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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155885/regulation-of-pairing-between-broken-dna-containing-chromatin-regions-by-ku80-dna-pkcs-atm-and-53bp1
#1
Motohiro Yamauchi, Atsushi Shibata, Keiji Suzuki, Masatoshi Suzuki, Atsuko Niimi, Hisayoshi Kondo, Miwa Miura, Miyako Hirakawa, Keiko Tsujita, Shunichi Yamashita, Naoki Matsuda
Chromosome rearrangement is clinically and physiologically important because it can produce oncogenic fusion genes. Chromosome rearrangement requires DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at two genomic locations and misrejoining between the DSBs. Before DSB misrejoining, two DSB-containing chromatin regions move and pair with each other; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of ionizing radiation-induced foci of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a marker for DSB-containing chromatin...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144741/the-influence-of-reference-radiation-photon-energy-on-high-let-rbe-comparison-of-human-peripheral-lymphocytes-and-human-hamster-hybrid-al-cells
#2
T E Schmid, C Greubel, G Dollinger, E Schmid
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) based on the induction of dicentrics in any cell type is principally an important information for the increasing application of high-LET radiation in cancer therapy. Since the standard system of human lymphocytes for measuring dicentrics are not compatible with our microbeam irradiation setup where attaching cells are essential, we used human-hamster hybrid AL cells which do attach on foils and fulfil the special experimental requirement for microbeam irradiations...
January 31, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126644/evaluation-of-the-potential-of-mobile-phone-specific-electromagnetic-fields-umts-to-produce-micronuclei-in-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines
#3
Halh Al-Serori, Michael Kundi, Franziska Ferk, Miroslav Mišík, Armen Nersesyan, Manuel Murbach, Tamara T Lah, Siegfried Knasmüller
Some epidemiological studies indicate that mobile phones cause glioblastomas in humans. Since it is known that genomic instability plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, we investigated the effects of the universal mobile telecommunications system radiofrequency (UMTS-RF) signal, which is used in "smart" phones, on micronucleus (MN) formation and other anomalies such as nuclear buds (NBUDs) and nucleoplasmatic bridges (NPBs). MN are formed by structural and numerical aberrations, NBs reflect gene amplification and NPBs are formed from dicentric chromosomes...
January 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060322/analysis-of-the-ambient-particulate-matter-induced-chromosomal-aberrations-using-an-in-vitro-system
#4
Isabelle R Miousse, Igor Koturbash, Marie-Cécile Chalbot, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Ilias Kavouras, Rupak Pathak
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010925/effects-of-chronic-restraint-induced-stress-on-radiation-induced-chromosomal-aberrations-in-mouse-splenocytes
#5
Takanori Katsube, Bing Wang, Kaoru Tanaka, Yasuharu Ninomiya, Guillaume Varès, Taiki Kawagoshi, Naoko Shiomi, Yoshihisa Kubota, Qiang Liu, Akinori Morita, Tetsuo Nakajima, Mitsuru Nenoi
Both ionizing radiation (IR) and psychological stress (PS) cause detrimental effects on humans. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced PS (CRIPS) diminished the functions of Trp53 and enhanced radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous (Trp53(+/-)) mice. These findings had a marked impact on the academic field as well as the general public, particularly among residents living in areas radioactively contaminated by nuclear accidents. In an attempt to elucidate the modifying effects of CRIPS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53(+/+)) animals, investigations involving multidisciplinary analyses were performed...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966372/increased-first-trimester-nuchal-translucency-associated-with-a-dicentric-chromosome-and-9q34-3-microdeletion-syndrome
#6
Lv-Yin Huang, Yu Yang, Ping He, Dong-Zhi Li
We present prenatal diagnosis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) of 9q34.3 microdeletion in a foetus with an increased nuchal translucency (NT). Conventional G-banding analysis showed a de novo translocation: 45, XX, dic (9;13)(q34;p13). CMA revealed a 3.6 Mb 9q34.3 microdeletion encompassing an OMIM gene of EHMT1 consistent with the diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome. We suggest an application of CMA at prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies with increased NT and an apparent balanced translocation on conventional karyotype...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910025/cytogenetics-for-biological-dosimetry
#7
Michelle Ricoul, Tamizh Gnana-Sekaran, Laure Piqueret-Stephan, Laure Sabatier
Cytogenetics is the gold-standard in biological dosimetry for assessing a received dose of ionizing radiation. More modern techniques have recently emerged, but none are as specific as cytogenetic approaches, particularly the dicentric assay. Here, we will focus on the principal cytogenetic techniques used for biological dosimetry: the dicentric assay in metaphase cells, the micronuclei assay in binucleated cells, and the premature condensed chromosome (PCC) assay in interphase cells. New fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques (such as telomere-centromere hybridization) have facilitated the analysis of the dicentric assay and have permitted to assess the dose a long time after irradiation by translocation analysis (such as by Tri-color FISH or Multiplex-FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894682/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-in-vivo-exposure-to-exogenous-chemical-genotoxic-agents-can-lead-to-micronucleus-formation-in-lymphocytes-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Michael Fenech, Siegfried Knasmueller, Claudia Bolognesi, Stefano Bonassi, Nina Holland, Lucia Migliore, Fabrizio Palitti, Adayapalam T Natarajan, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which in vivo exposure to exogenous chemical genotoxins in humans induces micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies in lymphocytes in vivo and ex vivo after nuclear division in vitro. MNi originate from acentric chromosome fragments and/or whole chromosomes that are unable to engage with the mitotic spindle and/or fail to segregate properly to the daughter nuclei during anaphase. The lagging fragments or whole chromosomes are surrounded by membrane and become MNi...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813725/dose-assessment-intercomparisons-within-the-reneb-network-using-g0-lymphocyte-prematurely-condensed-chromosomes-pcc-assay
