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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099941/the-roles-of-rrp15-in-nucleolar-formation-ribosome-biogenesis-and-checkpoint-control-in-human-cells
#1
Zhixiong Dong, Changjun Zhu, Qimin Zhan, Wei Jiang
The nucleolus controls ribosome biogenesis and its perturbation induces nucleolar stress that inhibits cell cycle progression and activates checkpoint responses. Here, we investigate the roles of ribosomal RNA processing protein, RRP15, in nucleolar formation, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression and checkpoint control in human cells. RRP15 is localized in the nucleolus and required for nucleolar formation. In contrast to the budding yeast Rrp15p that was reported as a component of pre-60S subunits, RRP15 is found in both pre-40S and pre-60S subunits and involved in regulating rRNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096332/human-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-repressing-factor-acts-as-a-stress-regulated-switch-for-ribosomal-rna-processing-and-nucleolar-homeostasis-surveillance
#2
Marta Coccia, Antonio Rossi, Anna Riccio, Edoardo Trotta, Maria Gabriella Santoro
The nucleolus, a dynamic nuclear compartment long regarded as the cell ribosome factory, is emerging as an important player in the regulation of cell survival and recovery from stress. In larger eukaryotes, the stress-induced transcriptional response is mediated by a family of heat-shock transcription factors. Among these, HSF1, considered the master regulator of stress-induced transcriptional responses, controls the expression of cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs), molecular chaperones/cochaperones constituting a major component of the cell protein quality control machinery essential to circumvent stress-induced degradation and aggregation of misfolded proteins...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081279/karyotype-analysis-and-ribosomal-gene-localization-of-spotted-knifejaw-oplegnathus-punctatus
#3
P Z Li, D D Cao, X B Liu, Y J Wang, H Y Yu, X J Li, Q Q Zhang, X B Wang
The spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, is an important aquaculture fish species in China. To better understand the chromosomal microstructure and the karyotypic origin of this species, cytogenetic analysis was performed using Giemsa staining to identify metaphase chromosomes, C-banding to detect C-positive heterochromatin, silver staining to identify the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for physical mapping of the major (18S rDNA) and minor (5S rDNA) ribosomal genes...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072865/reading-the-evolution-of-compartmentalization-in-the-ribosome-assembly-toolbox-the-yrg-protein-family
#4
Pablo Mier, Antonio J Pérez-Pulido, Emmanuel G Reynaud, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Reconstructing the transition from a single compartment bacterium to a highly compartmentalized eukaryotic cell is one of the most studied problems of evolutionary cell biology. However, timing and details of the establishment of compartmentalization are unclear and difficult to assess. Here, we propose the use of molecular markers specific to cellular compartments to set up a framework to advance the understanding of this complex intracellular process. Specifically, we use a protein family related to ribosome biogenesis, YRG (YlqF related GTPases), whose evolution is linked to the establishment of cellular compartments, leveraging the current genomic data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071717/tryptophan-and-non-tryptophan-fluorescence-of-the-eye-lens-proteins-provides-diagnostics-of-cataract-at-the-molecular-level
#5
Anna Gakamsky, Rory R Duncan, Nicola M Howarth, Baljean Dhillon, Kim K Buttenschön, Daniel J Daly, Dmitry Gakamsky
The chemical nature of the non-tryptophan (non-Trp) fluorescence of porcine and human eye lens proteins was identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Fluorescence Steady-State and Lifetime spectroscopy as post-translational modifications (PTM) of Trp and Arg amino acid residues. Fluorescence intensity profiles measured along the optical axis of human eye lenses with age-related nuclear cataract showed increasing concentration of fluorescent PTM towards the lens centre in accord with the increased optical density in the lens nucleolus...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069438/ribosomal-protein-pno40-mediates-nucleolar-sequestration-of-sr-family-splicing-factors-and-its-overexpression-impairs-mrna-metabolism
#6
Yen-Ming Lin, Pao-Hsien Chu, Yun-Zhu Li, Pin Ouyang
The nucleolus acts as a key stress sensor and responds to changes in cellular growth rate and metabolic activity. In addition to its major role as the site of ribosome biogenesis, high-throughput proteomic analyses of purified nucleoli have highlighted the multi-functional nature of these organelles, and several SR family splicing factors, including SRSF1 and SRSF2, have been detected in human nucleolar proteome analysis. Here we provide evidence that pNO40, a 60s ribosomal protein associated with nucleoli, acts as a mediator for recruitment of SR family splicing factors into nucleoli...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069429/the-nuclear-rna-binding-protein-rbp33-influences-mrna-and-spliced-leader-rna-abundance-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#7
Olivera Cirovic, Roman Trikin, Anneliese Hoffmann, Nicholas Doiron, Martin Jakob, Torsten Ochsenreiter
RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068183/nucleolar-aggresomes-mediate-release-of-pericentric-heterochromatin-and-nuclear-destruction-of-genotoxically-treated-cancer-cells
#8
Kristine Salmina, Anda Huna, Inna Inashkina, Alexander Belyayev, Jekabs Krigerts, Ladislava Pastova, Alejandro Vazquez-Martin, Jekaterina Erenpreisa
The role of the nucleolus and autophagy in maintenance of nuclear integrity is poorly understood. In addition, the mechanisms of nuclear destruction in cancer cells senesced after conventional chemotherapy are unclear. In an attempt to elucidate these issues, we studied teratocarcinoma PA1 cells treated with Etoposide (ETO), focussing on the nucleolus. Following treatment, most cells enter G2 arrest, display persistent DNA damage and activate p53, senescence, and macroautophagy markers. 2-5 µm sized nucleolar aggresomes (NoA) containing fibrillarin (FIB) and damaged rDNA, colocalised with ubiquitin, pAMPK, and LC3-II emerge, accompanied by heterochromatin fragments, when translocated perinuclearly...
