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Nucleolus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234321/viral-impact-in-autoimmune-diseases-expanding-the-x-chromosome-nucleolus-nexus-hypothesis
#1
Wesley H Brooks
Viruses are suspected of significant roles in autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms are unclear. We get some insight by considering demands a virus places on host cells. Viruses not only require production of their own proteins, RNA and/or DNA, but also production of additional cellular machinery, such as ribosomes, to handle the increased demands. Since the nucleolus is a major site of RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly, nucleoli are targeted by viruses, directly when viral RNA and proteins enter the nucleolus and indirectly when viruses induce increased expression of cellular polyamine genes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228551/human-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-type-i-virus-can-engage-rna-polymerase-i-for-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes
#2
Ourania N Kostopoulou, Vanessa Wilhelmi, Sina Raiss, Sharan Ananthaseshan, Mikael S Lindström, Jiri Bartek, Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes RNA polymerase II to transcribe viral genes and produce viral mRNAs. It can specifically target the nucleolus to facilitate viral transcription and translation. As RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription is active in the nucleolus, we investigated the role of Pol I, along with relative contributions of the human Pol II and Pol III, to early phases of viral transcription in HCMV infected cells, compared with Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195278/localization-switching-of-a-large-object-in-a-crowded-cavity-a-rigid-soft-object-prefers-surface-inner-positioning
#3
Chwen-Yang Shew, Soutaro Oda, Kenichi Yoshikawa
For living cells in the real world, a large organelle is commonly positioned in the inner region away from membranes, such as the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, the nucleolus of nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi body, etc. It contradicts the expectation by the current depletion-force theory in that the larger particle should be excluded from the inner cell space onto cell boundaries in a crowding media. Here we simply model a sizable organelle as a soft-boundary large particle allowing crowders, which are smaller hard spheres in the model, to intrude across its boundary...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192272/ribosomal-stress-and-tp53-mediated-neuronal-apoptosis-in-response-to-capsid-protein-of-the-zika-virus
#4
Lukasz P Slomnicki, Dong-Hoon Chung, Austin Parker, Taylor Hermann, Nolan L Boyd, Michal Hetman
We report here that in rat and human neuroprogenitor cells as well as rat embryonic cortical neurons Zika virus (ZIKV) infection leads to ribosomal stress that is characterized by structural disruption of the nucleolus. The anti-nucleolar effects were most pronounced in postmitotic neurons. Moreover, in the latter system, nucleolar presence of ZIKV capsid protein (ZIKV-C) was associated with ribosomal stress and apoptosis. Deletion of 22 C-terminal residues of ZIKV-C prevented nucleolar localization, ribosomal stress and apoptosis...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190286/nucleolar-sub-compartments-in-motion-during-rrna-synthesis-inhibition-contraction-of-nucleolar-condensed-chromatin-and-gathering-of-fibrillar-centers-are-concomitant
#5
Pavel Tchelidze, Aassif Benassarou, Hervé Kaplan, Marie-Françoise O'Donohue, Laurent Lucas, Christine Terryn, Levan Rusishvili, Giorgi Mosidze, Nathalie Lalun, Dominique Ploton
The nucleolus produces the large polycistronic transcript (47S precursor) containing the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA sequences and hosts most of the nuclear steps of pre-rRNA processing. Among numerous components it contains condensed chromatin and active rRNA genes which adopt a more accessible conformation. For this reason, it is a paradigm of chromosome territory organization. Active rRNA genes are clustered within several fibrillar centers (FCs), in which they are maintained in an open configuration by Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) molecules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186711/genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dnas-and-differentiation-of-an-xx-xy-sex-chromosome-system-in-the-amazonian-puffer-fish-colomesus-asellus-tetraodontiformes
#6
Patrik F Viana, Tariq Ezaz, Leandro Marajó, Milena Ferreira, Jansen Zuanon, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Maria C Gross, Eliana Feldberg
The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males...
November 30, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161561/nucleolar-condensation-a-new-mechanism-to-control-mitotic-exit
#7
Andrés Clemente-Blanco
The nucleolus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the last genomic regions to be condensed in mitosis. A new study shows that this extended nucleolar relaxation state is fundamental for the timely execution of mitotic exit.
