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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150810/liver-fibrosis-alleviation-after-co-transplantation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-patients-with-thalassemia-major
#1
Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Masoud Sotoudeh, Amir Pejman Hashemi Taheri, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Hossein Pashaiefar, Mahdi Jalili, Farhad Shahi, Mohammad Jahani, Marjan Yaghmaie
The aims of this study are to determine the replacement rate of damaged hepatocytes by donor-derived cells in sex-mismatched recipient patients with thalassemia major and to determine whether co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can alleviate liver fibrosis. Ten sex-mismatched donor-recipient pairs who received co-transplantation of HSCs with mesenchymal stem cells were included in our study. Liver biopsy was performed before transplantation. Two other liver biopsies were performed between 2 and 5 years after transplantation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150427/delayed-encounter-of-parental-genomes-can-lead-to-aneuploidy-in-saccharomyces%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#2
Alan Michael Tartakoff, David Dulce, Elizabeth Landis
We have investigated an extreme deviation from the norm of genome unification that occurs during mating in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae This deviation is encountered when yeast that carry a mutation of the spindle pole body protein, Kar1, are mated with wildtype cells. In this case, nuclear fusion is delayed and the genotypes of a fraction of zygotic progeny suggest that chromosomes have "transferred" between the parental nuclei in zygotes. This classic yet bizarre occurrence is routinely used to generate aneuploid (disomic) yeast...
November 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149047/new-insights-into-phasmatodea-chromosomes
#3
Thomas Liehr, Olesya Buleu, Tatyana Karamysheva, Alexander Bugrov, Nikolai Rubtsov
Currently, approximately 3000 species of stick insects are known; however, chromosome numbers, which range between 21 and 88, are known for only a few of these insects. Also, centromere banding staining (C-banding) patterns were described for fewer than 10 species, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied exclusively in two Leptynia species. Interestingly, 10-25% of stick insects (Phasmatodea) are obligatory or facultative parthenogenetic. As clonal and/or bisexual reproduction can affect chromosomal evolution, stick insect karyotypes need to be studied more intensely...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145861/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-and-centromere-characterization-of-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#4
Peter A Larsen, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C Murali, C Ryan Campbell, Adam D Brown, Beth A Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Anne D Yoder, Jeffrey Rogers, Kim C Worley
BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly...
November 16, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143121/telomere-length-of-gallbladder-epithelium-is-shortened-in-patients-with-congenital-biliary-dilatation-measurement-by-quantitative-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#5
Yuto Aoki, Junko Aida, Youichi Kawano, Ken-Ichi Nakamura, Naotaka Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naoshi Ishikawa, Tomio Arai, Yoshiharu Nakamura, Nobuhiko Taniai, Eiji Uchida, Kaiyo Takubo, Toshiyuki Ishiwata
BACKGROUND: Congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) is a congenital malformation involving both dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Persistent reflux of pancreatic juice injures the biliary tract mucosa, resulting in chronic inflammation and higher rates of carcinogenesis in the biliary tract, including the gallbladder. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes. Chromosomal instability due to telomere dysfunction plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of many organs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141972/epigenetic-regulation-of-centromere-chromatin-stability-by-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#6
REVIEW
Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Rita S Strakovsky, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141960/rapid-molecular-assays-to-study-human-centromere-genomics
#7
Rafael Contreras-Galindo, Sabrina Fischer, Anjan K Saha, John D Lundy, Patrick W Cervantes, Mohamad Mourad, Claire Wang, Brian Qian, Manhong Dai, Fan Meng, Arul Chinnaiyan, Gilbert S Omenn, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
The centromere is the structural unit responsible for the faithful segregation of chromosomes. Although regulation of centromeric function by epigenetic factors has been well-studied, the contributions of the underlying DNA sequences have been much less well defined, and existing methodologies for studying centromere genomics in biology are laborious. We have identified specific markers in the centromere of 23 of the 24 human chromosomes that allow for rapid PCR assays capable of capturing the genomic landscape of human centromeres at a given time...
