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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459882/identification-of-a-new-mullet-species-complex-based-on-an-integrative-molecular-and-cytogenetic-investigation-of-mugil-hospes-mugilidae-mugiliformes
#1
Mauro Nirchio, Fabilene G Paim, Valentina Milana, Anna R Rossi, Claudio Oliveira
Mullets are very common fishes included in the family Mugilidae, (Mugiliformes), which are characterized by both a remarkably uniform external morphology and internal anatomy. Recently, within this family, different species complexes were molecularly identified within Mugil , a genus which is characterized by lineages that sometimes show very different karyotypes. Here we report the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses conducted on Mugil hospes , commonly known as the hospe mullet, from Ecuador. The study aims to verify whether the original described species from the Pacific Ocean corresponds to that identified in the Atlantic Ocean, and to identify species-specific chromosome markers that can add new comparative data about Mugilidae karyotype evolution...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416829/evolutionary-insight-on-localization-of-18s-28s-rdna-genes-on-homologous-chromosomes-in-primates-genomes
#2
Sofia Mazzoleni, Michail Rovatsos, Odessa Schillaci, Francesca Dumas
We explored the topology of 18S and 28S rDNA units by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the karyotypes of thirteen species representatives from major groups of Primates and Tupaia minor (Günther, 1876) (Scandentia), in order to expand our knowledge of Primate genome reshuffling and to identify the possible dispersion mechanisms of rDNA sequences. We documented that rDNA probe signals were identified on one to six pairs of chromosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric ones. In addition, we examined the potential homology of chromosomes bearing rDNA genes across different species and in a wide phylogenetic perspective, based on the DAPI-inverted pattern and their synteny to human...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393103/the-relationship-between-the-in-stability-of-nors-and-their-chromosomal-location-the-example-of-cercopithecidae-and-a-short-review-of-other-primates
#3
Michèle Gerbault-Seureau, Lauriane Cacheux, Bernard Dutrillaux
Amongst Cercopithecidae, the species of the Cercopithecini tribe underwent a very active chromosome evolution, principally by fissions, which increased their chromosome number up to 72. In contrast, all the species of Papionini have fairly similar karyotypes with 42 chromosomes. In animals, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are generally considered as instable structures, which frequently vary in size, number, and location at both infra- and interspecific levels. Although in Cercopithecinae the NORs, involved in breaks, exchanges, and translocations, behave like fragile sites in somatic cells, their number and location appear to be very stable between species...
January 31, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316705/translocation-breakpoints-preferentially-occur-in-euchromatin-and-acrocentric-chromosomes
#4
Cheng-Yu Lin, Ankit Shukla, John P Grady, J Lynn Fink, Eloise Dray, Pascal H G Duijf
Chromosomal translocations drive the development of many hematological and some solid cancers. Several factors have been identified to explain the non-random occurrence of translocation breakpoints in the genome. These include chromatin density, gene density and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin binding site density. However, such factors are at least partially interdependent. Using 13,844 and 1563 karyotypes from human blood and solid cancers, respectively, our multiple regression analysis only identified chromatin density as the primary statistically significant predictor...
January 8, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186711/genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dnas-and-differentiation-of-an-xx-xy-sex-chromosome-system-in-the-amazonian-puffer-fish-colomesus-asellus-tetraodontiformes
#5
Patrik F Viana, Tariq Ezaz, Leandro Marajó, Milena Ferreira, Jansen Zuanon, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Maria C Gross, Eliana Feldberg
The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males...