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151403/mouse-oocytes-nucleoli-rescue-embryonic-development-of-porcine-enucleolated-oocytes
#8
Martin Morovic, Frantisek Strejcek, Shoma Nakagawa, Rahul S Deshmukh, Matej Murin, Michal Benc, Helena Fulka, Hirohisa Kyogoku, Lazo Pendovski, Josef Fulka, Jozef Laurincik
It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF))...
November 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150877/patients-with-spitz-nevi-in-the-greek-population-epidemiologic-clinical-and-histopathological-characteristics
#9
Efthymia Soura, Amerini Dimitrakopoulou, Erietta Christofidou, Alexander Katoulis, Christina Antoniou, Alexander Stratigos
BACKGROUND: Spitz nevi may present with clinical and histopathological atypical features that do not affect patient prognosis, but may become worrisome for patients ≥40 years presenting with newly appearing SN. OBJECTIVE: Patient characteristics and sun behavior patterns were investigated in correlation with age. SN characteristics and histopathological attributes were also investigated in correlation with age. METHODS: Patients with histopathologicaly confirmed diagnosis of SN were invited for a clinical examination...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143558/perturbation-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-machinery-by-ablation-of-heatr1-triggers-the-rpl5-rpl11-mdm2-p53-ribosome-biogenesis-stress-checkpoint-pathway-in-human-cells
#10
Zsofia Turi, Marketa Senkyrikova, Martin Mistrik, Jiri Bartek, Pavel Moudry
Ribosome biogenesis is an energy consuming process which takes place mainly in the nucleolus. By producing ribosomes to fuel protein synthesis, it is tightly connected with cell growth and cell cycle control. Perturbation of ribosome biogenesis leads to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein promoting processes like cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. This ribosome biogenesis stress pathway activates p53 through sequestration of MDM2 by a subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs), thereby stabilizing p53...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126766/raman-spectroscopic-analysis-of-oral-cells-in-the-high-wavenumber-region
#11
Luis Felipe C S Carvalho, Franck Bonnier, Cláudio Tellez, Laurita Dos Santos, Kate O'Callaghan, Jeff O'Sullivan, Luis Eduardo S Soares, Stephen Flint, Airton A Martin, Fiona M Lyng, Hugh J Byrne
Raman spectroscopy can provide a molecular-level signature of the biochemical composition and structure of cells with submicrometer spatial resolution and could be useful to monitor changes in composition for early stage and non-invasive cancer diagnosis, both ex-vivo and in vivo. In particular, the fingerprint spectral region (400-1800cm(-1)) has been shown to be very promising for optical biopsy purposes. However, limitations for discrimination of dysplastic and inflammatory processes based on the fingerprint region have been demonstrated...
November 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116069/-participation-of-the-pirna-pathway-in-recruiting-a-component-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-initiation-complex-to-germline-cell-nucleoli
#12
E A Fefelova, A D Stolyarenko, E Y Yakushev, V A Gvozdev, M S Klenov
Proteins of the Piwi family and short Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) ensure the protection of the genome from transposable elements. We have previously shown that nuclear Piwi protein tends to concentrate in the nucleoli of the cells of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. It could be hypothesized that the function of Piwi in the nucleolus is associated with the repression of R1 and R2 retrotransposons inserted into the rDNA cluster. Here, we show that Piwi participates in recruiting Udd protein to nucleoli. Udd is a component of the conserved Selectivity Factor I-like (SL1-like) complex, which is required for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114362/comparative-cytogenetics-of-some-marsupial-species-didelphimorphia-didelphidae-from-the-amazon-basin
#13
Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Rodrigo Amaral de Andrade, Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Eduardo Schmidt Eler, Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva, Eliana Feldberg
We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107693/wdr74-participates-in-an-early-cleavage-of-the-pre-rrna-processing-pathway-in-cooperation-with-the-nucleolar-aaa-atpase-nvl2
#14
Nobuhiro Hiraishi, Yo-Ichi Ishida, Haruka Sudo, Masami Nagahama
WD repeat-containing protein 74 (WDR74), a nucleolar-localized protein, is the mammalian ortholog of Nsa1, a 60S ribosome assembly factor in yeast. We previously showed that WDR74 associates with MTR4, the nuclear exosome-assisting RNA helicase, whose dissociation is prohibited by an ATPase-deficient mutant of the AAA-type chaperone NVL2. However, the functions and regulation of WDR74 during ribosome biogenesis in cooperation with NVL2 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that knockdown of WDR74 leads to significant defects in the pre-rRNA cleavage within the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), occurring in an early stage of the processing pathway...
