keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nucleolus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339487/nucleolar-asymmetry-and-the-importance-of-septin-integrity-upon-cell-cycle-arrest
#1
Urvashi Rai, Fadi Najm, Alan M Tartakoff
Cell cycle arrest can be imposed by inactivating the anaphase promoting complex (APC). In S. cerevisiae this arrest has been reported to stabilize a metaphase-like intermediate in which the nuclear envelope spans the bud neck, while chromatin repeatedly translocates between the mother and bud domains. The present investigation was undertaken to learn how other features of nuclear organization are affected upon depletion of the APC activator, Cdc20. We observe that the spindle pole bodies and the spindle repeatedly translocate across the narrow orifice at the level of the neck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334742/recognition-but-no-repair-of-abasic-site-in-single-stranded-dna-by-human-ribosomal-us3-protein-residing-within-intact-40s-subunit
#2
Anastasia S Grosheva, Dmitry O Zharkov, Joachim Stahl, Alexander V Gopanenko, Alexey E Tupikin, Marsel R Kabilov, Dmitri M Graifer, Galina G Karpova
Isolated human ribosomal protein uS3 has extra-ribosomal functions including those related to base excision DNA repair, e.g. AP lyase activity that nicks double-stranded (ds) DNA 3΄ to the abasic (AP) site. However, the ability of uS3 residing within ribosome to recognize and cleave damaged DNA has never been addressed. Here, we compare interactions of single-stranded (ss) DNA and dsDNA bearing AP site with human ribosome-bound uS3 and with the isolated protein, whose interactions with ssDNA were not yet studied...
January 30, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334682/phytochemical-induced-nucleolar-stress-results-in-the-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#3
Anna Lewinska, Diana Bednarz, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Maciej Wnuk
The nucleolus is a stress sensor and compromised nucleolar activity may be considered as an attractive anticancer strategy. In the present study, the effects of three plant-derived natural compounds, i.e., sulforaphane (SFN), ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on nucleolar state were investigated in breast cancer cell lines of different receptor status, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Cytostatic action of phytochemicals against breast cancer cells was observed at low micromolar concentration window (5-20µM) and mediated by elevated p21 levels, and cell proliferation of SFN-, UA- and BA-treated normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was unaffected...
March 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332494/pten%C3%AE-is-an-alternatively-translated-isoform-of-pten-that-regulates-rdna-transcription
#4
Hui Liang, Xi Chen, Qi Yin, Danhui Ruan, Xuyang Zhao, Cong Zhang, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN is a critical tumour suppressor that is frequently mutated in human cancer. We have previously identified a CUG initiated PTEN isoform designated PTENα, which functions in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we report the identification of another N-terminal extended PTEN isoform, designated PTENβ. PTENβ translation is initiated from an AUU codon upstream of and in-frame with the AUG initiation sequence for canonical PTEN. We show that the Kozak context and a downstream hairpin structure are critical for this alternative initiation...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314932/impaired-monocyte-activation-in-schizophrenia-ultrastructural-abnormalities-and-increased-il-1%C3%AE-production
#5
Natalya A Uranova, P D Bonartsev, L V Androsova, V I Rakhmanova, V G Kaleda
Monocyte activation is consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). We aimed to study the ultrastructure of monocytes and monocyte production of IL-1β in drug-free patients with SZ and controls. Monocytes from young (18-30 y.o.) healthy and SZ men in relapse were studied. Electron microscopy and morphometry were applied to estimate areas of monocytes, volume density (Vv), areas, and number of organelles. The production IL-1β by monocytes was estimated by the ELISA method. Group differences were examined using ANCOVA...
March 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296547/analysis-of-silver-binding-nucleolar-organizer-regions-in-exfoliative-cytology-smears-of-potentially-malignant-and-malignant-oral-lesions
#6
G V Sowmya, P Nahar, M Astekar, H Agarwal, M P Singh
Nucleolar organizer regions are nucleolar components that contain proteins that are stained selectively by silver methods; they can be identified as black dots throughout the nucleolus and are known as silver binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). The number of AgNOR is related to the cell cycle and the proliferative activity of the cells. We investigated AgNOR using exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant oral lesions. Eighty individuals were divided into four equal groups: healthy controls, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296064/box-c-d-small-nucleolar-rna-genes-and-the-prader-willi-syndrome-a-complex-interplay
#7
REVIEW
Jérôme Cavaillé
The nucleolus of mammalian cells contains hundreds of box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (SNORDs). Through their ability to base pair with ribosomal RNA precursors, most play important roles in the synthesis and/or activity of ribosomes, either by guiding sequence-specific 2'-O-methylations or by facilitating RNA folding and cleavages. A growing number of SNORD genes with elusive functions have been discovered recently. Intriguingly, the vast majority of them are located in two large, imprinted gene clusters at human chromosome region 15q11q13 (the SNURF-SNRPN domain) and at 14q32 (the DLK1-DIO3 domain) where they are expressed, respectively, only from the paternally and maternally inherited alleles...