November 30, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184138/centromere-evolution-and-cpg-methylation-during-vertebrate-speciation
#6
Kazuki Ichikawa, Shingo Tomioka, Yuta Suzuki, Ryohei Nakamura, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Masahiko Kumagai, Yusuke Inoue, Yui Uchida, Naoki Irie, Hiroyuki Takeda, Shinich Morishita
Centromeres and large-scale structural variants evolve and contribute to genome diversity during vertebrate speciation. Here, we perform de novo long-read genome assembly of three inbred medaka strains that are derived from geographically isolated subpopulations and undergo speciation. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, we obtain three chromosome-mapped genomes of length ~734, ~678, and ~744Mbp with a resource of twenty-two centromeric regions of length 20-345kbp. Centromeres are positionally conserved among the three strains and even between four pairs of chromosomes that were duplicated by the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320-350 million years ago...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114356/comparative-analysis-of-chromosomal-localization-of-ribosomal-and-telomeric-dna-markers-in-three-species-of-pyrgomorphidae-grasshoppers
#7
REVIEW
Olesya G Buleu, Ilyas Y Jetybayev, Alexander G Bugrov
The karyotypes of three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers were studied: Zonocerus elegans (Thunberg, 1815), Pyrgomorpha guentheri (Burr, 1899) and Atractomorpha lata (Mochulsky, 1866). Data on karyotypes of P. guentheri and Z. elegans are reported here for the first time. All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 acrocentric chromosomes in males and 20 acrocentric chromosomes in females (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20) and X0/XX sex determination system. A comparative analysis of the localization of C-heterochromatin, clusters of ribosomal DNA, and telomere repeats revealed inter-species diversity in these cytogenetic markers...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112970/karyotype-relationships-among-selected-deer-species-and-cattle-revealed-by-bovine-fish-probes
#8
Jan Frohlich, Svatava Kubickova, Petra Musilova, Halina Cernohorska, Helena Muskova, Roman Vodicka, Jiri Rubes
The Cervidae family comprises more than fifty species divided into three subfamilies: Capreolinae, Cervinae and Hydropotinae. A characteristic attribute for the species included in this family is the great karyotype diversity, with the chromosomal numbers ranging from 2n = 6 observed in female Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis to 2n = 70 found in Mazama gouazoubira as a result of numerous Robertsonian and tandem fusions. This work reports chromosomal homologies between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and nine cervid species using a combination of whole chromosome and region-specific paints and BAC clones derived from cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075328/comparative-cytogenetics-in-three-sciaenid-species-teleostei-perciformes-evidence-of-interspecific-chromosomal-diversification
#9
Dongdong Xu, Wagner Franco Molina, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Yurong Zhang, Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Bao Lou, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
BACKGROUND: Species belonging to the Sciaenidae family present a karyotype composed by 48 acrocentric chromosomes and are thus considered a striking example of chromosomal conservation. In this family, three species are extensively studied including Larimichthys crocea, Larimichthys polyactis and Nibea albiflora due to their importance in fishery and aquaculture in East Asia. Despite abundant data of population genetics available for some of them, cytogenetic information on these species is still scarce and obtained by conventional cytogenetic protocols...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046707/comparative-cytogenetic-analysis-of-marine-palaemon-species-reveals-a-x1x1x2x2-x1x2y-sex-chromosome-system-in-palaemon-elegans
#10
Zeltia Torrecilla, Andrés Martínez-Lage, Alejandra Perina, Enrique González-Ortegón, Ana M González-Tizón
BACKGROUND: The maintenance of species and the promotion of speciation are closely related to chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Decapoda represents the most species-rich order among crustaceans and, despite its ecological and economic importance, little is known about decapod karyology. We aim at cytogenetically characterizing two sympatric prawn species. RESULTS: Analysis of mitotic metaphases and meiotic diakinesis of the common prawn Palaemon serratus and the rockpool prawn P...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963166/using-linkage-maps-as-a-tool-to-determine-patterns-of-chromosome-synteny-in-the-genus-salvelinus
#11
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Courtney L Bell, Krista M Nichols
Next generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized the collection of genome and transcriptome data from nonmodel organisms. This manuscript details the application of restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to generate a marker-dense genetic map for Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The consensus map was constructed from three full-sib families totaling 176 F1 individuals. The map consisted of 42 linkage groups with a total female map size of 2502.5 cM, and a total male map size of 1863...
November 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947715/distinct-classical-and-molecular-cytogenetics-of-astyanax-marionae-and-a-fasciatus-characiformes-characidae-a-comparative-study-of-the-organization-of-heterochromatin-and-repetitive-genes
#12
Diovani Piscor, Liano Centofante, Patricia Pasquali Parise-Maltempi
Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using Giemsa staining, C-band technique, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes, in addition we describe for the first time the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNAgenes in A...
