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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#1
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074870/microrna-155-is-upregulated-in-ascites-in-patients-with-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#2
Philipp Lutz, Mohamed M Haimid, Alessandra Pohlmann, Jennifer Lehmann, Christian Jansen, Robert Schierwagen, Sabine Klein, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler, Jonel Trebicka
MircoRNA's (miR) have been recognised as important modulators of gene expression and potential biomarkers. However, they have been rarely investigated in bio fluids apart from blood. We investigated the association of miR-125b and miR-155 with complications of cirrhosis. Ascites was prospectively collected from patients with cirrhosis undergoing paracentesis at our department. miR's were determined in the supernatant using qPCR and normalized by SV-40. Clinical parameters were assessed at paracentesis and during follow-up...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997972/changes-in-the-microbiome-in-cirrhosis-and-relationship-to-complications-hepatic-encephalopathy-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-sepsis
#3
Jatinder Lachar, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Chronic liver disease with progression to decompensated cirrhosis and its associated complications, including hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and sepsis, is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiology of decompensated cirrhosis, which is being intensively studied, leads to the development of gut microbiome changes causing dysbiosis. This is likely related to altered bile acid composition, with a subsequent increase in the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria that contributes to hepatic encephalopathy and leads to their translocation and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929923/impact-of-pre-transplant-bacterial-infections-on-post-operative-outcomes-in-patients-after-liver-transplantation
#4
Im-Kyung Kim, Joon Seong Park, Man Ki Ju
BACKGROUND: In contrast to studies evaluating the negative effect of bacterial infections on clinical outcomes after liver transplantation, there is little evidence with regard to pre-transplant bacterial infections. We aimed to investigate the impact of pre-transplant bacterial infections on post-transplant outcomes in patients after liver transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 33 consecutive patients who underwent primary liver transplantations...
December 8, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920543/intestinal-permeability-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan Manuel Aguirre Valadez, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Osvely Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco, Ignacio García Juárez, Aldo Torre
Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917877/ascites-neutrophil-function-is-significantly-impaired-in-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-but-can-be-restored-by-autologous-plasma-incubation
#6
Cornelius Engelmann, Christina Becker, Andreas Boldt, Toni Herta, Albrecht Boehlig, Katrin Splith, Moritz Schmelzle, Niklas Mueller, Sandra Krohn, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Michael Bartels, Ulrich Sack, Thomas Berg
Systemic immune cell dysfunction is a typical feature of liver diseases and increases the risk of bacterial infection, especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. We evaluated functional properties of neutrophil granulocytes in blood and ascites of patients both with and without decompensated cirrhosis. We collected blood and ascites samples from 63 patients with cirrhosis and eight without cirrhosis. Phagocytosis activity (PA) and oxidative burst activity (OBA) were evaluated after ex vivo stimulation with E...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917793/high-dose-oral-furosemide-with-salt-ingestion-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-ascites-of-liver-cirrhosis
#7
Tolga Yakar, Mehmet Demir, Ozlem Dogan, Alper Parlakgumus, Birol Ozer, Ender Serin
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of high-dose furosemide+salt orally by comparing HSS+ furosemide (i.v.) and repeated paracentesis in patients with RA. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 78 cirrhotic patients with RA, randomized into three groups: Group A (n= 25) i.v. furosemide (200-300 mg bid) and 3% hypotonic saline solution (HSS) (once or twice a day); Group B (n= 26) oral furosemide tablets (360-520 mg bid) and salt (2...
1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898519/optimizing-the-outcomes-associated-with-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#8
Rinjal Brahmbhatt, Elliot B Tapper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861767/antibiotic-resistance-in-healthcare-related-and-nosocomial-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#9
Philipp Lutz, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Dominik J Kaczmarek, Stefan Schlabe, Marijo Parcina, Jacob Nattermann, Achim Hoerauf, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can be life threatening in patients with liver cirrhosis. In contrast to community-acquired SBP, no standard treatment has been established for healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP cases from March 2012 till February 2016 at the Department of Internal Medicine I of the University of Bonn and analysed the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the isolated bacteria...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856417/probiotic-mixture-vsl-3-reduces-colonic-inflammation-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-in-muc2-mucin-deficient-mice
#10
Manish Kumar, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Aralia Leon Coria, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
: MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria. MUC2 deficiency results in impaired epithelial barrier function, imbalance in gut microbiota, and spontaneous colitis. Probiotics have been shown to have a protective effect against colitis. In this study we used Muc2 mucin-deficient (Muc2(-/-)) and Muc2(+/+) littermates to test whether the probiotic mixture VSL#3 requires an intact mucin barrier to exert its beneficial effect...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847654/the-case-for-improved-interprofessional-care-fatal-analgesic-overdose-secondary-to-acute-dental-pain-during-pregnancy
#11
Sarah K Y Lee, Rocio B Quinonez, Alice Chuang, Stephanie M Munz, Darya Dabiri
Prenatal oral health extends beyond the oral cavity, impacting the general well-being of the pregnant patient and her fetus. This case report follows a 19-year-old pregnant female presenting with acute liver failure secondary to acetaminophen overdose for management of dental pain following extensive dental procedures. Through the course of her illness, the patient suffered adverse outcomes including fetal demise, acute kidney injury, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and septic shock before eventual death from multiple organ failure...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832135/intestinal-dendritic-cells-are-altered-in-number-maturity-and-chemotactic-ability-in-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#12
