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Concetta Federico, Laura Gil, Francesca Bruno, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Velia D'Agata, Salvatore Saccone
Tau is a multifunctional protein, originally identified as a cytoplasmic protein associated with microtubules. It is codified by the MAPT gene, and the alternative splicing, in the neuronal cells, results in six different isoforms. Tau was subsequently observed in the cell nucleus, where its function is not yet clearly understood. Here, we studied the MAPT gene and the cellular localization of the AT8 and Tau-1 epitopes of Tau protein, in the SK-N-BE cell line, which differentiates in neuronal-like cells after retinoic acid treatment...
April 20, 2018: Gene
Sanjoy Kumar Sheet, Bhaskar Sen, Sumit Kumar Patra, Monosh Rabha, Kripamoy Aguan, Snehadrinarayan Khatua
The development of red emissive aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active probes for organelle-specific imaging is of great importance. Construction of metal complex-based AIE-active materials with metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT), ligand-to-meal charge transfer (LMCT) emission together with the ligand-centered and intraligand (LC/ILCT) emission is a challenging task. We developed a red emissive ruthenium(II) complex, 1[PF6 ]2 , and its perchlorate analogues of the 4,7-dichloro phenanthroline ligand. 1[PF6 ]2 has been characterized by spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guoliang Lyu, Tan Tan, Yiting Guan, Lei Sun, Qianjin Liang, Wei Tao
In female mammals, each cell silences one X chromosome by converting it into transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. The inactivation is concomitant with epigenetic changes including methylation of specific histone residues and incorporation of macroH2A. Such epigenetic changes may exert influence on the positioning of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) within the nucleus beyond the level of chromatin structure. However, the dynamic positioning of the inactive X chromosome during cell cycle remains unclear. Here, we show that H3K27me3 is a cell-cycle-independent marker for the inactivated X chromosomes in WI38 cells...
April 21, 2018: Chromosome Research
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Maíra P Martins, Eriston V Gomes, Pablo R Sanches, Wellington R Pedersoli, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Antonio Rossi
Advances in the understanding of molecular systems depend on specific tools like the disruption of genes to produce strains with the desired characteristics. The disruption of any mutagen sensitive (mus) genes in the model fungus Neurospora crassa, i.e. mus-51, mus-52, or mus-53, orthologous to the human genes KU70, KU80, and LIG4, respectively, provides efficient tools for gene targeting. Accordingly, we used RNA-sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification techniques to evaluate the effects of mus-52 deletion in N...
2018: PloS One
Rashi Garg, Radhika Srinivasan, Pranab Dey, Priya Singh, Nalini Gupta, Arvind Rajwanshi
Objective: To distinguish fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) variant from the conventional hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by cytology, immunocytochemistry, and morphometry. Study Design: Retrospective detailed cytomorphological, immunocytochemical, and morphometric analysis was performed in 6 cases of FL-HCC reported on fine needle aspiration. Cell block immunocytochemistry (CB-ICC) for CK7 and CD68 was performed in four cases. Morphometry was carried out with Cell A software...
April 2018: Journal of Cytology
Jia-Shiun Leu, So-Yi Chang, Chia-Yu Mu, Mei-Ling Chen, Bo-Shiun Yan
BACKGROUND: SP110, an interferon-induced nuclear protein, belongs to the SP100/SP140 protein family. Very recently, we showed that SP110b, an SP110 isoform, controls host innate immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. However, it remains unclear how the structure of SP110 relates to its cellular functions. In this study, we provide experimental data illustrating the protein domains that are responsible for its functions. METHODS: We examined the effects of SP110 isoforms and a series of deletion mutants of SP110 on transcriptional regulation by luciferase reporter assays...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sharad Awasthi, Mamta Verma, Arun Mahesh, Mohd Imran K Khan, Gayathri Govindaraju, Arumugam Rajavelu, Pavithra L Chavali, Sreenivas Chavali, Arunkumar Dhayalan
Among the proteins predicted to be a part of the DExD box RNA helicase family, the functions of DDX49 are unknown. Here, we characterize the enzymatic activities and functions of DDX49 by comparing its properties with the well-studied RNA helicase, DDX39B. We find that DDX49 exhibits a robust ATPase and RNA helicase activity, significantly higher than that of DDX39B. DDX49 is required for the efficient export of poly (A)+ RNA from nucleus in a splicing-independent manner. Furthermore, DDX49 is a resident protein of nucleolus and regulates the steady state levels of pre-ribosomal RNA by regulating its transcription and stability...
March 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Lorena Núñez Villacís, Mei S Wong, Laura L Ferguson, Nadine Hein, Amee J George, Katherine M Hannan
Over the last decade, our appreciation of the importance of the nucleolus for cellular function has progressed from the ordinary to the extraordinary. We no longer think of the nucleolus as simply the site of ribosome production, or a dynamic subnuclear body noted by pathologists for its changes in size and shape with malignancy. Instead, the nucleolus has emerged as a key controller of many cellular processes that are fundamental to normal cell homeostasis and the target for dysregulation in many human diseases; in some cases, independent of its functions in ribosome biogenesis...