March 13, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296042/nickel-sulfate-induced-apoptosis-via-activating-ros-dependent-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathways-in-rat-leydig-cells
#8
Lingyue Zou, Li Su, Yifan Sun, Aijie Han, Xuhong Chang, An Zhu, Fangfang Liu, Jin Li, Yingbiao Sun
Nickel can induce apoptosis of testicular Leydig cells in mice, whereas the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of nickel-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediated apoptosis pathways in rat Leydig cells. Fluorescent DCF and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining were performed to measure the production of ROS and apoptosis in Leydig cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were conducted to analyze the key genes and proteins involved in mitochondria and ERS apoptotic pathways...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277604/a-new-heterolobosean-amoeboflagellate-tetramitus-dokdoensis-n-sp-isolated-from-a-freshwater-pond-on-dokdo-island-in-the-east-sea-korea
#9
Jong Soo Park
The genus Tetramitus is a representative amoeboflagellate group within the Heterolobosea, and currently contains over a dozen species. Here, a new heterolobosean amoeboflagellate was isolated from a freshwater pond on Dokdo Island, Korea. The amoebae have eruptive pseudopodia, no uroidal filament, and a nucleus with a central nucleolus. The length and width of the amoebae are 15.5-28.0 μm and 5.4-12.6 μm, respectively. The flagellates are conical, with 4 flagella of equal length (~10 μm). There is a discrete rostrum in the subapical region of the flagellate form...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264649/segmental-duplications-and-evolutionary-acquisition-of-uv-damage-response-in-the-spata31-gene-family-of-primates-and-humans
#10
Cemalettin Bekpen, Sven Künzel, Chen Xie, Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth, Yen-Lung Lin, Omer Gokcumen, Cezmi A Akdis, Diethard Tautz
BACKGROUND: Segmental duplications are an abundant source for novel gene functions and evolutionary adaptations. This mechanism of generating novelty was very active during the evolution of primates particularly in the human lineage. Here, we characterize the evolution and function of the SPATA31 gene family (former designation FAM75A), which was previously shown to be among the gene families with the strongest signal of positive selection in hominoids. The mouse homologue for this gene family is a single copy gene expressed during spermatogenesis...
March 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263991/selective-inhibition-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-as-a-potential-approach-to-treat-african-trypanosomiasis
#11
Louise E Kerry, Elaine E Pegg, Donald P Cameron, James Budzak, Gretchen Poortinga, Katherine M Hannan, Ross D Hannan, Gloria Rudenko
Trypanosoma brucei relies on an essential Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat for survival in the mammalian bloodstream. High VSG expression within an expression site body (ESB) is mediated by RNA polymerase I (Pol I), which in other eukaryotes exclusively transcribes ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). As T. brucei is reliant on Pol I for VSG transcription, we investigated Pol I transcription inhibitors for selective anti-trypanosomal activity. The Pol I inhibitors quarfloxin (CX-3543), CX-5461, and BMH-21 are currently under investigation for treating cancer, as rapidly dividing cancer cells are particularly dependent on high levels of Pol I transcription compared with nontransformed cells...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262969/relocation-of-npm-affects-the-malignant-phenotypes-of-hepatoma-smmc-7721-cells
#12
Xiao Li, Dong-Hui Xu, Fan Liu, Guo-Yan Liu, Kun Lu, Xiao-Ling Deng, Qi-Fu Li, Song-Lin Shi
Nucleophosmin(NPM), heavily implicated in diverse solid tumors, is an important multifunctional protein mainly located in the nucleolus. Our previous study confirmed that NPM can also localize and accumulate in the cytoplasm of liver cancer cells. However, the role of cytoplasmic NPM (NPMc +) is unclear. Here we showed that both nucleolar NPM and NPMc+ could promote cell proliferation, although the effect of NPMc+ was weaker than that of NPM. Cell adhesion ability of hepatoma cells was significantly reduced to a greater extent by NPMc+ expression...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259884/the-dicentric-chromosome-dic-20-22-is-a-recurrent-abnormality-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-is-a-product-of-telomere-fusion
#13
Ruth N MacKinnon, Hendrika M Duivenvoorden, Lynda J Campbell, Meaghan Wall
We describe a recurrent dicentric chromosome formed by telomere fusion between chromosome 20 and chromosome 22 in 4 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In particular, the presence of residual telomere sequences at the site of translocation in 3 of the 4 cases makes a compelling case for telomere fusion. This is the first description of a recurrent telomere fusion event in any malignant condition. The 20q subtelomeric region was retained in all 4 examples despite deletion of the 20q12 region closer to the centromere...