January 9, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062837/principles-of-60s-ribosomal-subunit-assembly-emerging-from-recent-studies-in-yeast
#9
REVIEW
Salini Konikkat, John L Woolford
Ribosome biogenesis requires the intertwined processes of folding, modification, and processing of ribosomal RNA, together with binding of ribosomal proteins. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome assembly begins in the nucleolus, continues in the nucleoplasm, and is not completed until after nascent particles are exported to the cytoplasm. The efficiency and fidelity of ribosome biogenesis are facilitated by >200 assembly factors and ∼76 different small nucleolar RNAs. The pathway is driven forward by numerous remodeling events to rearrange the ribonucleoprotein architecture of pre-ribosomes...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055106/imidazoquinoxaline-derivative-eapb0503-a-promising-drug-targeting-mutant-nucleophosmin-1-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Ali I Nabbouh, Rita S Hleihel, Jessica L Saliba, Martin M Karam, Maguy H Hamie, Hsin-Chieh J M Wu, Caroline P Berthier, Nadim M Tawil, Pierre-Antoine A Bonnet, Carine Deleuze-Masquefa, Hiba A El Hajj
BACKGROUND: Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein mainly localized in the nucleolus. NPM1 is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). NPM1c oligomerizes with wild-type nucleophosmin 1 (wt-NPM1), and this leads to its continuous cytoplasmic delocalization and contributes to leukemogenesis. Recent studies have shown that Cytoplasmic NPM1 (NPM1c) degradation leads to growth arrest and apoptosis of NPM1c AML cells and corrects wt-NPM1 normal nucleolar localization...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055011/neuronal-hemoglobin-affects-dopaminergic-cells-response-to-stress
#11
Marta Codrich, Maria Bertuzzi, Roberta Russo, Margherita Francescatto, Stefano Espinoza, Lorena Zentilin, Mauro Giacca, Daniela Cesselli, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Paolo Ascenzi, Silvia Zucchelli, Francesca Persichetti, Giampiero Leanza, Stefano Gustincich
Hemoglobin (Hb) is the major protein in erythrocytes and carries oxygen (O2) throughout the body. Recently, Hb has been found synthesized in atypical sites, including the brain. Hb is highly expressed in A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), whose selective degeneration leads to Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that Hb confers DA cells' susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and rotenone, neurochemical cellular models of PD. The toxic property of Hb does not depend on O2 binding and is associated with insoluble aggregate formation in the nucleolus...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054381/rhabdoid-component-emerging-as-a-subclonal-evolution-of-paediatric-glioneuronal-tumours
#12
A Bertrand, C Rondenet, J Masliah-Planchon, P Leblond, A de la Fourchardière, D Pissaloux, K Aït-Raïs, D Lequin, A Jouvet, P Freneaux, H Sevestre, D Ranchere-Vince, A Tauziede-Espariat, C-A Maurage, K Silva, G Pierron, O Delattre, P Varlet, D Frappaz, F Bourdeaut
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are high-grade tumors partially composed of rhabdoid cells (1). The 1-year overall survival rate is 41% (2). Rhabdoid cells have large eccentric nuclei, a single prominent nucleolus, and abundant cytoplasm with eosinophilic inclusions. The immunohistochemical profile of these cells frequently includes loss of nuclear BAF47 expression due to loss of the SMARCB1 locus combined with a mutation of the other allele (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
January 5, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045037/nucleocapsid-interacts-with-npm1-and-protects-it-from-proteolytic-cleavage-enhancing-cell-survival-and-is-involved-in-pedv-growth
#13
Da Shi, Hongyan Shi, Dongbo Sun, Jianfei Chen, Xin Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Jialin Zhang, Zhaoyang Ji, Jianbo Liu, Liyan Cao, Xiangdong Zhu, Jing Yuan, Hui Dong, Xin Wang, Tiecheng Chang, Ye Liu, Li Feng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells, but its nucleocapsid (N) protein localizes specifically to the nucleolus. The mechanism of nuclear translocation, and whether N protein associates with particular nucleolar components, is unknown. In this study, we confirm that a nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM1) interacts and co-localizes with the N protein in the nucleolus. In vitro binding studies indicated that aa 148-294 of N and aa 118-188 of NPM1 were required for binding...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040197/heterogeneous-spatial-distribution-of-transcriptional-activity-in-budding-yeast-nuclei
#14
Naoko Tokuda, Masaki Sasai
Recent microscopic and simulation studies have shown that the genome structure fluctuates dynamically in the nuclei of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This genome-wide movement should lead to the fluctuations of individual genes in their territorial regions. This raises an intriguing question of whether the resulting distribution of genes is correlated to their transcriptional activity. An effective method for examining this correlation is to analyze how the spatial distribution of genes and their transcriptional activity are modified by mutation...
