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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819135/ribosomal-transcription-is-regulated-by-pgc-1alpha-and-disturbed-in-huntington-s-disease
#1
Sarah Jesse, Hanna Bayer, Marius C Alupei, Martina Zügel, Medhanie Mulaw, Francesca Tuorto, Silke Malmsheimer, Karmveer Singh, Jürgen Steinacker, Uwe Schumann, Albert C Ludolph, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, Anke Witting, Patrick Weydt, Sebastian Iben
PGC-1α is a versatile inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis and responsive to the changing energy demands of the cell. As mitochondrial ATP production requires proteins that derive from translation products of cytosolic ribosomes, we asked whether PGC-1α directly takes part in ribosomal biogenesis. Here, we show that a fraction of cellular PGC-1α localizes to the nucleolus, the site of ribosomal transcription by RNA polymerase I. Upon activation PGC-1α associates with the ribosomal DNA and boosts recruitment of RNA polymerase I and UBF to the rDNA promoter...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808137/regulatory-rnps-a-novel-class-of-ribonucleoproteins-that-potentially-contribute-to-ribosome-heterogeneity
#2
Aaron R Poole, Ian Vicino, Hironori Adachi, Yi-Tao Yu, Michael D Hebert
Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), which are comprised of non-coding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP), which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here we provide data that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs)...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806394/smggds-is-a-transient-nucleolar-protein-that-protects-cells-from-nucleolar-stress-and-promotes-the-cell-cycle-by-regulating-dream-complex-gene-expression
#3
P Gonyo, C Bergom, A C Brandt, S-W Tsaih, Y Sun, T M Bigley, E L Lorimer, S S Terhune, H Rui, M J Flister, R M Long, C L Williams
The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781084/crystal-structure-and-regulation-of-the-citrus-pol-iii-repressor-maf1-by-auxin-and-phosphorylation
#4
Adriana Santos Soprano, Priscila Oliveira de Giuseppe, Hugo Massayoshi Shimo, Tatiani Brenelli Lima, Fernanda Aparecida Heleno Batista, Germanna Lima Righetto, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Daniela Campos Granato, Andrey Fabricio Ziem Nascimento, Fabio Cesar Gozzo, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Mario Tyago Murakami, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
MAF1 is the main RNA polymerase (Pol) III repressor that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The Citrus ortholog, CsMAF1, was shown to restrict cell growth in citrus canker disease but its role in plant development and disease is still unclear. We solved the crystal structure of the globular core of CsMAF1, which reveals additional structural elements compared with the previously available structure of hMAF1, and explored the dynamics of its flexible regions not present in the structure. CsMAF1 accumulated in the nucleolus upon leaf excision, and this translocation was inhibited by auxin and by mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site, S45, to aspartate...
July 24, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780825/-effect-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-of-ovarian-development-and-oocyte-dna-methylation-in-female-mice
#5
J G Gao, L Gong, Z H Wu, J K Yang, A Q Lin, W J Bu
Objective: To explore the effects of cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy on the quality of oocytes and the whole genome DNA methylation in the offspring of female mice during the period of germinal vesicle (GV) . Methods: The pregnant 7 d mice were divided into 3 groups, exposure on the 0, 0.5, 1 lit cigarettes cabinet (volume 18 L) , at 9 am and 3 pm for 1 h twice daily, until delivery. When the mice were 6 weeks old, the organ index and the number of follicles in the ovary were detected by weighing and making HE stained sections...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761359/nuclear-ddx3-expression-predicts-poor-outcome-in-colorectal-and-breast-cancer
#6
Marise R Heerma van Voss, Farhad Vesuna, Guus M Bol, Jan Meeldijk, Ana Raman, G Johan Offerhaus, Horst Buerger, Arvind H Patel, Elsken van der Wall, Paul J van Diest, Venu Raman
PURPOSE: DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3) is an RNA helicase with oncogenic properties that shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The majority of DDX3 is found in the cytoplasm, but a subset of tumors has distinct nuclear DDX3 localization of yet unknown biological significance. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of and mechanisms behind nuclear DDX3 expression in colorectal and breast cancer. METHODS: Expression of nuclear DDX3 and the nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 304 colorectal and 292 breast cancer patient samples...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754949/cell-permeable-nanobodies-for-targeted-immunolabelling-and-antigen-manipulation-in-living-cells
#7
Henry D Herce, Dominik Schumacher, Anselm F L Schneider, Anne K Ludwig, Florian A Mann, Marion Fillies, Marc-André Kasper, Stefan Reinke, Eberhard Krause, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso, Christian P R Hackenberger
Functional antibody delivery in living cells would enable the labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens, which constitutes a long-thought goal in cell biology and medicine. Here we present a modular strategy to create functional cell-permeable nanobodies capable of targeted labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens in living cells. The cell-permeable nanobodies are formed by the site-specific attachment of intracellularly stable (or cleavable) cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides to camelid-derived single-chain VHH antibody fragments...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751161/new-perspectives-of-physiological-and-pathological-functions-of-nucleolin-ncl
#8
REVIEW
Wenyu Jia, Zhenyu Yao, Jiajun Zhao, Qingbo Guan, Ling Gao
Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional protein that mainly localized in the nucleolus, it is also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. The three main structural domains allow the interaction of NCL with different proteins and RNA sequences. Moreover, specific post-translational modifications and its shuttling property also contribute to its multifunctionality. NCL has been demonstrated to be involved in a variety of aspects such as ribosome biogenesis, chromatin organization and stability, DNA and RNA metabolism, cytokinesis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis regulation, stress response and microRNA processing...
