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John James Tello Cajiao, Mario Pietro Carante, Mario Antonio Bernal Rodriguez, Francesca Ballarini
It is widely accepted that, in chromosome-aberration induction, the (mis-)rejoining probability of two chromosome fragments depends on their initial distance, r. However, several aspects of these "proximity effects" need to be clarified, also considering that they can vary with radiation quality, cell type and dose. A previous work performed by the BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations) biophysical model has suggested that, in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts exposed to low-LET radiation, an exponential function of the form exp(-r/r0 ), which is consistent with free-end (confined) diffusion, describes proximity effects better than a Gaussian function...
February 22, 2018: DNA Repair
M Port, B Pieper, H D Dörr, A Hübsch, M Majewski, M Abend
The degree of severity of hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) may vary across the range of radiation doses, such that dose alone may be a less reliable predictor of clinical course. We sought to elucidate the relationship between absorbed dose and risk of clinically relevant HARS in humans. We used the database SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories), which contains the histories of radiation accident victims. From 153 cases we extracted data on dose estimates using the dicentric assay to measure individual biological dosimetry...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
Interspecific or introgressive hybridization is one of the driving forces in plant speciation, producing allopolyploids or diploids with rearranged genomes. The process of karyotype reshaping following homoploid interspecific hybridization has not been studied experimentally. Interspecific hybridization is widely used in plant breeding to increase genetic diversity and introgress new traits. Numerous introgression stocks were developed for hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD). Double monosomic lines, containing one alien chromosome from the tertiary gene pool of wheat and one homoeologous wheat chromosome, represent a simplified model for studying chromosome rearrangements caused by interspecific hybridization...
February 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Ales Tichy, Sylwia Kabacik, Grainne O'Brien, Jaroslav Pejchal, Zuzana Sinkorova, Adela Kmochova, Igor Sirak, Andrea Malkova, Caterina Gomila Beltran, Juan Ramon Gonzalez, Jakub Grepl, Matthaeus Majewski, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Lenka Zarybnicka, Jana Vachelova, Alzbeta Zavrelova, Marie Davidkova, Marketa Markova Stastna, Michael Abend, Eileen Pernot, Elisabeth Cardis, Christophe Badie
The increasing risk of acute large-scale radiological/nuclear exposures of population underlines the necessity of developing new, rapid and high throughput biodosimetric tools for estimation of received dose and initial triage. We aimed to compare the induction and persistence of different radiation exposure biomarkers in human peripheral blood in vivo. Blood samples of patients with indicated radiotherapy (RT) undergoing partial body irradiation (PBI) were obtained soon before the first treatment and then after 24 h, 48 h, and 5 weeks; i...
2018: PloS One
Fayza M Aly, Ahmed M Kotb, Seddik Hammad
Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water)...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Valentin P Volobaev, Aleksey V Larionov, Ekaterina E Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina S Serdyukova, Svetlana Yakovleva, Vladimir G Druzhinin, Olga O Babich, Elena G Hill, Victor A Semenihin, Nikolay I Panev, Varvara I Minina, Saravana Devi Sivanesan, Pravin Naoghare, Juliana da Silva, Gustavo R M Barcelos, Alexander Y Prosekov
Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1β T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963)...
January 25, 2018: Mutagenesis
Eric Grégoire, Laurence Roy, Valérie Buard, Martine Delbos, Valérie Durand, Cécile Martin-Bodiot, Pascale Voisin, Irène Sorokine-Durm, Aurélie Vaurijoux, Philippe Voisin, Céline Baldeyron, Joan Francesc Barquinero
PURPOSE: The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH), which easily detects reciprocal translocations, is currently used to estimate doses in retrospective biological dosimetry, after suspected accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This study of 42 cases aimed to verify the appropriateness of this assay for radiation dose reconstruction, compared to the dicentric assay, and to evaluate other limitations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We labeled chromosomes 2, 4, and 12 by 3-color FISH painting to detect translocations on lymphocytes of patients with suspected past IR overexposure...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Amanda Fernández-Fontelo, Pedro Puig, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Manuel Higueras
The goal in biological dosimetry is to estimate the dose of radiation that a suspected irradiated individual has received. For that, the analysis of aberrations (most commonly dicentric chromosome aberrations) in scored cells is performed and dose response calibration curves are built. In whole body irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays, the number of aberrations in samples is properly described by the Poisson distribution, although in partial body irradiation (PBI) the excess of zeros provided by the non-irradiated cells leads, for instance, to the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution...