#9
Georgia I Terzoudi, Gabriel Pantelias, Firouz Darroudi, Katarzyna Barszczewska, Iwona Buraczewska, Julie Depuydt, Dimka Georgieva, Valeria Hadjidekova, Vasiliki I Hatzi, Ioanna Karachristou, Maria Karakosta, Roberta Meschini, Radhia M'Kacher, Alegria Montoro, Fabrizio Palitti, Antonio Pantelias, Gaetano Pepe, Michelle Ricoul, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Anne Vral, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Dose assessment intercomparisons within the RENEB network were performed for triage biodosimetry analyzing G0-lymphocyte PCC for harmonization, standardization and optimization of the PCC assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparative analysis among different partners for dose assessment included shipment of PCC-slides and captured images to construct dose-response curves for up to 6 Gy γ-rays. Accident simulation exercises were performed to assess the suitability of the PCC assay by detecting speed of analysis and minimum number of cells required for categorization of potentially exposed individuals...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778526/the-reneb-operational-basis-complement-of-established-biodosimetric-assays
#10
Andrzej Wojcik, Ursula Oestreicher, Lleonard Barrios, Anne Vral, Georgia Terzoudi, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Kai Rothkamm, Francois Trompier, Ulrike Kulka
PURPOSE: To set up an operational basis of the Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB) network within which the application of seven established biodosimetric tools (the dicentric assay, the FISH assay, the micronucleus assay, the PCC assay, the gamma-H2AX assay, electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence) will be compared and standardized among the participating laboratories. METHODOLOGY: Two intercomparisons were organized where blood samples and smartphone components were irradiated, coded and sent out to participating laboratories for dosimetric analysis...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766931/reneb-intercomparisons-applying-the-conventional-dicentric-chromosome-assay-dca
#11
Ursula Oestreicher, Daniel Samaga, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Ana Catarina Antunes, Ans Baeyens, Leonardo Barrios, Christina Beinke, Philip Beukes, William F Blakely, Alexandra Cucu, Andrea De Amicis, Julie Depuydt, Stefania De Sanctis, Marina Di Giorgio, Katalin Dobos, Inmaculada Dominguez, Pham Ngoc Duy, Marco E Espinoza, Farrah N Flegal, Markus Figel, Omar Garcia, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Eric Gregoire, C Guerrero-Carbajal, İnci Güçlü, Valeria Hadjidekova, Prakash Hande, Ulrike Kulka, Jennifer Lemon, Carita Lindholm, Florigio Lista, Katalin Lumniczky, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Nataliya Maznyk, Roberta Meschini, Radia M'kacher, Alegria Montoro, Jayne Moquet, Mercedes Moreno, Mihaela Noditi, Jelena Pajic, Analía Radl, Michelle Ricoul, Horst Romm, Laurence Roy, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Jacobus Slabbert, Sylwester Sommer, Monica Stuck Oliveira, Uma Subramanian, Yumiko Suto, Tran Que, Antonella Testa, Georgia Terzoudi, Anne Vral, Ruth Wilkins, LusiYanti Yanti, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Two quality controlled inter-laboratory exercises were organized within the EU project 'Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB)' to further optimize the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and to identify needs for training and harmonization activities within the RENEB network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The general study design included blood shipment, sample processing, analysis of chromosome aberrations and radiation dose assessment. After manual scoring of dicentric chromosomes in different cell numbers dose estimations and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were submitted by the participants...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751425/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-an-inv-dup-15-chromosome-presenting-as-a-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosome-associated-with-the-inv-dup-15-syndrome
#12
Chih-Ping Chen, Shuan-Pei Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chen-Chi Lee, Dai-Dyi Town, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To present molecular cytogenetic characterization of an inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)] presenting as a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) associated with the inv dup(15) syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age at 27 weeks of gestation, which revealed an sSMC that was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to be derived from chromosome 15...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734605/description-of-a-new-oncogenic-mechanism-for-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors-in-patients-with-ring-chromosome-22
#13
Heather M Byers, Margaret P Adam, Amy LaCroix, Sarah E S Leary, Bonnie Cole, William B Dobyns, Heather C Mefford