July 24, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749201/the-nucleolus-a-new-home-for-the-piddosome
#9
Lisa Bouchier-Hayes, Samuel Sidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749191/disease-related-autoantibody-profile-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#10
Christos Liaskos, Emmanouela Marou, Theodora Simopoulou, Maria Barmakoudi, Georgios Efthymiou, Thomas Scheper, Wolfgang Meyer, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies (autoAbs) help in diagnosis and predicting clinical phenotypes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the clinical utility of 13 SSc-related autoAbs in SSc patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 131 consecutive patients with SSc (111 female, mean age 58.1 ± 14 years; 49 with diffused cutaneous SSc [dcSSc] and 82 with limited cutaneous SSc [lcSSc]) were analysed by a multiplex line immunoassay (Euroimmun) for autoantibodies (autoAbs) against 13 SSc-related antigens...
July 27, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744861/gonadal-morphogenesis-and-sex-differentiation-in-cultured-ussuri-catfish-tachysurus-ussuriensis
#11
Z J Pan, C K Zhu, H Wang, F J Zhou, X G Qiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal developmental time to perform sex reversal in Ussuri catfish Tachysurus ussuriensis, to develop monosex breeding in aquaculture. Systematic observations of gonadal sex differentiation of P. ussiriensis were conducted. The genital ridge formed at 9 days post fertilization (dpf) and germ cells begin to proliferate at 17 dpf. The ovarian cavity began forming on 21 dpf and completed by 25 dpf while presumptive testis remained quiescent. The primary oocytes were at the chromatin nucleolus stage by 30 dpf, the peri-nucleolus stage by 44 dpf and the cortical alveoli stage by 64 dpf...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741861/parvularia-atlantis-gen-et-sp-nov-a-nucleariid-filose-amoeba-holomycota-opisthokonta
#12
David López-Escardó, Purificación López-García, David Moreira, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Guifré Torruella
The opisthokonts constitute a eukaryotic supergroup divided into two main clades: the holozoans, which include animals and their unicellular relatives, and the holomycotans, which include fungi, opisthosporidians and nucleariids. Nucleariids are phagotrophic filose amoebae that phenotypically resemble more their distant holozoan cousins than their holomycotan phylogenetic relatives. Despite their evolutionary interest, the diversity and internal phylogenetic relationships within the nucleariids remain poorly studied...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723680/meiotic-recombination-in-the-giraffe-g-reticulata
#13
Miluse Vozdova, Jan Fröhlich, Svatava Kubickova, Hana Sebestova, Jiri Rubes
Recently, the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata) was identified as a distinct species, which emphasized the need for intensive research in this interesting animal. To shed light on the meiotic process as a source of biodiversity, we analysed the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination in 2 reticulated giraffe males. We used immunofluorescence detection of synaptonemal complex protein (SYCP3), meiotic double strand breaks (DSB, marked as RAD51 foci) in leptonema, and crossovers (COs, as MLH1 foci) in pachynema...
July 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718829/aspirin-prevention-of-colorectal-cancer-focus-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-the-nucleolus
#14
REVIEW
Jingyu Chen, Lesley A Stark
Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents...
