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Marta Mikolajczak, Timothy Goodman, Mohammad K Hajihosseini
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) or its cognate receptor, FGF-receptor 2 IIIb (FGFR2-IIIb) result in two human syndromes - LADD (lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital) and ALSG (Aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands). To date, the partial loss-of-FGF10 function in these patients has been attributed solely to perturbed paracrine signalling functions between FGF10-producing mesenchymal cells and FGF10-responsive epithelial cells. However, the functioning of a LADD-causing G138E FGF10 mutation, which falls outside its receptor interaction interface, has remained enigmatic...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Hsiang-Tsui Wang, Tzu-Ying Chen, Ching-Wen Weng, Chun-Hsiang Yang, Moon-Shong Tang
Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. Acr is also an active cytotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. The mechanisms via which Acr exerts its anti-cancer activity and cytotoxicity are not clear. In this study, we found that Acr induces cytotoxicity and cell death in human cancer cells with different activities of p53. Acr preferentially binds nucleolar ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to form Acr-deoxyguanosine adducts, and induces oxidative damage to both rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Sebastian Maciak, Katarzyna Michalak, Shiv D Kale, Pawel Michalak
Nucleolar dominance is a dramatic disruption in the formation of nucleoli and the expression of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, characteristic of some plant and animal hybrids. Here, we report that F1 hybrids produced from reciprocal crosses between 2 sister species of Xenopus clawed frogs, X. muelleri and X. borealis, undergo nucleolar dominance somewhat distinct from a pattern previously reported in hybrids between phylogenetically more distant Xenopus species. Patterns of nucleolar development, 45S rRNA expression, and gene copy inheritance were investigated using a combination of immunostaining, pyrosequencing, droplet digital PCR, flow cytometry, and epigenetic inhibition...
October 12, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Andrew J Love, Chulang Yu, Natalia V Petukhova, Natalia O Kalinina, Jianping Chen, Michael E Taliansky
Cajal bodies (CBs) are distinct sub-nuclear structures that are present in eukaryotic living cells and are often associated with the nucleolus. CBs play important roles in RNA metabolism and formation of RNPs involved in transcription, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, and telomere maintenance. Besides these primary roles, CBs appear to be involved in additional functions that may not be directly related to RNA metabolism and RNP biogenesis. In this review, we assess possible roles of plant CBs in RNA regulatory pathways such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing...
October 11, 2016: RNA Biology
So-Yon Park, Elizabeth Grabau
APETALA2 (AP2) belongs to the AP2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) family and regulates expression levels of downstream stress responsive genes as a transcription factor. In this study, we cloned six different isoforms of AhAP2 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Four isoforms (AhAP2.1, AhAP2.2, AhAP2.3 and AhAP2.4) had both AP2/ERF DNA binding domains and ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs. Two isoforms (AhAP2.5 and AhAP2.6) only had an EAR suppressor domain. After agroinfiltration, AhAP2.1, AhAP2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anoop Kumar Saini, Vinay Sharma, Pradeep Mathur, Mobin M Shaikh
The morphology of nucleus and nucleolus is powerful indicator of physiological and pathological conditions. The specific staining of nucleolus recently gained much attention due to the limited and expensive availability of the only existing stain "SYTO RNA-Select". Here, a new multifunctional salen type ligand (L1) and its Al(3+) complex (1) are designed and synthesized. L1 acts as a chemosensor for Al(3+) whereas 1 demonstrates specific staining of nucleus as well as nucleoli. The binding of 1 with nucleic acid is probed by DNase and RNase digestion in stained cells...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies ribosomal RNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Deepshikha Kumar, Shobha Broor, Maitreyi S Rajala
Influenza A virus nucleoprotein, is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein, encoded by segment-5 of the negative sense RNA genome. It serves as a key connector between the virus and the host during virus replication. It continuously shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus interacting with various host cellular factors. In the current study, host proteins interacting with nucleoprotein of Influenza A virus of H1N1 2009 pandemic strain were identified by co-immunoprecipitation studies followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis...