November 15, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138236/a-kinase-dependent-role-for-haspin-in-antagonizing-wapl-and-protecting-mitotic-centromere-cohesion
#8
Cai Liang, Qinfu Chen, Qi Yi, Miao Zhang, Haiyan Yan, Bo Zhang, Linli Zhou, Zhenlei Zhang, Feifei Qi, Sheng Ye, Fangwei Wang
Sister-chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is fundamental for precise chromosome segregation in mitosis. Through binding the cohesin subunit Pds5, Wapl releases the bulk of cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase, whereas centromeric cohesin is protected from Wapl until anaphase onset. Strong centromere cohesion requires centromeric localization of the mitotic histone kinase Haspin, which is dependent on the interaction of its non-catalytic N-terminus with Pds5B. It remains unclear how Haspin fully blocks the Wapl-Pds5B interaction at centromeres...
November 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136238/regulation-of-transcriptional-silencing-and-chromodomain-protein-localization-at-centromeric-heterochromatin-by-histone-h3-tyrosine-41-phosphorylation-in-fission-yeast
#9
Bingbing Ren, Hwei Ling Tan, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Sayed, Ying Li, Yu-Keung Mok, Henry Yang, Ee Sin Chen
Heterochromatin silencing is critical for genomic integrity and cell survival. It is orchestrated by chromodomain (CD)-containing proteins that bind to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me), a hallmark of heterochromatin. Here, we show that phosphorylation of tyrosine 41 (H3Y41p)-a novel histone H3 modification-participates in the regulation of heterochromatin in fission yeast. We show that a loss-of-function mutant of H3Y41 can suppress heterochromatin de-silencing in the centromere and subtelomere repeat regions, suggesting a de-silencing role for H3Y41p on heterochromatin...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133839/genetic-relationships-and-evolution-of-old-chinese-garden-roses-based-on-ssrs-and-chromosome-diversity
#10
Jiongrui Tan, Jing Wang, Le Luo, Chao Yu, Tingliang Xu, Yuying Wu, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
Old Chinese garden roses are the foundation of the modern rose, which is one of the best-selling ornamental plants. However, the horticultural grouping and evolution of old Chinese garden roses are unclear. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to survey genetic diversity in old Chinese garden roses and genetic differentiation was estimated among different rose groups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to study the physical localization of 5 S rDNA genes and a karyotype analysis was performed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124282/development-of-a-complete-set-of-wheat-barley-group-7-robertsonian-translocation-chromosomes-conferring-an-increased-content-of-%C3%AE-glucan
#11
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
A complete set of six compensating Robertsonian translocation chromosomes involving barley chromosome 7H and three chromosomes of hexaploid wheat was produced. Grain β-glucan content increased in lines containing 7HL. Many valuable genes for agronomic performance, disease resistance and increased yield have been transferred from relative species to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through whole-arm Robertsonian translocations (RobT). Although of a great value, the sets of available translocations from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114362/comparative-cytogenetics-of-some-marsupial-species-didelphimorphia-didelphidae-from-the-amazon-basin
#12
Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Rodrigo Amaral de Andrade, Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Eduardo Schmidt Eler, Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva, Eliana Feldberg
We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114357/heterochromatin-variation-and-line-1-distribution-in-artibeus-chiroptera-phyllostomidae-from-central-amazon-brazil
#13
Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Maria Claudia Gross, Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Cibele Gomes Sotero-Caio, Eliana Feldberg
Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114355/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-and-comparison-of-the-two-cultivated-canavalia-species-fabaceae
#14
Chao-Wen She, Lin Wei, Xiang-Hui Jiang
The two cultivated Canavalia (Adanson, 1763) species, Canavalia gladiata (N. J. von Jacquin, 1788) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 and Canavalia ensiformis (Linnaeus, 1753) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 are closely related based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. However, the similarities and differences in genome organization between them have not been evaluated at molecular cytogenetic level. Here, detailed karyotypes of both species were constructed using combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining, rDNA-FISH and self-genomic in situ hybridization (sGISH)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104581/a-high-density-genetic-map-of-wild-emmer-wheat-from-the-karaca-da%C3%A4-region-provides-new-evidence-on-the-structure-and-evolution-of-wheat-chromosomes
#15
Chad Jorgensen, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh Ramasamy, Mathew Dawson, Bikram S Gill, Abraham B Korol, Assaf Distelfeld, Jan Dvorak
Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is a progenitor of all cultivated wheat grown today. It has been hypothesized that emmer was domesticated in the Karaca Dağ region in southeastern Turkey. A total of 445 recombinant inbred lines of T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. 'Langdon' x wild emmer accession PI 428082 from this region was developed and genotyped with the Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphism Infinium assay. A genetic map comprising 2,650 segregating markers was constructed. The order of the segregating markers and an additional 8,264 co-segregating markers in the Aegilops tauschii reference genome sequence was used to compare synteny of the tetraploid wheat with the Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096008/satellite-dnas-are-conserved-and-differentially-transcribed-among-gryllus-cricket-species
#16
Octavio Manuel Palacios-Gimenez, Vanessa Bellini Bardella, Bernardo Lemos, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello
Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant class of non-coding repetitive DNA that is preferentially found as tandemly repeated arrays in gene-poor heterochromatin but is also present in gene-rich euchromatin. Here, we used DNA- and RNA-seq from Gryllus assimilis to address the content and transcriptional patterns of satDNAs. We also mapped RNA-seq libraries for other Gryllus species against the satDNAs found in G. assimilis and G. bimaculatus genomes to investigate their evolutionary conservation and transcriptional profiles in Gryllus...