July 18, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706212/epigenetics-of-the-preferential-silencing-of-brachypodium-stacei-originated-35s-rdna-loci-in-the-allotetraploid-grass-brachypodium-hybridum
#15
Natalia Borowska-Zuchowska, Robert Hasterok
Nucleolar dominance (ND), initially described as 'differential amphiplasty', is a phenomenon observed in some plant and animal allopolyploids and hybrids in which the selective suppression of the activity of 35S rRNA gene loci that have been inherited from one of the two or more ancestral genomes occurs. Although more than 80 years have passed since the discovery of ND, there is still a significant lack in our understanding of the mechanisms that determine this phenomenon. Here, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic status of 35S rRNA gene loci in the monocotyledonous Brachypodium hybridum, which is an allotetraploid that has resulted from a cross between B...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704696/the-function-of-dna-binding-protein-nucleophosmin-in-aav-replication
#16
Stifani Satkunanathan, Robin Thorpe, Yuan Zhao
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) contain minimal viral proteins necessary for their replication. During virus assembly, AAV acquire, inherently and submissively, various cellular proteins. Our previous studies identified the association of AAV vectors with the DNA binding protein nucleophosmin (NPM1). Nucleophosmin has been reported to enhance AAV infection by mobilizing AAV capsids into and out of the nucleolus, indicating the importance of NPM1 in the AAV life cycle; however the role of NPM1 in AAV production remains unknown...
July 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692326/deletion-of-eif2%C3%AE-lysine-stretches-creates-a-dominant-negative-that-affects-the-translation-and-proliferation-in-human-cell-line-a-tool-for-arresting-the-cell-growth
#17
Gabrielle Dias Salton, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia Laurino, Nicolás Oliveira Mega, Andrés Delgado-Cañedo, Niclas Setterblad, Maryvonnick Carmagnat, Ricardo Machado Xavier, Elizabeth Cirne-Lima, Guido Lenz, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, Jomar Pereira Laurino
BACKGROUND: Eukaryote initiation factor 2 subunit β (eIF2β) plays a crucial role in regulation protein synthesis, which mediates the interaction of eIF2 with mRNA. eIF2β contains evolutionarily conserved polylysine stretches in amino-terminal region and a zinc finger motif in the carboxy-terminus. METHODS: The gene eIF2β was cloned under tetracycline transcription control and the polylysine stretches were deleted by site-directed mutagenesis (eIF2βΔ3K). The plasmid was transfected into HEK 293 TetR cells...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685141/placeholder-factors-in-ribosome-biogenesis-please-pave-my-way
#18
REVIEW
Francisco J Espinar-Marchena, Reyes Babiano, Jesús Cruz
The synthesis of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes is an extraordinarily energy-demanding cellular activity that occurs progressively from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In the nucleolus, precursor rRNAs associate with a myriad of trans-acting factors and some ribosomal proteins to form pre-ribosomal particles. These factors include snoRNPs, nucleases, ATPases, GTPases, RNA helicases, and a vast list of proteins with no predicted enzymatic activity. Their coordinate activity orchestrates in a spatiotemporal manner the modification and processing of precursor rRNAs, the rearrangement reactions required for the formation of productive RNA folding intermediates, the ordered assembly of the ribosomal proteins, and the export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm; thus, providing speed, directionality and accuracy to the overall process of formation of translation-competent ribosomes...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671574/the-nucleolus-in-genome-maintenance-and-repair
#19
REVIEW
Maria Tsekrekou, Kalliopi Stratigi, Georgia Chatzinikolaou
The nucleolus is the subnuclear membrane-less organelle where rRNA is transcribed and processed and ribosomal assembly occurs. During the last 20 years, however, the nucleolus has emerged as a multifunctional organelle, regulating processes that go well beyond its traditional role. Moreover, the unique organization of rDNA in tandem arrays and its unusually high transcription rates make it prone to unscheduled DNA recombination events and frequent RNA:DNA hybrids leading to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). If not properly repaired, rDNA damage may contribute to premature disease onset and aging...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657087/halides-tuning-the-subcellular-targeting-in-two-photon-emissive-complexes-via-different-uptake-mechanisms
#20
Xiaohe Tian, Yingzhong Zhu, Qiong Zhang, Ruilong Zhang, Jieying Wu, Yupeng Tian
We reported a simple and universal strategy by tuning halides (Cl, Br and I) in terpyridine-Zn(ii) complexes to achieve different subcellular organelle targeting (nucleolus, nucleus and intracellular membrane systems, respectively) via different cellular uptake mechanisms, resulting from halide triggering different polymorphs of these complexes.
June 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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