March 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Samim Sharifi, Holger Bierhoff
Ribosome biogenesis is a complex and highly energy-demanding process that requires the concerted action of all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Pol I-III) in eukaryotes. The three largest ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) originate from a precursor transcript (pre-rRNA) that is encoded by multicopy genes located in the nucleolus. Transcription of these rRNA genes (rDNA) by Pol I is the key regulation step in ribosome production and is tightly controlled by an intricate network of signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Yadira Lobaina, Yasser Perera
BACKGROUND: B23/nucleophosmin (B23/NPM1) is an abundant multifunctional protein mainly located in the nucleolus but constantly shuttling between the nucleus and cytosol. As a consequence of its constitutive expression, intracellular dynamics and binding capacities, B23/NPM1 interacts with multiple cellular factors in different cellular compartments, but also with viral proteins from both DNA and RNA viruses. B23/NPM1 influences overall viral replication of viruses like HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HPV by playing functional roles in different stages of viral replication including nuclear import, viral genome transcription and assembly, as well as final particle formation...
March 27, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Shoukai Yu, Bernardo Lemos
The repeated rDNA array gives rise to the nucleolus, an organelle that is central to cellular processes as varied as stress response, cell cycle regulation, RNA modification, cell metabolism, and genome stability. The rDNA array is also responsible for the production of more than 70% of all cellular RNAs (the ribosomal RNAs). The rRNAs are produced from two sets of loci: the 5S rDNA array resides exclusively on human chromosome 1 while the 45S rDNA arrays reside on the short arm of five human acrocentric chromosomes...
March 2018: PLoS Genetics
Anthony N Milin, Ashok A Deniz
Compartmentalization of biochemical components, interactions, and reactions is critical for the function of cells. While intracellular partitioning of molecules via membranes has been extensively studied, there has been an expanding focus in recent years on the critical cellular roles and biophysical mechanisms of action of membraneless organelles (MLOs) such as the nucleolus. In this context, a substantial body of recent work has demonstrated that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) plays a key role in MLO formation...
March 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Jieyu Wu, Xue Jiang, Yamei Li, Tingting Zhu, Jingjing Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Linqiang Zhang, Yuru Zhang, Yanli Wang, Xiaoju Zou, Bin Liang
The primary function of the nucleolus is ribosome biogenesis, which is an extremely energetically expensive process. Failures in ribosome biogenesis cause nucleolar stress with an altered energy status. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism linking nucleolar stress to energy metabolism. Here we show that nucleolar stress is triggered by inactivation of RSKS-1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase), RRP-8 (ribosomal RNA processing 8), and PRO-2/3 (proximal proliferation), all of which are involved in ribosomal RNA processing or inhibition of rDNA transcription by actinomycin D (AD), leading to excessive lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Xingxing Shi, Kai Zhou, Fei Huang, Juan Zhang, Chen Wang
Background: As a potentially bioactive material, the widespread application of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) in the field of bone regeneration has increased the risk of human exposure. However, our understanding of the interaction between nano-HAP and stem cells implicated in bone repair remains incomplete. Methods: Here, we characterized the adhesion and cellular internalization of HAP nanoparticles (HANPs) with different sizes (20 nm np20 and 80 nm np80) and highlighted the involved pathway in their uptake using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ziling Fang, Bo Cao, Jun-Ming Liao, Jun Deng, Kevin D Plummer, Peng Liao, Tao Liu, Wensheng Zhang, Kun Zhang, Li Li, David Margolin, Shelya X Zeng, Jianping Xiong, Hua Lu
Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play important roles in modulating the MDM2-p53 pathway. However, less is known about the upstream regulators of the RPs. Here we identify SPIN1 (Spindlin 1) as a novel binding partner of human RPL5/uL18 that is important for this pathway. SPIN1 ablation activates p53, suppresses cell growth, reduces clonogenic ability, and induces apoptosis of human cancer cells. Mechanistically, SPIN1 sequesters uL18 in the nucleolus, preventing it from interacting with MDM2, and thereby alleviating uL18-mediated inhibition of MDM2 ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm)...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Attila Németh, Ingrid Grummt
The nucleolus is the largest nuclear sub-compartment in which the early steps of ribosome biogenesis take place. It also plays an essential role in the assembly and function of non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, controls cell cycle progression and senses environmental stress. The spatial organization and dynamics of nucleolar proteins and RNA is regulated at different structural levels, which finally determine nucleolar architecture. The intimate link between nucleolar structure and function is reflected by transcription-dependent changes in nucleolus-associated chromatin, overall morphological alterations in response to external cues, and the liquid droplet-like behavior of nucleolar compartments...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Yi-Hsuan Lin, Julie D Forman-Kay, Hue Sun Chan
Liquid-liquid phase separation and related condensation processes of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), proteins with intrinsically disordered regions and nucleic acids underpin various condensed-liquid droplets or gel-like assemblies in the cellular environment. Collectively referred to as condensates, these bodies provide spatial/temporal compartmentalization, often serving as hubs for regulated biomolecular interactions. Examples include certain extracellular materials, transcription complexes, and membraneless organelles such as germ and stress granules and the nucleolus...
March 6, 2018: Biochemistry
Xian-Wu Hua, Yan-Wen Bao, Fu-Gen Wu
Nucleolus tracking and nucleus-targeted photodynamic therapy are attracting increasing attention due to the importance of nucleolus and the sensitivity of nucleus to various therapeutic stimuli. Herein, a new class of multifunctional fluorescent carbon quantum dots (or carbon dots, CDs) synthesized via the one-pot hydrothermal reaction of m-phenylenediamine and L-cysteine, was reported to effectively target nucleolus. The as-prepared CDs possess superior properties such as low-cost and facile synthesis, good water dispersibility, various surface groups for further modifications, prominent photostability, excellent compatibility, and rapid/convenient/wash-free staining procedures...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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