Mei Liu, Peng Wang, Min Zhao, D Y Liu
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is defined as rapid acute liver injury, often complicated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The precise onset of FHF with SBP is still unknown, but it is thought that SBP closely correlates with a weakened intestinal barrier. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in forming the intestinal immune barrier, therefore the number, maturity and chemotactic ability of intestinal DCs were studied in FHF. Mouse intestinal and spleen DCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and surface markers of DCs, namely CD11c, CD74, CD83 and CD86, were identified using flow cytometry...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803173/inhibition-of-phagocytosis-and-pyroptosis-of-macrophages-promotes-bartonella-invasion-into-the-bloodstream-through-lymphatic-circulation
#13
Jiehua Hong, Yan Li, Xiuguo Hua, Yajie Bai, Chunyan Wang, Caixia Zhu, Yuming Du, Zhibiao Yang, Congli Yuan
The hallmark of Bartonella infection is long-lasting intra-erythrocytic parasitism. However, the process of Bartonella bacteremia is still enigmatic. Here, we used Bartonella tribocorum (Bt) to understand how Bartonella invasion into the bloodstream from dermal inoculation might occur. Bartonella was poorly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Intracellular Bartonella survived and replicated in macrophages at early stage of infection. Intracellular Bartonella inhibited spontaneous cell death of macrophage...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802853/large-volume-paracentesis-with-indwelling-peritoneal-catheter-and-albumin-infusion-a-community-hospital-study
#14
Daniel K Martin, Saqib Walayat, Ren Jinma, Zohair Ahmed, Karthik Ragunathan, Sonu Dhillon
BACKGROUND: The management of ascites can be problematic. This is especially true in patients with diuretic refractory ascites who develop a tense abdomen. This often results in hypotension and decreased venous return with resulting renal failure. In this paper, we further examine the risks and benefits of utilizing an indwelling peritoneal catheter to remove large-volume ascites over a 72-h period while maintaining intravascular volume and preventing renal failure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts and identified 36 consecutive patients undergoing continuous large-volume paracentesis with an indwelling peritoneal catheter...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797274/comparison-of-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-culture-negative-neutrocytic-ascites
#15
Sun Hee Na, Eun Jung Kim, Eun Young Nam, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
OBJECTIVE: Ascitic fluid infections (AFI) in cirrhotic patients can be classified into two groups: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and culture-negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the two groups of patients with AFI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cirrhotic patients with AFI. We evaluated demographic data, clinical presentations of AFI, laboratory findings, liver function, and mortality rates...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795726/serum-c-reactive-protein-in-children-with-liver-disease-and-ascites
#16
Gholamreza Kalvandi, Naser Honar, Bita Geramizadeh, Maryam Ataollahi, Asghar Rahmani, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of peritonitis as a complication of cirrhosis is an important clinical problem. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum C-reactive protein levels as a diagnostic factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in child patients with liver disease. METHODS: In this study, 150 children diagnosed with liver disease and ascites upon admission to Nemazee Teaching Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) were examined...
August 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756145/prevalence-and-outcome-of-portal-thrombosis-in-a-cohort-of-cirrhotic-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation
#17
Marta Hernández Conde, Elba Llop Herrera, Juan de la Revilla Negro, Fernando Pons Renedo, Natalia Fernández Puga, José Luis Martínez Porras, María Trapero Marugan, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Víctor Sánchez Turrión, José Luis Calleja Panero
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients that have undergone liver transplantation (LT) is 9.7% (SD 4.5). The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, assess the factors that are associated with PVT and clarify their association with prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and LT. AIMS AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, laboratory, radiological and surgical data were collected from patients with LC in our center who had undergone LT for the first time...
October 19, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741171/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver-a-tale-of-2-cities-a-narrative-view-in-2-acts
#18
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740524/portal-vein-thrombosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-just-a-common-finding-or-a-predictor-of-poor-outcome
#19
Omar D Borjas-Almaguer, Carlos A Cortez-Hernández, Emmanuel I González-Moreno, Francisco J Bosques-Padilla, José A González-González, Aldo A Garza, Juan A Martínez-Segura, Diego García-Compean, Juan V Alejandre-Loya, Jesús García-García, Guillermo Delgado-García, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza
:  Background & Aims. It is unclear whether portal vein thrombosis (PVT) unrelated to malignancy is associated with reduced survival or it is an epiphenomenon of advanced cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcome in cirrhotic patients with PVT not associated with malignancy and determine its prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective search in one center from June 2011 to December 2014. RESULTS: 169 patients, 55 women and 114 men, median age 54 (19-90) years...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733127/usefulness-of-ascitic-fluid-lactoferrin-levels-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#20
Sang Soo Lee, Hyun Ju Min, Ja Yun Choi, Hyun Chin Cho, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Ok-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Although elevated levels of lactoferrin provide a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer, the clinical significance of these elevated levels in ascitic fluid of patients with ascites caused by liver cirrhosis is limited. The aims of our study were to investigate the usefulness of ascitic fluid lactoferrin levels for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and to evaluate the association between lactoferrin levels and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 13, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
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