisco José Martínez-Cerezo, Mercedes Vergara, Mireia Miquel, Jordi Sánchez-Delgado, Blai Dalmau, Salvador Machlab, Dustin Portilla, Yonaisy Gonzàlez-Padrón, Mónica Real Álvarez, Chantal Carpintero, Meritxell Casas
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an infectious complication with a negative impact on survival of patients with cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short- and long-term survival after a first episode of bacterial peritonitis and the associated prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of patients admitted to hospital for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis between 2008 and 2013. Independent variables related to mortality were analyzed by logistic regression...
January 9, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311408/hepatic-hydrothorax
#4
Yong Lv, Guohong Han, Daiming Fan
Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is a pleural effusion that develops in a patient with cirrhosis and portal hypertension in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. Although the development of HH remains incompletely understood, the most acceptable explanation is that the pleural effusion is a result of a direct passage of ascitic fluid into the pleural cavity through a defect in the diaphragm due to the raised abdominal pressure and the negative pressure within the pleural space. Patients with HH can be asymptomatic or present with pulmonary symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, hypoxemia, or respiratory failure associated with large pleural effusions...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303884/the-first-episode-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-is-a-threat-event-in-children-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#5
Sandra M G Vieira, Fernando P Schwengber, Melina Melere, Marília R Ceza, Melina Souza, Carlos O Kieling
OBJECTIVE: Studies on native liver survival (NLS) after the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are rare. Our objective was to evaluate NLS in children up to 1 year after SBP. METHODS: A historical cohort study of 18 children followed after the first episode of SBP was conducted. NLS, in-hospital mortality, causes of death, and rate of multidrug-resistant organisms were reported. RESULTS: Biliary atresia was the most prevalent diagnosis (72...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303883/are-third-generation-cephalosporins-still-the-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-of-community-acquired-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Marco Fiore, Ivan Gentile, Alberto E Maraolo, Sebastiano Leone, Vittorio Simeon, Paolo Chiodini, Maria C Pace, Thierry Gustot, Fabio S Taccone
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication among cirrhotic patients. Guidelines recommend third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) as empiric antibiotic therapy (EAT) of SBP. Recently, a broad-spectrum EAT was shown to be more effective than cephalosporins in the treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (N-SBP); however, the prevalence of 3GCs-resistant bacteria is high in the nosocomial setting and broad-spectrum EAT cannot be used in all cases of SBP...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290909/influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#7
Suelen A S Miozzo, Jorge A John, Marcelo C Appel-da-Silva, Isabella A Dossin, Cristiane V Tovo, Angelo A Mattos
AIM: To investigate whether the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: An historical cohort study was carried out in cirrhotic outpatients with ascites followed in a specialized clinic at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patient charts were reviewed to collect information on the variables of interest as the use of PPIs. Primary outcome was defined as development of SBP during the study period...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290508/the-emergency-medicine-evaluation-and-management-of-the-patient-with-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a significant cause of death in the U.S. and has a variety of causes, most commonly Hepatitis C and alcohol. Liver fibrosis and nodule formation result in significant complications due to portal system hypertension. There are several deadly complications emergency physicians must consider. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: Provide an evidence-based update for the resuscitation of decompensating cirrhotic patients and an overview of cirrhosis complications...
December 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235260/functional-polymorphisms-of-innate-immunity-receptors-are-not-risk-factors-for-the-non-sbp-type-bacterial-infections-in-cirrhosis
#9
Tamas Dinya, Tamas Tornai, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, Boglárka Balogh, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Andrea Sumegi, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Andras Bors, Attila Tordai, Maria Papp
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have a key role in the innate host defense. Functional polymorphisms of various PRRs have been established to contribute to an increased susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Their role in the development of cirrhosis-associated bacterial infections (BI), beyond SBP or progressive disease course related to pathological bacterial translocation (BT) remains unknown. METHODS: 349 patients with cirrhosis were genotyped for common NOD2 (R702W, G908R and L1007PfsinsC), TLR2 (-16934T>A), and TLR4 (D299G) variants...
