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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445143/the-igh-locus-relocalizes-to-a-recombination-compartment-in-the-perinucleolar-region-of-differentiating-b-lymphocytes
#1
Andrey Pichugin, Olga V Iarovaia, Alexey Gavrilov, Ilya Sklyar, Natalja Barinova, Aleksandr Barinov, Evgeny Ivashkin, Gersende Caron, Said Aoufouchi, Sergey V Razin, Thierry Fest, Marc Lipinski, Yegor S Vassetzky
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene loci are subject to specific recombination events during B-cell differentiation including somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination which mark the end of immunoglobulin gene maturation in germinal centers of secondary lymph nodes. These two events rely on the activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) which requires DNA double strand breaks be created, a potential danger to the cell. Applying 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with immunofluorescence staining to a previously described experimental system recapitulating normal B-cell differentiation ex vivo, we have kinetically analyzed the radial positioning of the two IGH gene loci as well as their proximity with the nucleolus, heterochromatin and γH2AX foci...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437137/differential-requirement-of-the-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-for-plant-virus-accumulation-and-interaction-of-s6-kinase-with-potyviral-vpg
#2
Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Dehui Xi, Sidona Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Jari P T Valkonen, Steven A Whitham
Ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is an indispensable plant protein regulated, in part, by ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) which, in turn, is a key regulator of plant responses to stresses and developmental cues. Increased expression of RPS6 was detected in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by diverse plant viruses. Silencing of the RPS6 and S6K genes in N. benthamiana affected accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), and Potato virus A (PVA) in contrast to Turnip crinkle virus and Tobacco mosaic virus...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435655/a-80-year-old-woman-with-b-cell-prolymphocytic-leukemia
#4
Alparslan Merdin, Jale Yıldız, Sinan Dal Mehmet, Merih Kızıl Çakar, Hikmetullah Batgi, Emre Tekgündüz, Aykut Onursever, Fevzi Altuntaş
Prolymhocytic leukemia (PLL) is a rare subtype of lymphocytic leukemias and its cells are immature lymphocytes. It is divided into 2 subgroups: T-PLL and B-PLL according to the lymphocytic origin of the cells. Discriminating B-PLL from other diseases with clinically-similar features is important because of the different treatment approaches and follow-up programs. Hereby, we report a 80-year-old woman presenting with fatigue, leucocytosis and mild anemia. Her peripheral blood smear evaluation revealed 85% prolymphocytes with moderately condensed nuclear chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and a faintly basophilic cytoplasm...
February 23, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#5
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432080/npm1-directs-piddosome-dependent-caspase-2-activation-in-the-nucleolus
#6
Kiyohiro Ando, Melissa J Parsons, Richa B Shah, Chloé I Charendoff, Sheré L Paris, Peter H Liu, Sara R Fassio, Brittany A Rohrman, Ruth Thompson, Andrew Oberst, Samuel Sidi, Lisa Bouchier-Hayes
The PIDDosome (PIDD-RAIDD-caspase-2 complex) is considered to be the primary signaling platform for caspase-2 activation in response to genotoxic stress. Yet studies of PIDD-deficient mice show that caspase-2 activation can proceed in the absence of PIDD. Here we show that DNA damage induces the assembly of at least two distinct activation platforms for caspase-2: a cytoplasmic platform that is RAIDD dependent but PIDD independent, and a nucleolar platform that requires both PIDD and RAIDD. Furthermore, the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM1) acts as a scaffold for PIDD and is essential for PIDDosome assembly in the nucleolus after DNA damage...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428707/advanced-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-complexities-of-treatment-and-emerging-therapeutic-options
#7
REVIEW
Chandra Diwakarla, Katherine Hannan, Nadine Hein, Desmond Yip
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis regardless of stage. To date the mainstay of therapy for advanced disease has been chemotherapy with little incremental improvements in outcome. Despite extensive research investigating new treatment options the current practices continue to utilise fluorouracil or gemcitabine containing combinations. The need for novel therapeutic approaches is mandated by the ongoing poor survival rates associated with this disease. One such approach may include manipulation of ribosome biogenesis and the nucleolar stress response, which has recently been applied to haematological malignancies such as lymphoma and prostate cancer with promising results...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420437/bidirectional-nucleolar-dysfunction-in-c9orf72-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#8
Sarah Mizielinska, Charlotte E Ridler, Rubika Balendra, Annora Thoeng, Nathan S Woodling, Friedrich A Grässer, Vincent Plagnol, Tammaryn Lashley, Linda Partridge, Adrian M Isaacs
An intronic GGGGCC expansion in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The repeat expansion leads to the generation of sense and antisense repeat RNA aggregates and dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, generated by repeat-associated non-ATG translation. The arginine-rich DPR proteins poly(glycine-arginine or GR) and poly(proline-arginine or PR) are potently neurotoxic and can localise to the nucleolus when expressed in cells, resulting in enlarged nucleoli with disrupted functionality...