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare, highly malignant, embryonal tumors most often occurring in children under age 3 years. Most are due to a somatic change in tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 followed by a second-hit, typically loss of heterozygosity, best detected on immunohistochemical staining. Despite the noteworthy genetic homogeneity of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, relatively little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms that lead to biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716774/ontogeny-of-unstable-chromosomes-generated-by-telomere-error-in-budding-yeast
#14
Tracey Beyer, Ted Weinert
DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706730/cytogenetic-evaluation-of-cataract-patients-occupationally-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-in-northeast-china
#15
D D Zhou, L Yao, K M Guo, C W Lu
Long-term radiation exposure is hazardous to health; late-onset effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) pose risks to the lens, and are associated with other non-cancerous diseases. Individuals occupationally exposed to low-dose IR are prone to developing eye cataracts. Cytogenetic evaluations suggest that IR is associated with chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. However, data regarding the association between chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients and occupational exposure to IR is scarce...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692296/the-radioprotective-effect-of-metformin-against-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-induced-by-ionizing-radiation-in-cultured-human-blood-lymphocytes
#16
Mohsen Cheki, Alireza Shirazi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the radioprotective effect of metformin was investigated against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were treated with metformin at concentrations 10 and 50μM for 2h and irradiated with 6MV X-rays. The radiation antagonistic potential of metformin was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiaozolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis, cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay, and flow cytometry...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588041/rare-congenital-chromosomal-aberration-dic-x-y-p22-33-p11-32-in-a-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#17
Lenka Pavlistova, Silvia Izakova, Zuzana Zemanova, Lucie Bartuskova, Martina Langova, Pavlina Malikova, Kyra Michalova
BACKGROUND: Constitutional translocations between sex chromosomes are rather rare in humans with breakpoints at Xp11 and Yq11 as the most frequent. Breakpoints on the short arm of the Y chromosome form one subgroup of t(X;Y), giving rise to a derived chromosome with the centromeres of both the X and Y chromosomes, dic(X;Y). Here, we report a rare congenital chromosomal aberration, 46,X,dic(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.32)[20]/45,X[10], in an adult male. CASE PRESENTATION: Primary myelofibrosis, a malignant haematological disease, was diagnosed in a 63-year-old man following liver transplantation after hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553478/centromere-inactivation-on-a-neo-y-fusion-chromosome-in-threespine-stickleback-fish
#18
Jennifer N Cech, Catherine L Peichel
Having one and only one centromere per chromosome is essential for proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. Chromosomes containing two centromeres are known as dicentric and often mis-segregate during cell division, resulting in aneuploidy or chromosome breakage. Dicentric chromosome can be stabilized by centromere inactivation, a process which reestablishes monocentric chromosomes. However, little is known about this process in naturally occurring dicentric chromosomes. Using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence combined with FISH (IF-FISH) on metaphase chromosome spreads, we demonstrate that centromere inactivation has evolved on a neo-Y chromosome fusion in the Japan Sea threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus nipponicus)...
December 2016: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547893/web-based-scoring-is-useful-for-validation-and-harmonisation-of-scoring-criteria-within-reneb
#19
Horst Romm, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Leonardo Barrios, Christina Beinke, Alexandra Cucu, Mercedes Moreno Domene, Silvia Filippi, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Eric Gregoire, Valeria Hadjidekova, Vasia Hatzi, Carita Lindholm, Radhia M Kacher, Alegria Montoro, Jayne Moquet, Mihaela Noditi, Ursula Oestreicher, Fabrizio Palitti, Gabriel Pantelias, María Jesús Prieto, Irina Popescu, Kai Rothkamm, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Georgia Terzoudi, Antonella Testa, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: To establish a training data set of digital images and to investigate the scoring criteria and dose assessment of the dicentric assay within the European network of biodosimetry (RENEB), a web based scoring inter-comparison was undertaken by 17 RENEB partners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two sets of 50 high resolution images were uploaded onto the RENEB website. One set included metaphases after a moderate exposure (1.3 Gy) and the other set consisted of metaphases after a high dose exposure (3...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524557/foundations-of-identifying-individual-chromosomes-by-imaging-flow-cytometry-with-applications-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#20
Lindsay A Beaton-Green, Matthew A Rodrigues, Sylvie Lachapelle, Ruth C Wilkins
Biodosimetry is an important tool for triage in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies, but traditional microscope-based methods can be tedious and prone to scorer fatigue. While the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been adapted for use in triage situations, it is still time-consuming to create and score slides. Recent adaptations of traditional biodosimetry assays to imaging flow cytometry (IFC) methods have dramatically increased throughput. Additionally, recent improvements in image analysis algorithms in the IFC software have resulted in improved specificity for spot counting of small events...
January 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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