January 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Maria Gomolka, Ursula Oestreicher, Ute Roessler, Daniel Samaga, David Endesfelder, Peter Lang, Klement Neumaier, Claus Belka, Markus Niemeyer, Marion Kiechle, Uwe Hasbargen, Christoph Hübener, Hans-Joachim Kirlum, Ulrike Kulka, Albert Rosenberger, Linda Walsh, Sarah Baatout, Ausra Kesminiene, Carita Lindholm
PURPOSE: Age dependent radiation sensitivity for DNA damage after in vitro blood exposure by computer tomography (CT) was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiation biomarkers (dicentrics and gammaH2AX) in blood samples of newborns, children under 5 years and adults after sham exposure (0 mGy), low dose (41 mGy) and high dose (978 mGy) in vitro CT exposure were analysed. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of dicentric induction were found for the single and combined newborns/children group compared to adults, by a factor of 1...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
A F Ye, Z Q Xuan, Q Y Ni, X G Wang, S Y Gao
Objective: To investigate the individual irridiateddose levelandhealth statusofoccupational externalexposureamong radiationworkers inThreeA hospitals ofZhejiangprovince,andprovideevidence for occupationalhealthmanagement. Methods: 367 different typesof radiationworkerswereexperienced thedose monitoring and health examination from January toDecember, 2015, according to the requirements of"SpecificationsofIndividualMonitoring forOccupationalExternalExposure"and"Specifications forOccupational healthsurveillance forradiationworkers"...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
L K Bezdrobna, L V Tarasenko, T V Tsyganok, V A Kurochkina, V O Sushko, L I Shvayko
OBJECTIVE: cytogenetic control of the staff radiation exposure level during the construction of the protective shell for a new confinement at the ChNPP site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cytogenetic examination was carried out for 32 staff persons from the contracting organ izations involved into construction of the protective shell for a new confinement. Additionally, for the goal of com parison, 28 persons who did not have professional contacts with the radiation factors were inspected...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Marco Valente, Sandrine Altmeyer, Caroline Bettencourt, Samuel Bouvet, Guillaume Cosler, François Desangles, Michel Drouet, Fabrice Entine, Francis Hérodin, Flora Jourquin, Yannick Lecompte, Patrick Martigne, Xavier Michel, Jérôme Pateux, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a new field-radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for rapid triage of individuals exposed to external total-body radiation. Here, we report on the validation of this immunoassay in human blood cell extracts 0.5 h after in vitro exposure to137 Cs gamma rays, using γ-H2AX analysis. First, calibration curves were established for five donors at doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼3 Gy/min. The calibration curves, together with a γ-H2AX peptide scale, enabled the definition of inter-experimental correction factors...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
Rozario Thomas, Daniel Henry Marks, Yvette Chin, Robert Benezra
Whole chromosome gains or losses (aneuploidy) are a hallmark of ~70% of human tumors. Modeling the consequences of aneuploidy has relied on perturbing spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) components, but interpretations of these experiments are clouded by the multiple functions of these proteins. Here, we used a Cre recombinase-mediated chromosome loss strategy to individually delete mouse chromosomes 9, 10, 12, or 14 in tetraploid immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts. This methodology also involves the generation of a dicentric chromosome intermediate, which subsequently undergoes a series of breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles...
January 17, 2018: EMBO Journal
Irina N Vasilyeva, Vladimir G Bespalov, Alexander L Semenov, Denis A Baranenko, Valery N Zinkin
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the effect of low-frequency noise (LFN) on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells and on the content of low-molecular-weight DNA (lmwDNA) in the blood plasma of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 male Wistar rats were exposed to either single (17 min session) or multiple (17 min session repeated five times a week for 13 weeks) LFN, with the maximum range below 250 Hz and the sound pressure levels (SPLs) at 120 and 150 dB, respectively...