October 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104779/the-spatial-organization-of-the-intranuclear-structures-of-human-brain-dopaminergic-neurons
#15
D E Korzhevskii, V V Gusel'nikova, O V Kirik, E G Sukhorukova, I P Grigorev
We studied the intranuclear localization of protein nucleophosmin (B23) and ubiquitin in the dopaminergic neurons of human substantia nigra (n = 6, age of 25-87 years) using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. Intranuclear ubiquitin-immunopositive bodies that morphologically correspond to Marinesco bodies were found to be present in substantia nigra dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive) neurons but absent in non-dopaminergic neurons. The number of bodies varied from 0 to 6 per cell nucleus...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104584/nucleolar-proteome-analysis-and-proteasomal-activity-assays-reveal-a-link-between-nucleolus-and-26s-proteasome-in-a-thaliana
#16
Charlotte Montacié, Nathalie Durut, Alison Opsomer, Denise Palm, Pascale Comella, Claire Picart, Marie-Christine Carpentier, Frederic Pontvianne, Christine Carapito, Enrico Schleiff, Julio Sáez-Vásquez
In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleolus is functionally and structurally linked to rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. This compartment contains as well factors involved in other cellular activities, but the functional interconnection between non-ribosomal activities and the nucleolus (structure and function) still remains an open question. Here, we report a novel mass spectrometry analysis of isolated nucleoli from Arabidopsis thaliana plants using the FANoS (Fluorescence Assisted Nucleolus Sorting) strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101747/cloning-intracellular-localization-and-expression-of-the-mammalian-selenocysteine-containing-protein-selenoi-seli-in-tumor-cell-lines
#17
E G Varlamova, M V Goltyaev, V I Novoselov, E E Fesenko
The intracellular localization of human selenoprotein SelI and the degree of expression of its gene in different human tumor cell lines were determined. It was found that the SelI protein is present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and endoplasmic reticulum and is absent in the nucleolus. Since the oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the content of free radicals in the body is one of the causes of malignant transformation, the study of the role of the trace element selenium and selenocysteine-containing proteins as antioxidants in carcinogenesis is of great scientific interest...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069446/6-4-pp-photolyase-encoded-by-atuvr3-is-localized-in-nuclei-chloroplasts-and-mitochondria-and-its-expression-is-down-regulated-by-light-in-a-photosynthesis-dependent-manner
#18
Agnieszka Katarzyna Banas, Pawel Hermanowicz, Olga Sztatelman, Justyna Labuz, Chhavi Aggarwal, Piotr Zglobicki, Dominika Jagiello-Flasinska, Wojciech Strzalka
Pyrimidine dimers are the most important DNA lesions induced by UVB irradiation. They can be repaired directly by photoreactivation or indirectly by the excision repair pathways. Photoreactivation is performed by photolyases, enzymes which bind to the dimers and use the energy of blue light or UVA to split bonds between adjacent pyrimidines. Arabidopsis thaliana has three known photolyases: AtPHR1, AtCRY3 and AtUVR3. Little is known about the cellular localization and regulation of AtUVR3 expression. We have found that its transcript level is down-regulated by light (red, blue or white) in a photosynthesis-dependent manner...
October 24, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059674/chromosome-banding-in-amphibia-xxxv-highly-mobile-nucleolus-organizing-regions-in-craugastor-fitzingeri-anura-craugastoridae
#19
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein, Wolfgang Feichtinger, Indrajit Nanda
A 7-year cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Craugastor fitzingeri from Costa Rica and Panama revealed the existence of highly mobile nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) in their genomes. Silver (Ag)-staining of the active NORs demonstrated an exceptional interindividual pattern of NOR distribution at the telomeres of the chromosomes. All individuals examined showed a different and specific NOR location in their karyotypes. Furthermore, intraindividual variation in the NOR sites was found. This observation suggested the existence of mobile NORs in C...
October 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057309/direct-pro-apoptotic-role-for-npm1-as-a-regulator-of-piddosome-formation
#20
Samuel Sidi, Lisa Bouchier-Hayes
Despite being frequently mutated or deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and many other cancers, the mechanisms by which nucleophosmin (NPM1) regulates oncogenesis remain elusive. We found that NPM1 plays a direct and conserved role in DNA damage-induced assembly of the PIDDosome complex, the activating platform for caspase-2. This function is carried in the nucleolus and is essential for caspase-2-mediated apoptosis in response to a variety of DNA injuries.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
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