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Kang-Nan Wang, Xi-Juan Chao, Bing Liu, Dan-Jie Zhou, Liang He, Xiao-Hui Zheng, Qian Cao, Cai-Ping Tan, Chen Zhang, Zong-Wan Mao
Two cationic molecular rotors, 1 and 2, capable of real-time cell-cycle imaging by specifically dynamic monitoring of nucleolus and chromosome changes were developed. A further study shows that fluorescence enhancements in the nucleolus and chromosome are attributed to a combination effect of interaction with nucleic acid and high condensation of the nucleolus and chromosome.
February 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Iva Ugrinova, Maria Petrova, Mounira Chalabi-Dchar, Philippe Bouvet
Discovered in 1973, nucleolin is one of the most abundant phosphoproteins of the nucleolus. The ability of nucleolin to be involved in many cellular processes is probably related to its structural organization and its capability to form many different interactions with other proteins. Many functions of nucleolin affect cellular processes involved in oncogenesis-for instance: in ribosome biogenesis; in DNA repair, remodeling, and genome stability; in cell division and cell survival; in chemokine and growth factor signaling pathways; in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis; in epithelial-mesenchymal transition; and in stemness...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Narumi Ogonuki, Hiroki Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Yoko Kakino Kurotaki, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yukiko Abe, Erika Sasaki, Atsu Aiba, Atsuo Ogura
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) represents a promising nonhuman primate model for the study of human diseases because of its small size, ease of handling, and availability of gene-modified animals. Here, we aimed to devise reproductive technology for marmoset spermatid injection using immature males for a possible rapid generational turnover. Spermatids at each step could be identified easily by their morphology under differential interference microscopy: thus, early round spermatids had a round nucleus with a few nucleolus-like structures and abundant cytoplasm, as in other mammals...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Maryam Soltani, Reza Kerachian
In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Dustin Herrmann, Rosanna Parlato
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) are neurodegenerative diseases with distinct clinical appearance. However, both share as major genetic risk factor a C9orf72 locus intronic hexanucleotide expansion. The pathogenic pathways associated with the expansion-dependent neuronal toxicity are still poorly understood. Recent efforts to identify common threads of neuronal dysfunction have pointed towards deficits of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis and loss of nucleolar integrity, a condition known as nucleolar stress that is an emerging shared feature among neurodegenerative diseases...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yun Fei Diao, Tao Lin, Xiaoxia Li, Reza K Oqani, Jae Eun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Dong Il Jin
SETD2 (SET domain containing protein 2) acts as a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36)-specific methyltransferase and may play important roles in active gene transcription in human cells. However, its expression and role in porcine oocytes and preimplantation embryos are not well understood. Here, we used immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy to examine SETD2 expression in porcine fetal fibroblasts, oocytes, and preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PA), and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
2018: PloS One
Noriyuki Murai, Yasuko Murakami, Ayasa Tajima, Senya Matsufuji
The proto-oncogene c-Myc encodes a short-lived protein c-Myc that regulates various cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Degradation of c-Myc is catalyzed by the proteasome and requires phosphorylation of Thr-58 for ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase, Fbxw7/ FBW7. Here we show that a polyamine regulatory protein, antizyme 2 (AZ2), interacts with c-Myc in the nucleus and nucleolus, to accelerate proteasome-mediated c-Myc degradation without ubiquitination or Thr-58 phosphorylation...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shujuan Guo, Xing-Yu Yan, Feifei Shi, Ke Ma, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
The Snail gene family includes Snai1, Snai2, and Snai3 that encode zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressors in mammals. The expression and localization of SNAI1 and SNAI2 have been studied extensively during folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteinization, and embryogenesis in mice. However, the role of SNAI3 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of SNAI3 during these processes. Our immunohistochemistry data showed that SNAI3 first appeared in oocytes by postnatal day (PD) 9. Following this, SNAI3 was found to be expressed consistently in theca and interstitial cells, along with oocytes...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
W Brooks
"Polyamine patterns in plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and fever" by Kim et al. provides insight into possible involvement of polyamines in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors report decreases in N1-acetylspermidine, spermidine, spermine, and N1-acetylcadaverine and increased cadaverine in SLE. Polyamine involvement in many cellular processes and their unique characteristics (high charge, length, flexibility, and ubiquity) give polyamines importance in health and disease...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Stefano Rossetti, Andrzej J Wierzbicki, Nicoletta Sacchi
The MYC transcription factor coordinates, via different RNA polymerases, the transcription of both ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein genes necessary for nucleolar as well as mitochondrial ribogenesis. In this study we tested if MYC-coordination of rRNA transcription in the nucleolus and in the mitochondrion drives (cancer) cell proliferation. Here we show that the anti-proliferative effect of CX-5461, a Pol I inhibitor of rRNA transcription, in ovarian (cancer) cell contexts characterized by MYC overexpression is enhanced either by 2'-C-Methyl Adenosine (2'-C-MeA), a ribonucleoside that inhibits POLRMT mitochondrial rRNA (mt-rRNA) transcription and doxycycline, a tetracycline known to affect mitochondrial translation...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiong Min, Han Heng, Hua-Long Yu, Mao Dan, Chen Jie, Yun Zeng, He Ning, Zhi-Gang Liu, Zhi-Yong Wang, Wang Lin
In order to evaluate the anticancer effect of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) in terms of inducing the apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells, its apoptosis-inducing molecular mechanisms were investigated. In the present study, the anticancer effects of HCPT were revealed to result in suppressed cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, the induction of apoptosis and an augmented apoptotic nucleolus of human osteosarcoma cells. MG-63 cells were cultured with HCPT (0, 20, 40 and 80 nM) for 24 and 48 h. An MTT assay and a lactate dehydrogenase assay were used to analyze the anticancer effect of HCPT on cell viability and cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Mikael S Lindström, Deana Jurada, Sladana Bursac, Ines Orsolic, Jiri Bartek, Sinisa Volarevic
The nucleolus is the major site for synthesis of ribosomes, complex molecular machines that are responsible for protein synthesis. A wealth of research over the past 20 years has clearly indicated that both quantitative and qualitative alterations in ribosome biogenesis can drive the malignant phenotype via dysregulation of protein synthesis. However, numerous recent proteomic, genomic, and functional studies have implicated the nucleolus in the regulation of processes that are unrelated to ribosome biogenesis, including DNA-damage response, maintenance of genome stability and its spatial organization, epigenetic regulation, cell-cycle control, stress responses, senescence, global gene expression, as well as assembly or maturation of various ribonucleoprotein particles...
