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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025975/recognition-of-hyperacetylated-n-terminus-of-h2az-by-tbbdf2-from-trypanosoma-brucei
#1
Xiao Yang, Xuelei Wu, Jiahai Zhang, Xuecheng Zhang, Chao Xu, Shanhui Liao, Xiaoming Tu
Histone modification plays an important role in various biological processes, including gene expression regulation. Bromodomain, as one of histone readers, recognizes specifically the ε-N-lysine acetylation (KAc) of histone. Although the bromodomains and histone acetylation sites of Trypanosoma brucei ( T. brucei ), a lethal parasite responsible for sleeping sickness in human and nagana in cattle, have been identified, how acetylated histones are recognized by bromodomains is still unknown. Here, the bromodomain factor 2 (TbBDF2) from T...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021500/optimum-culture-duration-for-growing-oocytes-to-attain-meiotic-and-fertilization-competence
#2
Takayuki Yamochi, Shu Hashimoto, Masaya Yamanaka, Yoshiharu Nakaoka, Yoshiharu Morimoto
To determine the optimum culture duration for porcine growing oocytes (GOs) to attain maturation competence, we examined the meiotic competence, chromatin configuration, and fertilization ability of porcine oocytes obtained from early antral follicles and cultured for 10-16 days. The survival rate of oocytes after 10 days of culture (62.8%) was similar to that of oocytes after 12 days of culture (55%) and significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 14 and 16 days (52.9% and 24.3%, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the diameter of ooplasm from oocytes cultured for different durations (117...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021253/nuclear-export-factor-3-regulates-localization-of-small-nucleolar-rnas
#3
Melissa W Li, Arthur C Sletten, Jiyeon Lee, Kelly D Pyles, Scot J Matkovich, Daniel S Ory, Jean E Schaffer
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide chemical modifications of ribosomal and small nuclear RNAs, functions that are carried out in the nucleus. While most snoRNAs reside in the nucleolus, a growing body of evidence indicates that snoRNAs are also present in the cytoplasm and that snoRNAs move between the nucleus and cytoplasm by a mechanism that is regulated by lipotoxic and oxidative stress. Here, in a genome-wide shRNA-based screen we identified nuclear export factor 3 (NXF3) as a transporter that alters the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of box C/D snoRNAs from the ribosomal protein L13a (Rpl13a) locus...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993479/lamin-b2-modulates-nucleolar-morphology-dynamics-and-function
#4
Ayantika Sen Gupta, Kundan Sengupta
The nucleolus is required for ribosome biogenesis. Human cells have 2-3 nucleoli associated with Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) bearing chromosomes. Increase in number and altered nucleolar morphology define cancer cells. However, the mechanisms that modulate nucleolar morphology and function are unclear. Here we show that in addition to the nuclear envelope, Lamin B2 localizes proximal to Nucleolin at the Granular Component (GC) of the nucleolus and associates with nucleolar proteins - Nucleolin and Nucleophosmin...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981686/the-nuclear-mitotic-apparatus-protein-numa-controls-rdna-transcription-and-mediates-the-nucleolar-stress-response-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#5
Swaathi Jayaraman, Shirisha Chittiboyina, Yunfeng Bai, Patricia C Abad, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Cynthia V Stauffacher, Sophie A Lelièvre
The nuclear mitotic apparatus protein, NuMA, is involved in major cellular events such as DNA damage response, apoptosis and p53-mediated growth-arrest, all of which are under the control of the nucleolus upon stress. Proteomic investigation has identified NuMA among hundreds of nucleolar proteins. Yet, the precise link between NuMA and nucleolar function remains undetermined. We confirm that NuMA is present in the nucleolus and reveal redistribution of NuMA upon actinomycin D or doxorubicin-induced nucleolar stress...
September 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981559/description-of-the-karyotypes-of-stejneger-s-beaked-whale-mesoplodon-stejnegeri-and-hubbs-beaked-whale-m-carlhubbsi
#6
Nozomi Kurihara, Yuko Tajima, Tadasu K Yamada, Ayaka Matsuda, Takashi Matsuishi
The genus Mesoplodon (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Ziphiidae) is one of the few cetacean genera with the karyotype 2n = 42. The 2n = 42 karyotype of M. europaeus and M. carlhubbsi is largely consistent with the general cetacean karyotype 2n = 44, although other 2n = 42 karyotypes do not exhibit clear homologies with the general cetacean karyotype. Therefore, the chromosomes of Mesoplodon species may be the key to understanding cetacean karyological evolution. In the present study, the male karyotypes of M. stejnegeri and M...