October 31, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084198/distinct-kinetics-of-serine-and-threonine-dephosphorylation-are-essential-for-mitosis
#17
Jamin B Hein, Emil P T Hertz, Dimitriya H Garvanska, Thomas Kruse, Jakob Nilsson
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with B55 regulatory subunits reverses cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylations at mitotic exit. Interestingly, threonine and serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk1 display distinct phosphorylation dynamics, but the biological significance remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that the phosphothreonine preference of PP2A-B55 provides an essential regulatory element of mitotic exit. To allow rapid activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) co-activator Cdc20, inhibitory phosphorylation sites are conserved as threonines while serine substitutions delay dephosphorylation and Cdc20 activation...
October 30, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074736/molecular-basis-of-cenp-c-association-with-the-cenp-a-nucleosome-at-yeast-centromeres
#18
Hua Xiao, Feng Wang, Jan Wisniewski, Alexey K Shaytan, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Peter C FitzGerald, Yingzi Huang, Debbie Wei, Shipeng Li, David Landsman, Anna R Panchenko, Carl Wu
Histone CENP-A-containing nucleosomes play an important role in nucleating kinetochores at centromeres for chromosome segregation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CENP-A nucleosomes engage with kinetochore proteins are not well understood. Here, we report the finding of a new function for the budding yeast Cse4/CENP-A histone-fold domain interacting with inner kinetochore protein Mif2/CENP-C. Strikingly, we also discovered that AT-rich centromere DNA has an important role for Mif2 recruitment. Mif2 contacts one side of the nucleosome dyad, engaging with both Cse4 residues and AT-rich nucleosomal DNA...
October 26, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067016/pivotal-impacts-of-retrotransposon-based-invasive-rnas-on-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Laleh Habibi, Hamzeh Salmani
RNAs have long been described as the mediators of gene expression; they play a vital role in the structure and function of cellular complexes. Although the role of RNAs in the prokaryotes is mainly confined to these basic functions, the effects of these molecules in regulating the gene expression and enzymatic activities have been discovered in eukaryotes. Recently, a high-resolution analysis of the DNA obtained from different organisms has revealed a fundamental impact of the RNAs in shaping the genomes, heterochromatin formation, and gene creation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065555/reassessing-the-chromosome-number-and-morphology-of-the-turtle-ant-cephalotes-pusillus-klug-1824-using-karyomorphometrical-analysis-and-observations-of-new-nesting-behavior
#20
Maykon Passos Cristiano, Tássia Tatiane Pontes Pereira, Laysa Peneda Simões, Vivian Eliana Sandoval-Gómez, Danon Clemes Cardoso
Here we use karyomorphometrical analysis to characterize and evaluate the karyotype of the turtle ant Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824). This is the first representative of this diverse ant genus to be cytogenetically studied. They bear a diploid chromosome set of 44 chromosomes, which, according to the centromeric index, are metacentric, submetacentric, and subtelocentric. This small ant is quite widely distributed in the Neotropics and seems to be well adapted to living in disturbed areas. Here we report the species nesting on dead trunks used to build fences at countryside houses and farms...
October 23, 2017: Insects
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