2016: PloS One
Anne-Marie Dutrillaux, Baptiste Carton, Lauriane Cacheux, Bernard Dutrillaux
In the present study, the origin of recurrent rearrangements involving chromosome 6 in 3.2% of cells of Melolontha melolontha (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was investigated. Various chromosome staining techniques, including C-banding, Giemsa and silver staining, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization with a human 28S rDNA probe, were applied to M. melolontha chromosome spreads. In addition, related species of the genera Melolontha and Protaetia were studied. On chromosome 6 of M. melolontha, there is a fragile site-like structure which corresponds to an interstitial nucleolus organizer region (NOR)...
October 7, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Pan Zhu, Yuqiu Wang, Nanxun Qin, Feng Wang, Jia Wang, Xing Wang Deng, Danmeng Zhu
Ribosome production in eukaryotes requires the complex and precise coordination of several hundred assembly factors, including many small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). However, at present, the distinct role of key snoRNAs in ribosome biogenesis remains poorly understood in higher plants. Here we report that a previously uncharacterized C (RUGAUGA)/D (CUGA) type snoRNA, HIDDEN TREASURE 2 (HID2), acts as an important regulator of ribosome biogenesis through a snoRNA-rRNA interaction. Nucleolus-localized HID2 is actively expressed in Arabidopsis proliferative tissues, whereas defects in HID2 cause a series of developmental defects reminiscent of ribosomal protein mutants...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rodrigo Moreno-Campos, Luis E Florencio-Martínez, Tomás Nepomuceno-Mejía, Saúl Rojas-Sánchez, Daniel E Vélez-Ramírez, Norma E Padilla-Mejía, Elisa Figueroa-Angulo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Santiago Martínez-Calvillo
Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Sravanti Uppaluri, Stephanie C Weber, Clifford P Brangwynne
Multicellular organisms must regulate their growth across the diverse length scales of biological organization, but how this growth is controlled from organelle to body, while coordinating interdependent functions at each scale, remains poorly understood. We utilized the C. elegans worm intestine as a model system to identify distinct allometric scaling laws, revealing that the growth of individual structures is differentially regulated during development. We show that the volume of the nucleolus, a subcellular organelle, is directly proportional (isometric) to cell size during larval development...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Hua He, Zhencai Wang, Tiantian Cheng, Xu Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Junying Wang, Hao Ren, Yawei Sun, Yanzhuo Song, Jiang Yang, Yongqing Xia, Shengjie Wang, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Fang Huang
Fluorescence imaging requires bio-selective, sensitive, nontoxic molecular probes to detect precise location of lesions for fundamental research and clinical applications. Typical inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials with large sizes (> 10 nm) can offer high-quality fluorescence imaging due to their fascinating optical properties, but are limited to low selectivity as well as slow clearance pathway. We here report an N- and O-rich carbogenic small molecular complex (SMC, MW < 1000 Da) that exhibit high quantum yield (up to 80%), nucleic acid-binding enhanced excitation-dependent fluorescence (EDF) and a near infrared (NIR) emission peaked at 850 nm with an ultra-large Stokes shift (~ 500 nm)...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kei-Ichiro Ishiguro, Manuela Monti, Tomohiko Akiyama, Hiromi Kimura, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Miki Sakota, Saeko Sato, Carlo Alberto Redi, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Mouse zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4) proteins, which are encoded by multiple copies of Zscan4 genes, are expressed specifically in preimplantation embryos in vivo and embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. However, the expression patterns of mouse Zscan4 in vivo have been largely elusive. Here, we show that Zscan4 proteins are expressed in adult ovaries and testes. In ovaries, Zscan4 proteins were detected in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes in antral follicles, indicating that Zscan4 genes are activated during the diplotene/dictyate stage in meiotic prophase I...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Alfredo Pauciullo, Christoph Knorr, Angela Perucatti, Alessandra Iannuzzi, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Georg Erhardt