March 4, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245368/-clinical-and-immunophenotypic-properties-of-small-cell-variant-of-t-cell-prolymphocytic-leukemia
#14
Ya-Ping Yu, Li-Ping Wang, Ping Song, Jian-Gang Mei, Zhi-Ming An, Xiao-Gang Zhou, Feng Li, Yu-Mei Tang, Yong-Ping Zhai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the patients with small cell variant of T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia(T-PLL). METHODS: Peripheral blood and bone marrow cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic examination, and T-cell receptor(TCR) gene rearrangement detection were used to verify the diagnosis for 2 patients with lymphocytosis. Two patients were treated with combined chemotherapeutic protocol based on fludarabine...
February 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224716/fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-of-the-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-with-a-solid-component-a-cytological-and-clinical-correlation
#15
Ryuji Ohashi, Yukihiro Murase, Miyuki Matsubara, Yasuhiko Watarai, Takehito Igarashi, Iwao Sugitani, Zenya Naito
BACKGROUND: Solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) containing a solid component (SC), and thus its cytological and clinicopathological features remain elusive. We examined fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytological features of PTC with variable degrees of SC (20-80% of the tumor)(PTCSC) in comparison to well-differentiated PTC (WPTC). METHODS: Twenty-six cases of PTCSC were histologically stratified into major-SC (SC >50% of the tumor) and minor-SC (<49%) groups...
February 22, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223458/mutation-of-the-n-terminal-region-of-chikungunya-virus-capsid-protein-implications-for-vaccine-design
#16
Adam Taylor, Xiang Liu, Ali Zaid, Lucas Y H Goh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Roy A Hall, Andres Merits, Suresh Mahalingam
Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218222/human-u-three-protein-14a-expression-is-increased-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-associated-with-poor-prognosis
#17
Jing-Yi Zhang, Da Xu, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Yuan Li, Li-Jun Wang, Bao-Cai Xing
BACKGROUND: Human U three protein 14a (hUTP14a) promotes p53 degradation. Moreover, hUTP14a expression is upregulated in several types of tumors. However, the expression pattern of hUTP14a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hUTP14a expression and its prognostic value in HCC. METHODS: The hUTP14a expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in HCC tissue specimens. The correlations between hUTP14a expression and clinicopathological variables were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212567/ribosomal-dna-status-inferred-from-dna-cloud-assays-and-mass-spectrometry-identification-of-agarose-squeezed-proteins-interacting-with-chromatin-aspic-ms
#18
Kamil Krol, Justyna Jendrysek, Janusz Debski, Marek Skoneczny, Anna Kurlandzka, Joanna Kaminska, Michal Dadlez, Adrianna Skoneczna
Ribosomal RNA-encoding genes (rDNA) are the most abundant genes in eukaryotic genomes. To meet the high demand for rRNA, rDNA genes are present in multiple tandem repeats clustered on a single or several chromosomes and are vastly transcribed. To facilitate intensive transcription and prevent rDNA destabilization, the rDNA-encoding portion of the chromosome is confined in the nucleolus. However, the rDNA region is susceptible to recombination and DNA damage, accumulating mutations, rearrangements and atypical DNA structures...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185826/chaetocin-a-histone-methyltransferase-inhibitor-impairs-proliferation-arrests-cell-cycle-and-induces-nucleolar-disassembly-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#19
Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, Maria Cristina M Motta
The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages...
February 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158219/tissue-specific-features-of-the-x-chromosome-and-nucleolus-spatial-dynamics-in-a-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-atroparvus
#20
Semen M Bondarenko, Gleb N Artemov, Igor V Sharakhov, Vladimir N Stegniy
Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
20527
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"