February 12, 2018: Oncogene
Y P Xue, X Y Ji, L Yang, H R Liu, Y J Sheng, X X Dai, Y J Xi, J C Liu, J Shi, T Xie, Y S Zhang, J W Ma, J Dong
Objective: To investigate the correlation between nucleolus spindle-related protein 1 (NUSAP1) and malignant progression and prognosis of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: RT-PCR and immunohistochemical technique were applied to analyze NUSAP1 expression level in GBM surgical specimens. Correlations between NUSAP1 expression and molecular classification and survival of patients with GBM were also investigated in TCGA database. The gene silencing technique was used to silence NUSAP1 expression in U87 cells, CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle changes, and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated after NUSAP1 silencing in tumor-bearing mice...
January 30, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
J X Zhou, X R He, G X Song, Z G Zou, L H Wang, R Hu, H X Li
Objective: To study the pathological features, immunophenotypes, differential diagnoses and prognostic parameters of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney (CDC). Methods: Clinical imaging, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and survival data of 10 patients at First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2009 to August 2017 were retrospectively analyzed along with a review of literatures. Results: The clinical symptoms of CDC were not specific, and image examinations showed space-occupying mass lesions...
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
G Aneeshkumar Arimbasseri
Eukaryotes have at least three nuclear RNA polymerases to carry out transcription. While RNA polymerases I and II are responsible for ribosomal RNA transcription and messenger RNA transcription, respectively, RNA Polymerase III transcribes approximately up to 300 nt long noncoding RNAs, including tRNA. For all three RNAPs, the nascent transcripts generated undergo extensive post-transcriptional processing. Transcription of mRNAs by RNAP II and their processing are coupled with the aid of the C-terminal domain of the RNAP II...
February 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiaohe Tian, Hui Wang, Qiong Zhang, Mingzhu Zhang, Yingzhong Zhu, Yan Chen, Jieying Wu, Yupeng Tian
Probe for dual-site target distinct subcellular compartments from cytosol and nucleus is an attractive approach, however, which was scarcely reported. Herein, a series of small-molecular thiophene pyridium salt derivatives (MitoNuc1-4) possessing water-soluble, high quantum yield and two-photon activity were rationally designed, and their structures were crystallographic confirmed. Systematic photophysical and biological imaging property investigations were carried out for them. It was found that MitoNuc1-4 exhibit two-photon absorption properties in the near infrared region, and MitoNuc1 has membrane permeability and cationic nature, rendering it to be double labelling of mitochondria and nucleolus in living cells with superb photo-stability and non-invasiveness...
May 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Simon Vial-Pradel, Sumie Keta, Mika Nomoto, Hiro Takahashi, Masataka Suzuki, Yuri Yokoyama, Michiko Sasabe, Shoko Kojima, Yasuomi Tada, Yasunori Machida, Chiyoko Machida
Arabidopsis ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) plays a critical role in leaf adaxial-abaxial partitioning by repressing expression of the abaxial-determining gene ETTIN/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ETT/ARF3). We previously reported that six CpG dinucleotides in its exon 6 are thoroughly methylated by METHYLTRASFERASE1, that CpG methylation levels are inversely correlated with ETT/ARF3 transcript levels, and that methylation levels at three out of six are decreased in as2-1, All these imply that AS2 is involved in epigenetic repression of ETT/ARF3 by gene body methylation...
February 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jonas Barandun, Mirjam Hunziker, Sebastian Klinge
The small subunit processome is the first precursor of the small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit. During its assembly in the nucleolus, many ribosome biogenesis factors, an RNA chaperone, and ribosomal proteins associate with the nascent pre-rRNA. Biochemical studies have elucidated the rRNA-subdomain dependent recruitment of these factors during SSU processome assembly and have been complemented by structural studies of the assembled particle. Ribosome biogenesis factors encapsulate and guide subdomains of pre-ribosomal RNA in distinct compartments...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Camila Silva Gonçalves, Andrea Rodrigues Ávila, Wanderley de Souza, Maria Cristina M Motta, Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi uses several strategies to survive in different hosts. A key step in the life-cycle of this parasite is metacyclogenesis, which involves various morphological, biochemical, and genetic changes that induce the differentiation of non-pathogenic epimastigotes into pathogenic metacyclic trypomastigotes. During metacyclogenesis, T. cruzi displays distinct morphologies and ultrastructural features, which have not been fully characterized. RESULTS: We performed a temporal description of metacyclogenesis using different microscopy techniques that resulted in the identification of three intermediate forms of T...
February 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tao Gao, Chao Ma, Yun Li, Jun Ju, Xiangfeng Kang, Yuanlin Cai, Moyi Sun
PURPOSE: Prospero-related homeobox-1 (PROX1) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of many human cancers. However, the expression pattern of PROX1 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate PROX1 expression and its prognostic value in SACC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PROX1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in SACC tissue specimens. Correlations between PROX1 expression and clinicopathologic features were investigated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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