The natural occurrence of live hybrid offsprings between sheep and goats has been documented in literature, however all the studies have reported the mating of goats with rams, whereas the reciprocal cross was never documented. This study reports on a very rare case of interspecies hybridization occurred between a ewe (2n = 54, XX) and a buck (2n = 60, XY). The hybrid, born in a German flock under natural conditions, is characterised by an intermediate karyotype (2n = 57, XX). The CBA-banding has shown 3 metacentric and 54 acrocentric chromosomes, whereas the GTG- and RBA-banding have revealed that the autosomes involved in the hybrid combination were CHI1, 3; CHI2, 8 and CHI5, 11 corresponding to the metacentric chromosomes OAR1, OAR2 and OAR3...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matt L Harlow, Nichole Maloney, Joseph Roland, María José Guillén-Navarro, Matthew K Easton, Susan M Kitchen-Goosen, Elissa A Boguslawski, Zachary B Madaj, Ben K Johnson, Megan J Bowman, Maurizio D'Incalci, Mary E Winn, Lisa Turner, Galen Hostetter, Carlos M Galmarini, Pablo M Aviles, Patrick J Grohar
There is a great need to develop novel approaches to target oncogenic transcription factors with small molecules. Ewing sarcoma is emblematic of this need, as it depends on the continued activity of the EWS-FLI1 transcription factor to maintain the malignant phenotype. We have previously shown that the small molecule trabectedin interferes with EWS-FLI1. Here we report important mechanistic advances and a second-generation inhibitor to provide insight into the therapeutic targeting of EWS-FLI1. We discovered that trabectedin functionally inactivated EWS-FLI1 by redistributing the protein within the nucleus to the nucleolus...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Research
Michal Franek, Alena Kovaříková, Eva Bártová, Stanislav Kozubek
DNA damage response (DDR) in ribosomal genes and mechanisms of DNA repair in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are less explored nuclear events. DDR in ESCs should be unique due to their high proliferation rate, expression of pluripotency factors, and specific chromatin signature. Given short population doubling time and fast progress through G1 phase, ESCs require a sustained production of rRNA, which leads to the formation of large and prominent nucleoli. Although transcription of rRNA in the nucleolus is relatively well understood, little is known about DDR in this nuclear compartment...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Matthew J Young, James P Geaghan, Shaomian Yao, Humberto M Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos, Masami Yoshimura
It is estimated that 5.9% of all human deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption and that the harmful use of ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for causing disease, disability, and death worldwide. Ethanol is known to disrupt phospholipid packing and promote membrane hemifusion at lipid bilayers. With the exception of mitochondria involved in hormone synthesis, the sterol content of mitochondrial membranes is low. As membranes that are low in cholesterol have increased membrane fluidity and are the most easily disordered by ethanol, we hypothesize that mitochondria are sensitive targets for ethanol damage...
September 28, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Daniel D Scott, Marlene Oeffinger
The nucleolus represents a highly multifunctional intranuclear organelle in which, in addition to the canonical ribosome assembly, numerous processes such as transcription, DNA repair and replication, the cell cycle, and apoptosis are coordinated. The nucleolus is further a key hub in the sensing of cellular stress and undergoes major structural and compositional changes in response to cellular perturbations. Numerous nucleolar proteins have been identified that, upon sensing nucleolar stress, deploy additional, non-ribosomal roles in the regulation of varied cell processes including cell cycle arrest, arrest of DNA replication, induction of DNA repair, and apoptosis, among others...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Judith E Sleeman
From their initial identification as 'nucleolar accessory bodies' more than a century ago, the relationship between Cajal bodies and nucleoli has been a subject of interest and controversy. In this review, we seek to place recent developments in the understanding of the physical and functional relationships between the two structures in the context of historical observations. Biophysical models of nuclear body formation, the molecular nature of CB/nucleolus interactions and the increasing list of joint roles for CBs and nucleoli, predominantly in assembling ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, are discussed...
September 23, 2016: RNA Biology
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