October 2, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979836/a-new-role-for-human-dyskerin-in-vesicular-trafficking
#7
Nunzia Di Maio, Rosario Vicidomini, Alberto Angrisani, Valentina Belli, Maria Furia, Mimmo Turano
Dyskerin is an essential, conserved, multifunctional protein found in the nucleolus, whose loss of function causes the rare genetic diseases X-linked dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. To further investigate the wide range of dyskerin's biological roles, we set up stable cell lines able to trigger inducible protein knockdown and allow a detailed analysis of the cascade of events occurring within a short time frame. We report that dyskerin depletion quickly induces cytoskeleton remodeling and significant alterations in endocytic Ras-related protein Rab-5A/Rab11 trafficking...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977453/enrichment-of-dynamic-chromosomal-crosslinks-drive-phase-separation-of-the-nucleolus
#8
Caitlin Hult, David Adalsteinsson, Paula A Vasquez, Josh Lawrimore, Maggie Bennett, Alyssa York, Diana Cook, Elaine Yeh, Mark Gregory Forest, Kerry Bloom
Regions of highly repetitive DNA, such as those found in the nucleolus, show a self-organization that is marked by spatial segregation and frequent self-interaction. The mechanisms that underlie the sequestration of these sub-domains are largely unknown. Using a stochastic, bead-spring representation of chromatin in budding yeast, we find enrichment of protein-mediated, dynamic chromosomal cross-links recapitulates the segregation, morphology and self-interaction of the nucleolus. Rates and enrichment of dynamic crosslinking have profound consequences on domain morphology...
August 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974363/aging-dependent-effect-of-nuclear-tau
#9
Laura Gil, Concetta Federico, Fernando Pinedo, Francesca Bruno, Ana B Rebolledo, Juan J Montoya, Isabel M Olazabal, Isidre Ferrer, Salvatore Saccone
Tau protein is characterized by a complex pattern of phosphorylation and is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Human AT100 nuclear tau, endowed by phosphorylation in Thr212/Ser214, was recently shown to decline in cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but a defined function for this nuclear tau remains unclear. Here we show that AT100 progressively increases in the nuclei of neuronal and non-neuronal cells during aging, and decreases in the more severe AD stages, as recently shown, and in cancer cells (colorectal adenocarcinoma and breast cancer)...
September 30, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973544/loss-of-the-imprinted-non-coding-snord116-gene-cluster-in-the-interval-deleted-in-the-prader-willi-syndrome-results-in-murine-neuronal-and-endocrine-pancreatic-developmental-phenotypes
#10
Lisa Cole Burnett, Gabriela Hubner, Charles LeDuc, Michael V Morabito, Jayne F Martin Carli, Rudolph L Leibel
Global neurodevelopmental delay is a prominent characteristic of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The neuromolecular bases for these delays are unknown. We identified neuroanatomical changes in the brains of mice deficient for a gene in the minimal critical deletion region for PWS (Snord116p-/m+). In Snord116p-/m+ mice, reduced primary forebrain neuron cell body size is apparent in embryonic day 15.5 fetuses, and persists until postnatal day 30 in cerebellar purkinje neurons. Snord116 is a snoRNA gene cluster of unknown function that can localize to the nucleolus...
September 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967883/3-2-%C3%A3-resolution-structure-of-the-90s-preribosome-before-a1-pre-rrna-cleavage
#11
Jingdong Cheng, Nikola Kellner, Otto Berninghausen, Ed Hurt, Roland Beckmann
The 40S small ribosomal subunit is cotranscriptionally assembled in the nucleolus as part of a large chaperone complex called the 90S preribosome or small-subunit processome. Here, we present the 3.2-Å-resolution structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S preribosome, which allowed us to build atomic structures for 34 assembly factors, including the Mpp10 complex, Bms1, Utp14 and Utp18, and the complete U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein. Moreover, we visualized the U3 RNA heteroduplexes with a 5' external transcribed spacer (5' ETS) and pre-18S RNA, and their stabilization by 90S factors...
October 2, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963671/dimorphic-expression-of-sex-related-genes-in-different-gonadal-development-stages-of-sterlet-acipenser-ruthenus-a-primitive-fish-species
#12
Wei Wang, Hua Zhu, Ying Dong, ZhaoHui Tian, Tian Dong, HongXia Hu, CuiJuan Niu
Molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of sturgeon, a primitive fish species, is extraordinarily important due to the valuable caviar; however, it is still poorly known. The present work aimed to identify the major genes involved in regulating gonadal development of sterlet, a small species of sturgeon, from 13 candidate genes which have been shown to relate to gonadal differentiation and development in other teleost fish. The sex and gonadal development of sterlets were determined by histological observation and levels of sex steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in serum...
September 29, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949066/involvement-of-rpl11-in-the-enhancement-of-p53-stability-by-a-podophyllum-derivative-a-topoisomerase-ii-inhibitor
#13
Huai Wang, Jiang Feng, Tong Zhou, Lijun Wei, Jianming Zhou
In previous work we presented experimental and theoretical evidence that D-3F or 4-N-(2-Amino-3-fluoropyridine)-4-deoxidation-4'-demethylepipofophyllotoxin induced G2 /M phase arrest and apoptosis, purportedly by increasing the expression of P53. However, the precise mechanism of D-3F action is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which D-3F treatment induces increased expression of P53. This study showed that D-3F definitively inhibited the activity of topoisomerase II in a dose-dependent manner and resulted in DNA damage...