December 28, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034778/nervous-necrosis-virus-capsid-protein-exploits-nucleolar-phosphoprotein-nucleophosmin-b23-function-for-viral-replication
#15
Weijun Mai, Fang Huang, Huiqing Chen, Yajing Zhou, Yan Chen
Nucleolar proteins facilitate the replication of certain human and animal viruses through interaction with viral proteins. In this study, an interaction between nervous necrosis virus capsid protein and nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 was identified using in vitro experimental approaches. The capsid protein binds to B23 early during the viral infection and accumulates in the nucleus, particularly in the nucleolus. However, over the course of the infection B23 is redistributed from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm...
December 26, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032386/disruption-and-restoration-of-nucleolar-fc-and-dfc-during-s-phase-in-hela-cells
#16
Xin Guan, Yang Jiao, Lingling Chen, Xiliang Li, Guangbin Shang, Fengcai Wang, Yunpeng Feng, Mingda Jiao
In the higher eukaryotic nucleolus, fibrillar centers (FCs), the dense fibrillar components (DFCs), and the granular components (GCs) are functional domains structurally relatively well-defined by electron microscopy (EM). However, ultrastructural alterations in FC, DFC, and GC during the cell cycle and their associated cellular functions are still largely unclear. Based on synchronized HeLa cells, we followed the structural dynamics of nucleolus during cell cycle by EM. We found that nucleolus structure shifted from tripartite to bipartite organization and FC/DFCs were reorganized in S phase with three distinct stages: (1) In early-S phase, FC/DFC structures were disassembled...
December 29, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032378/behavior-of-nucleolus-in-the-tobacco-male-meiocytes-involved-in-cytomixis
#17
Sergey Mursalimov, Yuriy Sidorchuk, Elena Deineko
Behavior of nucleolus during the nuclear migration between plant cells (cytomixis) is studied for the first time in the tobacco male meiosis. As is shown, the nucleolus is located in a nonrandom manner in the migrating nuclei. In the majority of cases, the nucleolus resides on the nuclear pole strictly opposite to the cytomictic channel. Owing to this localization, the nucleolus extremely rare enters the recipient cell, so that the nucleolar material is in most cases undetectable in the micronuclei formed after cytomixis...
December 29, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011529/the-nucleolus-methods-and-protocols
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007605/mitochondrial-networking-in-diabetic-left-ventricle-cardiomyocytes
#19
REVIEW
Lucia-Doina Popov
Cardiomyocyte mitochondria preserve "the quorum sensing" attribute of their aerobic bacterial ancestors, as shown by the transient physical connectivity and communication not only with each other, but also with other intracellular organelles and with cytosol, ensuing cellular homeostasis. In this review, we present original electron microscopy evidence on mitochondrial networking within diabetic left ventricular cardiomyocytes, focusing on: (i) the inter-mitochondrial communication, allowing electrochemical signals transfer and outer membrane components or matrix proteins exchange, (ii) the interplay between mitochondria and the cardiomyocyte nucleus, nucleolus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and lipid droplets viewed as attributes of mitochondrial "quality control" and "retrograde signaling function", and (iii) the crosstalk between mitochondria and cardiomyocyte cytosol, as part of the adaptive responses that allow cells survival...
December 19, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006965/nucleolus-like-compartmentalization-of-the-transcription-machinery-in-fast-growing-bacterial-cells
#20
Ding Jun Jin, Carmen Mata Martin, Zhe Sun, Cedric Cagliero, Yan Ning Zhou
We have learned a great deal about RNA polymerase (RNA Pol), transcription factors, and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in prokaryotes for specific genes, operons, or transcriptomes. However, we have only begun to understand how the transcription machinery is three-dimensionally (3D) organized into bacterial chromosome territories to orchestrate the transcription process and to maintain harmony with the replication machinery in the cell. Much progress has been made recently in our understanding of the spatial organization of the transcription machinery in fast-growing Escherichia coli cells using state-of-the-art superresolution imaging techniques...
December 23, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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