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Heterochromatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224139/antibody-based-detection-of-global-nuclear-dna-methylation-in-cells-tissue-sections-and-mammalian-embryos
#1
Nathalie Beaujean, Juliette Salvaing, Nur Annies Abd Hadi, Sari Pennings
Immunostaining is widely used in cell biology for the in situ detection of proteins in fixed cells. The method is based on the specificity of antibodies for recognizing and binding to a selected target, combined with immunolabeling techniques for microscopic imaging. Antibodies with high specificities for modified nucleotides have also been widely developed, and among those, antibodies that recognize modified cytosine: 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and more recently, its derivates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216379/endothelial-cell-differentiation-is-encompassed-by-changes-in-long-range-interactions-between-inactive-chromatin-regions
#2
Henri Niskanen, Irina Tuszynska, Rafal Zaborowski, Merja Heinäniemi, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Bartek Wilczynski, Minna U Kaikkonen
Endothelial cells (ECs) differentiate from mesodermal progenitors during vasculogenesis. By comparing changes in chromatin interactions between human umbilical vein ECs, embryonic stem cells and mesendoderm cells, we identified regions exhibiting EC-specific compartmentalization and changes in the degree of connectivity within topologically associated domains (TADs). These regions were characterized by EC-specific transcription, binding of lineage-determining transcription factors and cohesin. In addition, we identified 1200 EC-specific long-range interactions (LRIs) between TADs...
December 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214404/the-19s-proteasome-regulates-subtelomere-silencing-and-facultative-heterochromatin-formation-in-fission-yeast
#3
Hogyu David Seo, Chang Seob Kwon, Daeyoup Lee
Accumulating evidence shows that non-proteolytic functions of the proteasome are as crucial as its well-known proteolytic function in regulating cellular activities. In our recent work, we showed that the 19S proteasome mediates the heterochromatin spreading of centromeric heterochromatin in non-proteolytic manner. However, the involvement of the proteasome in other heterochromatin regions remained largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the non-proteolytic role of the 19S proteasome in subtelomere and facultative heterochromatin regions...
December 6, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212661/disruption-of-an-rna-binding-hinge-region-abolishes-lhp1-mediated-epigenetic-repression
#4
Scott Berry, Stefanie Rosa, Martin Howard, Marc Bühler, Caroline Dean
Epigenetic maintenance of gene repression is essential for development. Polycomb complexes are central to this memory, but many aspects of the underlying mechanism remain unclear. LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) binds Polycomb-deposited H3K27me3 and is required for repression of many Polycomb target genes in Arabidopsis Here we show that LHP1 binds RNA in vitro through the intrinsically disordered hinge region. By independently perturbing the RNA-binding hinge region and H3K27me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27) recognition, we found that both facilitate LHP1 localization and H3K27me3 maintenance...
December 6, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211718/pirna-mediated-regulation-of-transposon-alternative-splicing-in-the-soma-and-germ-line
#5
Felipe Karam Teixeira, Martyna Okuniewska, Colin D Malone, Rémi-Xavier Coux, Donald C Rio, Ruth Lehmann
Transposable elements can drive genome evolution, but their enhanced activity is detrimental to the host and therefore must be tightly regulated. The Piwi-interacting small RNA (piRNA) pathway is vital for the regulation of transposable elements, by inducing transcriptional silencing or post-transcriptional decay of mRNAs. Here we show that piRNAs and piRNA biogenesis components regulate precursor mRNA splicing of P-transposable element transcripts in vivo, leading to the production of the non-transposase-encoding mature mRNA isoform in Drosophila germ cells...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211617/targeting-hdac3-activity-with-rgfp966-protects-against-retinal-ganglion-cell-nuclear-atrophy-and-apoptosis-after-optic-nerve-injury
#6
Heather M Schmitt, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
PURPOSE: HDAC3 regulates nuclear atrophy as an early response to axonal injury in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic nerve crush (ONC). Since conditional knockout of Hdac3 prevents nuclear atrophy post ONC, HDAC3 selective inhibition with RGFP966 through localized and systemic dosing of RGFP966 is necessary for application to acute and chronic models of optic nerve injury. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected intravitreally with 1-10 μM RGFP966 immediately following ONC, and retinas were analyzed at 5, 7, and 14 days for metrics of nuclear atrophy and cell loss...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210662/response-to-doxorubicin-of-exfoliated-human-buccal-epithelium-cells-comparison-of-three-methods-of-cell-staining-and-calcium-assessment
#7
Yuriy Shckorbatov, Dmitriy Miroshnik, Igor Kovalenko
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic which inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis intercalating DNA double helix and inducing free radicals. Doxorubicin is used in treatment of cancer diseases. The influence of Doxorubicin on human buccal cell was used as a model for assessment of toxic effects in vitro. OBJECTIVE: We studied the possibility of using the process of heterochromatinization in cell nuclei in toxicological investigations of drugs in vitro...