September 26, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947656/structural-aspects-of-the-inactive-x-chromosome
#14
REVIEW
Giancarlo Bonora, Christine M Disteche
A striking difference between male and female nuclei was recognized early on by the presence of a condensed chromatin body only in female cells. Mary Lyon proposed that X inactivation or silencing of one X chromosome at random in females caused this structural difference. Subsequent studies have shown that the inactive X chromosome (Xi) does indeed have a very distinctive structure compared to its active counterpart and all autosomes in female mammals. In this review, we will recap the discovery of this fascinating biological phenomenon and seminal studies in the field...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945224/rarf-confers-ra-resistance-by-sequestering-rar-to-the-nucleolus-and-regulating-mcl1-in-leukemia-cells
#15
H Youn, H-K Lee, H-R Sohn, U-H Park, E-J Kim, B Youn, S-J Um
Retinoic acid (RA) has broad clinical applications for the treatment of various cancers, particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, RA-based therapy is limited by relapse in patients associated with RA resistance, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Here, we suggest a new molecular mechanism of RA resistance by a repressor, named RA resistance factor (RaRF). RaRF suppressed transcriptional activity of the RA receptor (RAR) by directly interacting with and sequestering RAR to the nucleolus in response to RA...
September 25, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942442/evolutionary-relationships-among-boulengerella-species-ctenoluciidae-characiformes-genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dnas-and-highly-conserved-karyotypes
#16
José F de Souza E Sousa, Patrik F Viana, Luiz A C Bertollo, Marcelo B Cioffi, Eliana Feldberg
Ctenoluciidae is a Neotropical freshwater fish family whose representatives are known as bicudas. The genus Boulengerella contains 5 species, and 4 of them (B. cuvieri, B. lateristriga, B. lucius, and B. maculata) were cytogenetically analyzed in the present study by conventional and molecular procedures. All 4 species have a very similar karyotype, with 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 metacentrics + 16 submetacentrics + 6 subtelocentrics; FN = 72). However, the heterochromatin distribution pattern is species-specific...
September 23, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935370/the-hierarchical-structure-of-the-perichromosomal-layer-comprises-ki67-ribosomal-rnas-and-nucleolar-proteins
#17
Yuki Hayashi, Kazashi Kato, Keiji Kimura
The perichromosomal layer (PCL) is a structure that surrounds mitotic chromosomes, found in both animal and plant cells. It comprises various proteins and RNAs, mainly derived from the nucleolus. Several functions for the PCL have been suggested; however, the mechanism of PCL organization during mitosis remains unclear. The localization of several nucleolar proteins to the PCL is reportedly dependent on pre-ribosomal RNAs and the marker of proliferation, Ki67, which is a major PCL-localized protein. Here we demonstrate that, although the removal of pre-ribosomal RNAs from the PCL causes PCL delocalization of several nucleolar proteins, it does not affect the localization of Ki67...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928040/p-3f-a-microtubule-polymerization-inhibitor-enhances-p53-stability-through-the-change-in-localization-of-rps27a
#18
Huai Wang, Jiang Feng, Tong Zhou, Lijun Wei, Jianming Zhou
Previously, we demonstrated that P-3F, a podophyllum derivative, exhibits a 297-fold enhancement in antitumor activity than VP-16, used as anticancer agent in clinical. The purpose of our present study was to investigate the precise antitumor mechanism action of P-3F. It showed that P-3F inhibited microtubule polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. The results were in overall agreement with modeling and docking studies performed on P-3F and tubulin. In addition, P-3F increased the levels of P53, this in turn prolonged P53 half-life...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924627/structure-and-biogenesis-of-ribonucleoprotein-bodies-in-epidermal-cells-of-caragana-arborescens-l
#19
Elizabeth Kordyum, Ninel Bilyavska
Epidermal cells of leaf petioles, pedicles, and sepals in Caragana arborescens L. are characterized with a unique biogenesis of intracellular bodies, the presence of which continues during 10-12 days in spring, from budding till flowering and fruit inception. Initially, a nuclear body is formed as a derivative of the nucleolus at the beginning of elongation of the protodermal cells, whereas a cytoplasmic body is formed in the proximity of the nuclear envelope later. Nuclear bodies and cytoplasmic bodies do not contain DNA, lipids, and starch, and they consist of RNA tightly packaged with proteins mainly in the form of short thin fibrils with thickness of 6 nm...
September 19, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919966/chromosomal-stasis-in-distinct-families-of-marine-percomorpharia-from-south-atlantic
#20
Fabilene Gomes Paim, Leandro Aragão da Hora Almeida, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso, Patrícia Elda Sobrinho-Scudeler, Claudio Oliveira, Débora Diniz
The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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