September 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919969/karyotypic-differentiation-of-populations-of-the-common-shrew-sorex-araneus-l-mammalia-in-belarus
#13
Yury M Borisov, Iryna A Kryshchuk, Helen S Gaiduchenko, Elena V Cherepanova, Svetlana V Zadyra, Elena S Levenkova, Dmitriy V Lukashov, Victor N Orlov
The common shrews, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, inhabiting the territory of Belarus, are characterized by a significant variation in the frequency of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations. The frequency clines for translocations specific of three chromosome races: the West Dvina (gm, hk, ip, no, qr), Kiev (g/m, hi, k/o, n, p, q, r), and Białowieża (g/r, hn, ik, m/p, o, q) have already been studied in this territory. In this communication we report new data on polymorphic populations with Rb metacentrics specific of the Neroosa race (go, hi, kr, mn, p/q) in south-eastern Belarus, analyse the distribution of karyotypes in southern and central Belarus and draw particular attention to the fixation of the acrocentric variants of chromosomes in this area...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919967/comparative-analysis-of-chromosomes-in-the-palaearctic-bush-crickets-of-tribe-pholidopterini-orthoptera-tettigoniinae
#14
Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, Beata Grzywacz, Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Dragan P Chobanov
The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in four genera of the tribe Pholidopterini: Eupholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Parapholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Pholidoptera Wesmaël, 1838, Uvarovistia Mařan, 1953. Chromosomes were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric probes, and classical techniques, such as C-banding, silver impregnation and fluorochrome DAPI/CMA3 staining. Most species retained the ancestral diploid chromosome number 2n = 31 (male) or 32 (female), while some of the taxa, especially a group of species within genus Pholidoptera, evolved a reduced chromosome number 2n = 29...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919966/chromosomal-stasis-in-distinct-families-of-marine-percomorpharia-from-south-atlantic
#15
Fabilene Gomes Paim, Leandro Aragão da Hora Almeida, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso, Patrícia Elda Sobrinho-Scudeler, Claudio Oliveira, Débora Diniz
The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919961/the-mugil-curema-species-complex-pisces-mugilidae-a-new-karyotype-for-the-pacific-white-mullet-mitochondrial-lineage
#16
Mauro Nirchio, Claudio Oliveira, Zoila R Siccha-Ramirez, Viviani F de Sene, Luciana Sola, Valentina Milana, Anna Rita Rossi
Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 species complex includes M. incilis Hancock, 1830, M. thoburni (Jordan & Starks, 1896) and at least four "M. curema" mitochondrial lineages, considered as cryptic species. The cytogenetic data on some representatives of the species complex have shown a high cytogenetic diversity. This research reports the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses of white mullet collected in Ecuador. The analyzed specimens were molecularly assigned to the Mugil sp...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919953/cytogenetic-studies-in-the-redtail-catfish-phractocephalus-hemioliopterus-bloch-schneider-1801-siluriformes-pimelodidae-a-giant-fish-from-amazon-basin
#17
Ana Claudia Swarça, Ana Lucia Dias, Alberto Sergio Fenocchio
The objective of this study was to cytogenetically analyze Phractocephalus hemioliopterus comparing the findings with other data to infer relationships among Pimelodidae species. The results revealed a diploid number of 2n = 56 and the karyotype composed of 16 metacentric, 20 submetacentric, 6 subtelocentric and 14 acrocentric chromosomes (FN = 98). The Ag-NORs, 18S rDNA and CMA3 signals were coincident in location occupying the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome pair (23(th)), in a secondary constriction...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919952/variation-in-genome-size-and-karyotype-among-closely-related-aphid-parasitoids-hymenoptera-aphelinidae
#18
Vladimir E Gokhman, Kristen L Kuhn, James B Woolley, Keith R Hopper
Genome sizes were measured and determined for the karyotypes of nine species of aphid parasitoids in the genus Aphelinus Dalman,1820. Large differences in genome size and karyotype were found between Aphelinus species, which is surprising given the similarity in their morphology and life history. Genome sizes estimated from flow cytometry were larger for species in the Aphelinus mali (Haldeman, 1851) complex than those for the species in the Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, 1913 and Aphelinus varipes (Förster,1841) complexes...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919949/first-report-of-b-chromosomes-in-three-neotropical-thorny-catfishes-siluriformes-doradidae
#19
Fábio Hiroshi Takagui, Ana Lucia Dias, José Luís Olivan Birindelli, Ana Claudia Swarça, Renata da Rosa, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Alberto Sergio Fenocchio, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano
The family Doradidae (Siluriformes) is an important group of fishes endemic to freshwater ecosystems in South America. Some cytogenetic studies have been conducted focused on the group; however, there are no reports on the occurrence of B chromosomes for the family. In this paper the chromosomal characteristics of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes, 1840), Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1821) and Ossancora punctata (Kner, 1855) were investigated through classical cytogenetics approaches. The conventional staining reveals 2n=58 in Platydoras armatulus and Pterodoras granulosus, however with distinct karyotypic formulae, possibly originated by pericentric inversions...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767325/evolutionary-relationships-and-cytotaxonomy-considerations-in-the-genus-pyrrhulina-characiformes-lebiasinidae
#20
Renata Luiza Rosa de Moraes, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Manoela Maria Ferreira Marinho, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Terumi Hatanaka, Felipe Faix Barby, Waldo Pinheiro Troy, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Although fishes exhibit the greatest biodiversity among the vertebrates, a large percentage of this fauna is still underexplored on evolutionary cytogenetic questions, particularly the miniature species. The Lebiasinidae family is a particular example for such case. This study is the first one presenting differential cytogenetic methods, such as C-banding, repetitive DNAs mapping, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and whole chromosome painting in lebiasinid species. Pyrrhulina australis and Pyrrhulina aff...
August 2, 2017: Zebrafish
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