December 6, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209628/inhibitors-of-histone-deacetylases-are-weak-activators-of-the-fmr1-gene-in-fragile-x-syndrome-cell-lines
#8
Alexander A Dolskiy, Vladimir O Pustylnyak, Andrey A Yarushkin, Natalya A Lemskaya, Dmitry V Yudkin
Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. It is a result of CGG repeat expansion in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the FMR1 gene. This gene encodes the FMRP protein that is involved in neuronal development. Repeat expansion leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter, gene silencing, and the subsequent absence of FMRP. To date, there is no specific therapy for the syndrome. All treatments in clinic practice provide symptomatic therapy. The development of drug therapy for Fragile X syndrome treatment is connected with the search for inhibitors of enzymes that are responsible for heterochromatinization...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208645/observation-of-dna-intertwining-along-authentic-budding-yeast-chromosomes
#9
Ainhoa Mariezcurrena, Frank Uhlmann
DNA replication of circular genomes generates physically interlinked or catenated sister DNAs. These are resolved through transient DNA fracture by type II topoisomerases to permit chromosome segregation during cell division. Topoisomerase II is similarly required for linear chromosome segregation, suggesting that linear chromosomes also remain intertwined following DNA replication. Indeed, chromosome resolution defects are a frequent cause of chromosome segregation failure and consequent aneuploidies. When and where intertwines arise and persist along linear chromosomes are not known, owing to the difficulty of demonstrating intertwining of linear DNAs...
December 5, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208528/heterochromatin-protein-hp-1%C3%AE-is-not-only-in-the-nucleus-but-also-in-the-cytoplasm-interacting-with-actin-in-both-cell-compartments
#10
Nancy L Charó, Natalia M Galigniana, Graciela Piwien-Pilipuk
Confocal and electron microscopy images, and WB analysis of cellular fractions revealed that HP1γ is in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts, myotubes, skeletal and cardiac muscles, N2a, HeLa and HEK293T cells. Signal specificity was tested with different antibodies and by HP1γ knockdown. Leptomycin B treatment of myoblasts increased nuclear HP1γ, suggesting that its nuclear export is Crm-1-dependent. HP1γ exhibited a filamentous pattern of staining partially co-localizing with actin in the cytoplasm of myotubes and myofibrils...
December 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207681/histone-demethylase-jmjd2c-epigenetic-regulators-in-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Chengcheng Zhang, Zhongqi Wang, Qing Ji, Qi Li
Histone methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications, and various histone methylases and demethylases participate in the epigenetic regulating. JMJD2C has been recently identified as one of the histone lysine demethylases. As one member of the Jumonji-C histone demethylase family, JMJD2C has the ability to demethylate tri- or di-methylated histone 3 and 2 in either K9 (lysine residue 9) or K36 (lysine residue 36) sites by an oxidative reaction, thereby affecting heterochromatin formation, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and transcriptional regulation of genes...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198563/transient-transcriptional-silencing-alters-the-cell-cycle-to-promote-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-in-drosophila
#12
Pooja Flora, Sean Schowalter, SiuWah Wong-Deyrup, Matthew DeGennaro, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Prashanth Rangan
Transcriptional silencing is a conserved process used by embryonic germ cells to repress somatic fate and maintain totipotency and immortality. In Drosophila, this transcriptional silencing is mediated by polar granule component (pgc). Here, we show that in the adult ovary, pgc is required for timely germline stem cell (GSC) differentiation. Pgc is expressed transiently in the immediate GSC daughter (pre-cystoblast), where it mediates a pulse of transcriptional silencing. This transcriptional silencing mediated by pgc indirectly promotes the accumulation of Cyclin B (CycB) and cell cycle progression into late-G2 phase, when the differentiation factor bag of marbles (bam) is expressed...