March 2017: Noise & Health
Rima Koka, Najeebah A Bade, Edward A Sausville, Yi Ning, Ying Zou
Background: ABL1 gene translocations can be seen in precursor T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The typical translocation partner is the NUP214 gene. BCR-ABL translocations are relatively rare in this entity. Furthermore, while there have been unique patterns of amplification noted among the NUP214-ABL fusion genes, there have been few such reports among cases with BCR-ABL fusion genes. Case presentation: Here we report a unique case of a 44-year old patient with T-ALL in which the blasts demonstrated a derivative chromosome 9 involving a 9;22 translocation and a dicentric Philadelphia chromosome 22 with a homogeneously staining region at the interface of the 9;22 translocation, leading to BCR-ABL1 gene amplification...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
Bhavani Manivannan, Thayalan Kuppusamy, Srinivasan Venkatesan, Venkatachalam Perumal
The γ-H2AX assay was investigated as an alternative to the time-consuming dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Radiation doses to 25 radiotherapy patients were estimated in parallel by DCA and the γ-H2AX assay. The γ-H2AX assay yielded doses in line with the calculated equivalent whole body doses in 92% of the patients, whereas the success rate of DCA was only 76%. The result shows that the γ-H2AX assay can be effectively used as a rapid and more precise alternative to DCA.
January 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Y Abe, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Kurumi Fujioka, Yumiko Kurosu, Risa Ujiie, Aki Yanagi, Naohiro Tsuyama, Tomisato Miura, Toshiya Inaba, Kenji Kamiya, Akira Sakai
In terms of biological dosimetry at the time of radiation exposure, the dicentric chromosome (Dic) assay (DCA) is the gold standard for assessing for the acute phase and chromosome translocation (Tr) analysis is the gold standard for assessing the chronic phase. It is desirable to have individual dose-response curves (DRCs) for each laboratory because the analysis criteria differ between laboratories. We constructed the DRCs for radiation dose estimation (with three methods) using peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy individuals...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Yang Liu, Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Jing Zhang, Qianhua Dong, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
Haspin-mediated phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3T3ph) promotes proper deposition of Aurora B at the inner centromere to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in metazoans. However, the function of H3T3ph remains relatively unexplored in plants. Here, we show that in maize (Zea mays L.) mitotic cells, H3T3ph is concentrated at pericentromeric and centromeric regions. Additional weak H3T3ph signals occur between cohered sister chromatids at prometaphase. Immunostaining on dicentric chromosomes reveals that an inactive centromere cannot maintain H3T3ph at metaphase, indicating that a functional centromere is required for H3T3 phosphorylation...
December 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jin Liu, Yanxin Li, Ruth Wilkins, Farrah Flegal, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
Accurate digital image analysis of abnormal microscopic structures relies on high quality images and on minimizing the rates of false positive (FP) and negative objects in images. Cytogenetic biodosimetry detects dicentric chromosomes (DCs) that arise from exposure to ionizing radiation, and determines radiation dose received based on DC frequency. Improvements in automated DC recognition increase the accuracy of dose estimates by reclassifying FP DCs as monocentric chromosomes or chromosome fragments. We also present image segmentation methods to rank high quality digital metaphase images and eliminate suboptimal metaphase cells...
2017: F1000Research
Laura Illade, Victoria Fioravantti, Maitane Andion, Carmen Hernandez-Marques, Luis Madero, Alvaro Lassaletta
PURPOSE: Recurrent chromosomal abnormalities present in the leukemic cells of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) often allow us to classify patients according to their prognosis, in order to establish further treatment. The dicentric translocation (9;12) consists of the rearrangement of the short arms of chromosomes 9 and 12 generating a dicentric chromosome (9;12). Patients with this alteration present a very good response to treatment and an excellent prognosis...
November 15, 2017: Tumori
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