April 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416769/nuclear-organization-of-nucleotide-excision-repair-is-mediated-by-ring1b-dependent-h2a-ubiquitylation
#9
Shalaka Chitale, Holger Richly
One of the major cellular DNA repair pathways is nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is the primary pathway for repair of various DNA lesions caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts. Although lesion-containing DNA associates with the nuclear matrix after UV irradiation it is still not understood how nuclear organization affects NER. Analyzing unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) indicates that NER preferentially occurs in specific nuclear areas, viz the nucleolus...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416658/correction-to-supporting-information-for-falahati-and-wieschaus-independent-active-and-thermodynamic-processes-govern-the-nucleolus-assembly-in-vivo
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390868/small-nucleolar-noncoding-rna-snora23-upregulated-in-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-regulates-expression-of-syne2-to-promote-growth-and-metastasis-of-xenograft-tumors-in-mice
#11
Lin Cui, Kenji Nakano, Sumalee Obchoei, Kiyoko Setoguchi, Masaki Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Obika, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Small nucleolar noncoding RNAs (snoRNAs) regulate function of ribosomes, and specific snoRNAs are dysregulated in some cancer cells. We investigated dysregulation of snoRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: We investigated snoRNA expression in PDAC cell lines by cDNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. In PDAC (n=133), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN, n=16), mucinous cystic neoplasm-associated PDAC (n=1), and non-tumor pancreas (n=8) and liver (n=3) tissues from subjects who underwent surgical resection, levels of snoRNA were measured by qRT-PCR and compared with clinicopathological parameters and survival times determined by Kaplan Meier analysis...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375043/take-a-look-at-plant-dna-replication-recent-insights-and-new-questions
#12
Savannah D Savadel, Hank W Bass
Recent advances in replicative DNA labeling technology have allowed new ways to study DNA replication in living plants. Temporal and spatial aspects of DNA replication programs are believed to derive from genomic structure and function. Bass et al. (2015) recently visualized DNA synthesis using 3 D microscopy of nuclei at three sub-stages of S phase: early, middle and late. This addendum expands on that study by comparing plant and animal DNA replication patterns, by considering implications of the two-compartment model of euchromatin, and by exploring the meaning of the DNA labeling signals inside the nucleolus...
April 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369509/revisiting-the-human-seminiferous-epithelium-cycle
#13
F Nihi, M L M Gomes, F A R Carvalho, A B Reis, R Martello, R C N Melo, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man...
March 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360124/genetic-mutations-linked-to-parkinson-s-disease-differentially-control-nucleolar-activity-in-pre-symptomatic-mouse-models
#14
V Evsyukov, A Domanskyi, H Bierhoff, S Gispert, R Mustafa, F Schlaudraff, B Liss, R Parlato
Genetic mutations underlying neurodegenerative disorders impair ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription suggesting nucleolar dysfunction as a novel pathomechanism in polyglutamine diseases and in certain forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia. Here, we investigated nucleolar activity in pre-symptomatic digenic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) modeling the multifactorial etiology of this disease.To this end, we analyzed a novel mouse model mildly overexpressing the mutant human-A53T-alpha-synuclein (hA53T-SNCA/PARK1) in a PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1/PARK6) knock-out background and mutant mice lacking both DJ-1/PARK7 and PINK1/PARK6...