December 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234197/echocardiographic-and-electrocardiographic-predictors-of-adverse-outcomes-in-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#10
Mahek Shah, Soumya Patnaik, Obiora Maludum, Shantanu Patil, Toni Anne De Venecia, Vincent M Figueredo
Background: Patients with cirrhosis who develop Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) suffer from cirrhotic cardiomyopathy which is characterized by impaired contractility in response to stress despite a relatively normal resting cardiac output. We hypothesized that electrocardiographic and echocardiographic information would help prognosticate patients developing SBP in addition to existing scoring systems. Methods: Cirrhotic patients admitted to Einstein Medical Center from 01/01/2005 to 6/30/2012 for SBP, and did not receive a transplant within one year, were included...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234192/impact-of-acute-kidney-injury-on-mortality-of-patients-hospitalized-for-complications-of-cirrhosis
#11
Anantha Nuthalapati, Nicholas Schluterman, Anuj Khanna, Deborah Greenberg, Paul J Thuluvath
Background/aims: The mortality of hospitalized patients for complications of cirrhosis is very high. We examined the independent predictors of mortality, particularly the impact of increments in creatinine, in 339 consecutive patients (636 admissions) who were admitted for complications of cirrhosis. Methods: Clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters including serum creatinine levels at various time intervals, and mortality data were recorded for all admissions...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224053/spontaneous-bacteremia-and-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-share-similar-prognosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#12
Sebastián Marciano, Melisa Dirchwolf, Carla S Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, Astrid Smud, Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez, Diego Giunta, Adrián Gadano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacteremia is a poorly characterized infection in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the incidence of mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and spontaneous bacteremia, and identified risk factors for mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacteremia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from 2008 to 2016 at Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214880/low-ascitic-fluid-total-protein-levels-is-not-associated-to-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-a-cohort-of-274-patients-with-cirrhosis
#13
Silje Mo, Flemming Bendtsen, Signe Skovgaard Wiese, Nina Kimer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication to decompensated cirrhosis. Fluoroquinolones may prevent SBP. However, predictive markers for SBP are wanted. Guidelines suggest that patients with ascitic fluid protein below 15 g/l receive fluoroquinolones to prevent SBP. This study aimed to assess the clinical utility of low ascitic fluid protein in predicting SBP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: A total of 274 patients with cirrhosis and ascites underwent paracentesis between January 2010 and June 2015...
December 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199170/what-is-the-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-what-are-the-potential-problems-related-to-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-how-should-these-cases-be-followed
#14
İbrahim Hatemi, Sinem Nihal Esatoğlu
The meta-analyses of observational studies (OBS) showed the risk of any fracture and hip fracture slightly increased with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment depending on the dose and regardless of time. This was not observed with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA). The risk of bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were increased with PPI therapy, but not with H2RA. In meta-analyses of OBS, a slight increase was observed in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the early stages (<1 month) of PPI use and particularly at high doses...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142474/clinical-features-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-in-latinos-and-caucasians-a-single-center-experience
#15
Rogelio Pinon-Gutierrez, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Charles H Halsted, Valentina Medici
AIM: To study differences of presentation, management, and prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis in Latinos compared to Caucasians. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 876 charts of Caucasian and Latino patients who were evaluated at University of California Davis Medical Center between 1/1/2002-12/31/2014 with the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. We identified and collected data on 137 Caucasians and 64 Latinos who met criteria for alcoholic hepatitis, including chronic history of heavy alcohol use, at least one episode of jaundice with bilirubin ≥ 3...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#16
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm3 without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099421/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-portal-hemodynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-with-portal-hypertension-a-proof-of-concept-study
#17
Saptarshi Bishnu, Sk M Ahammed, Avik Sarkar, Jabaranjan Hembram, Saswata Chatterjee, Kshaunish Das, Gopal K Dhali, Abhijit Chowdhury, Kausik Das
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Statins can modulate portal microvascular dynamics in patients with cirrhosis. We present data from a proof-of-concept study aimed at comparing combination of propranolol and atorvastatin versus propranolol alone in reducing portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label proof-of-concept study, 23 consecutive patients with cirrhosis were randomized into group A (incremental dose propranolol, n=12) or group B (atorvastatin 20 mg daily with propranolol in incremental dose, n=11)...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098551/ascites-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-identifies-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-predicts-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cirrhosis
#18
Giuseppe Cullaro, Grace Kim, Marcus R Pereira, Robert S Brown, Elizabeth C Verna
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker of both tissue injury and infection. Urine NGAL levels strongly predict acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but ascites NGAL is not well characterized. We hypothesized that ascites NGAL level is a marker of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and mortality risk in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites undergoing diagnostic paracentesis were prospectively enrolled and followed until death or discharge...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081656/spontaneous-peritonitis-in-critically-ill-cirrhotic-patients-a-diagnostic-algorithm-for-clinicians-and-future-perspectives
#19
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Sebastiano Leone, Ivan Gentile, Arturo Cuomo, Vincenzo Schiavone, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Caterina Pace, Marco Cascella
Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count ≥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. According to the causative agent, clinicians can make the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or spontaneous fungal peritonitis. The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041907/detection-of-bacterial-dna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#20
Shingo Usui, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Yoshiyuki Yamagishi, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is often difficult to diagnose because bacteria in ascites cannot be detected accurately by conventional culture. In situ hybridization (ISH) was previously developed for rapid detection of genes from bacteria phagocytized by neutrophils. SBP may develop after bacteria enter into the systemic circulation following bacterial translocation. Therefore, we performed ISH to identify bacteria in blood samples collected from patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC)...
October 17, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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