November 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#13
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196188/nervous-system-development-and-disease-a-focus-on-trithorax-related-proteins-and-chromatin-remodelers
#14
REVIEW
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
November 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191233/functional-dissection-of-drosophila-melanogaster-suur-protein-influence-on-h3k27me3-profile
#15
Olga V Posukh, Daniil A Maksimov, Petr P Laktionov, Dmitry E Koryakov, Stepan N Belyakin
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, heterochromatin replicates late in S phase of the cell cycle and contains specific covalent modifications of histones. SuUR mutation found in Drosophila makes heterochromatin replicate earlier than in wild type and reduces the level of repressive histone modifications. SUUR protein was shown to be associated with moving replication forks, apparently through the interaction with PCNA. The biological process underlying the effects of SUUR on replication and composition of heterochromatin remains unknown...
December 1, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187506/cooperative-control-of-ecdysone-biosynthesis-in-drosophila-by-transcription-factors-s%C3%A3-ance-ouija-board-and-molting-defective
#16
Outa Uryu, Qiuxiang Ou, Tatsuya Komura-Kawa, Takumi Kamiyama, Masatoshi Iga, Monika Syrzycka, Keiko Hirota, Hiroshi Kataoka, Barry M Honda, Kirst King-Jones, Ryusuke Niwa
Insect ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that control many aspects of development and physiology. During larval development, ecdysone is synthesized in an endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland (PG) through a series of ecdysteroidogenic enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes. The expression of the Halloween genes is highly restricted and dynamic, indicating that their spatiotemporal regulation is mediated by their tight transcriptional control. In this study, we report that three ZAD-C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors-Séance (Séan), Ouija board (Ouib), and Molting defective (Mld)-cooperatively control ecdysone biosynthesis in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Séan and Ouib act in cooperation with Mld to positively regulate the transcription of neverland and spookier, respectively, two Halloween genes...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187422/dependency-of-heterochromatin-domains-on-replication-factors
#17
Leonie Johanna Jahn, Bethany Mason, Peter Brøgger, Tea Toteva, Dennis Kim Nielsen, Genevieve Thon
Chromatin structure regulates both genome expression and dynamics in eukaryotes where large heterochromatic regions are epigenetically silenced through the methylation of histone H3K9, histone deacetylation, and assembly of repressive complexes. Previous genetic screens with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have led to the identification of key enzymatic activities and structural constituents of heterochromatin. We report here on additional factors discovered by screening a library of deletion mutants for silencing defects at the edge of a heterochromatic domain bound by its natural boundary - the IR-R+ element - or by ectopic boundaries...
November 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186711/genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dnas-and-differentiation-of-an-xx-xy-sex-chromosome-system-in-the-amazonian-puffer-fish-colomesus-asellus-tetraodontiformes
#18
Patrik F Viana, Tariq Ezaz, Leandro Marajó, Milena Ferreira, Jansen Zuanon, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Maria C Gross, Eliana Feldberg
The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males...
November 30, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186677/the-methyltransferase-setd8-is-essential-for-erythroblast-survival-and-maturation
#19
Jeffrey Malik, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Tyler Couch, Michael Getman, Laurie A Steiner
Erythropoiesis is a highly regulated process that generates enucleate red blood cells from committed erythroid progenitors. Chromatin condensation culminating in enucleation is a defining feature of this process. Setd8 is the sole enzyme that can mono-methylate histone H4, lysine 20 and is highly expressed in erythroblasts compared to most other cell types. Erythroid Setd8 deletion results in embryonic lethality from severe anemia due to impaired erythroblast survival and proliferation. Setd8 protein levels are also uniquely regulated in erythroblasts, suggesting a cell-type-specific role for Setd8 during terminal maturation...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183721/role-of-chromatin-assembly-factor-1-in-dna-replication-of-p-falciparum
#20
Mohit Kumar Gupta, Meetu Agarawal, Khadija Banu, K Sony Reddy, Deepak Gaur, Suman Kumar Dhar
Nucleosome assembly in P. falciparum could be the key process in maintaining its genomic integrity as DNA replicates more than once per cell cycle during several stages of its life cycle. Here, we report the functional characterization of P. falciparum chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF1), which interacts with several proteins namely PfCAF2, Histones, PfHP1 and others. Consistent with the above findings, we demonstrate the presence of PfCAF1 at the telomeric repeat regions, central and subtelomeric var genes of multiple var gene family along with PfHP1...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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