March 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348546/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-molecular-pathology-in-the-frontal-cortex-in-typical-and-rapidly-progressive-forms
#15
Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Irene López-González, Oriol Grau-Rivera, María Francisca García-Garrido, Anusha Konetti, Franc Llorens, Saima Zafar, Margarita Carmona, José Antonio Del Rio, Inga Zerr, Ellen Gelpi, Isidro Ferrer
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess mitochondrial function, energy, and purine metabolism, protein synthesis machinery from the nucleolus to the ribosome, inflammation, and expression of newly identified ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) in the frontal cortex of typical cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and cases with rapid clinical course (rpDLB: 2 years or less) compared with middle-aged non-affected individuals, in order to learn about the biochemical abnormalities underlying Lewy body pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339487/nucleolar-asymmetry-and-the-importance-of-septin-integrity-upon-cell-cycle-arrest
#16
Urvashi Rai, Fadi Najm, Alan M Tartakoff
Cell cycle arrest can be imposed by inactivating the anaphase promoting complex (APC). In S. cerevisiae this arrest has been reported to stabilize a metaphase-like intermediate in which the nuclear envelope spans the bud neck, while chromatin repeatedly translocates between the mother and bud domains. The present investigation was undertaken to learn how other features of nuclear organization are affected upon depletion of the APC activator, Cdc20. We observe that the spindle pole bodies and the spindle repeatedly translocate across the narrow orifice at the level of the neck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334742/recognition-but-no-repair-of-abasic-site-in-single-stranded-dna-by-human-ribosomal-us3-protein-residing-within-intact-40s-subunit
#17
Anastasia S Grosheva, Dmitry O Zharkov, Joachim Stahl, Alexander V Gopanenko, Alexey E Tupikin, Marsel R Kabilov, Dmitri M Graifer, Galina G Karpova
Isolated human ribosomal protein uS3 has extra-ribosomal functions including those related to base excision DNA repair, e.g. AP lyase activity that nicks double-stranded (ds) DNA 3΄ to the abasic (AP) site. However, the ability of uS3 residing within ribosome to recognize and cleave damaged DNA has never been addressed. Here, we compare interactions of single-stranded (ss) DNA and dsDNA bearing AP site with human ribosome-bound uS3 and with the isolated protein, whose interactions with ssDNA were not yet studied...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334682/phytochemical-induced-nucleolar-stress-results-in-the-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#18
Anna Lewinska, Diana Bednarz, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Maciej Wnuk
The nucleolus is a stress sensor and compromised nucleolar activity may be considered as an attractive anticancer strategy. In the present study, the effects of three plant-derived natural compounds, i.e., sulforaphane (SFN), ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on nucleolar state were investigated in breast cancer cell lines of different receptor status, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Cytostatic action of phytochemicals against breast cancer cells was observed at low micromolar concentration window (5-20µM) and mediated by elevated p21 levels, and cell proliferation of SFN-, UA- and BA-treated normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was unaffected...
March 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332494/pten%C3%AE-is-an-alternatively-translated-isoform-of-pten-that-regulates-rdna-transcription
#19
Hui Liang, Xi Chen, Qi Yin, Danhui Ruan, Xuyang Zhao, Cong Zhang, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN is a critical tumour suppressor that is frequently mutated in human cancer. We have previously identified a CUG initiated PTEN isoform designated PTENα, which functions in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we report the identification of another N-terminal extended PTEN isoform, designated PTENβ. PTENβ translation is initiated from an AUU codon upstream of and in-frame with the AUG initiation sequence for canonical PTEN. We show that the Kozak context and a downstream hairpin structure are critical for this alternative initiation...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314932/impaired-monocyte-activation-in-schizophrenia-ultrastructural-abnormalities-and-increased-il-1%C3%AE-production
#20
Natalya A Uranova, P D Bonartsev, L V Androsova, V I Rakhmanova, V G Kaleda
Monocyte activation is consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). We aimed to study the ultrastructure of monocytes and monocyte production of IL-1β in drug-free patients with SZ and controls. Monocytes from young (18-30 y.o.) healthy and SZ men in relapse were studied. Electron microscopy and morphometry were applied to estimate areas of monocytes, volume density (Vv), areas, and number of organelles. The production IL-1β by monocytes was estimated by the ELISA method. Group differences were examined using ANCOVA...
March 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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