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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443688/use-of-c-banding-for-identifying-radiation-induced-micronuclei
#1
S C de Lima, A Amaral, T de Salazar E Fernandes
Differentiation of micronuclei (MN) caused by ionizing radiation from those caused by chemicals is a crucial step for managing treatment of individuals exposed to radiation. MN in binucleated lymphocytes in peripheral blood are widely used as biomarkers for estimating dose of radiation, but they are not specific for ionizing radiation. MN induced by ionizing radiation originate predominantly as a result of chromosome breaks (clastogenic action), whereas MN caused by chemical agents are derived from the loss of entire chromosomes (aneugenic action)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442710/lsh-hells-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#2
Yixing Han, Jianke Ren, Eunice Lee, Xiaoping Xu, Weishi Yu, Kathrin Muegge
Epigenetic mechanisms are known to exert control over gene expression and determine cell fate. Genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators are responsible for several neurologic disorders. Mutations of the chromatin remodeling protein Lsh/HELLS can cause the human Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, which is associated with neurologic deficiencies. We report here a critical role for Lsh in murine neural development. Lsh depleted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) display reduced growth, increases in apoptosis and impaired ability of self-renewal...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442587/combined-aurka-and-h3k9-methyltransferase-targeting-inhibits-cell-growth-by-inducing-mitotic-catastrophe
#3
Angela Mathison, Ann Salmonson, Mckenna Missfeldt, Jennifer Bintz, Monique Williams, Sarah Kossak, Asha Nair, Thiago M de Assuncao, Trace A Christensen, Navtej S Buttar, Juan L Iovanna, Robert Huebert, Gwen Lomberk
The current integrative pathobiological hypothesis states that pancreatic cancer (PDAC) develops and progresses in response to an interaction between known oncogenes and downstream epigenomic regulators. Congruently, this study tests a new combinatorial therapy based on the inhibition of the Aurora kinase A (AURKA) oncogene and one of its targets, the H3K9 methylation-based epigenetic pathway. This therapeutic combination is effective at inhibiting the in vitro growth of PDAC cells both, in monolayer culture systems, and in 3D spheroids and organoids...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436952/playing-polo-during-mitosis-plk1-takes-the-lead
#4
REVIEW
G Combes, I Alharbi, L G Braga, S Elowe
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), the prototypical member of the polo-like family of serine/threonine kinases, is a pivotal regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis in eukaryotes. Many layers of regulation have evolved to target PLK1 to different subcellular structures and to its various mitotic substrates in line with its numerous functions during mitosis. Collective work is starting to illuminate an important set of substrates for PLK1: the mitotic kinases that together ensure the fidelity of the cell division process...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430635/unsuccessful-mitosis-in-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#5
Annie Molla, Morgane Couvet, Jean-Luc Coll
Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#6
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426351/chromosome-4-in-drosophila-melanogaster-imperfection-or-interesting-exception
#7
Michaelyn A Hartmann, Jeff Sekelsky
Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 4 is an anomaly because of its small size, chromatin structure, and most notably its lack of crossing over during meiosis. Earlier ideas about the absence of crossovers on 4 hypothesize that these unique characteristics function to prevent crossovers. Here, we explore hypotheses about the absence of crossovers on 4, how these have been addressed, and new insights into the mechanism behind this suppression. We review recently published results that indicate that global crossover patterning, in particular the centromere effect, make a major contribution to the prevention of crossovers on 4...
April 20, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419176/mica-diversity-and-linkage-disequilibrium-with-hla-b-alleles-in-renal-transplant-candidates-in-southern-brazil
#8
Roger Haruki Yamakawa, Patrícia Keiko Saito, Geórgia Fernanda Gelmini, José Samuel da Silva, Maria da Graça Bicalho, Sueli Donizete Borelli
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located centromerically to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B. The short distance between these loci in the MHC indicates the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Similarly to the HLA, the MICA is highly polymorphic, and this polymorphism has not been well documented in different populations. In this study, we estimated the allelic frequencies of MICA and the linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in 346 renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415769/aurora-kinase-b-dependent-phosphorylation-of-53bp1-is-required-for-resolving-merotelic-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-errors-during-mitosis
#9
Haibo Wang, Bin Peng, Raj K Pandita, David A Engler, Risë K Matsunami, Xingzhi Xu, Pavana M Hegde, Brian E Butler, Tej K Pandita, Sankar Mitra, Bo Xu, Muralidhar L Hegde
Defects in resolving kinetochore-microtubule attachment mistakes during mitosis is linked to chromosome instability associated with carcinogenesis as well as resistance to cancer therapy. Here we report for the first time that tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is phosphorylated at serine 1342 (S1342) by Aurora kinase B both in vitro and in human cells, which is required for optimal recruitment of 53BP1 at kinetochores. Furthermore, 53BP1 staining normally localized on the outer kinetochore, extended to the whole kinetochore when it is merotelically-attached, in concert with mitotic centromere-associated kinesin...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413501/usp39-regulates-the-growth-of-smmc-7721-cells-via-foxm1
#10
Xianwen Yuan, Xitai Sun, Xiaolei Shi, Chunping Jiang, Decai Yu, Weiwei Zhang, Yitao Ding
The present study investigated ubiquitin specific peptidase 39 (USP39) gene knockdown on SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo, and the role of USP39 in regulating the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Two small interfering RNAs (siRNA) were constructed, which targeted the USP39 gene and control sequences were synthesized and inserted into a pGCSIL-GFP lentiviral vector. The full length of USP39 cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into pEGFP-N2, and the recombinant plasmids were transfected into cells...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411416/%C3%A2-plant-centromeres%C3%A2
#11
REVIEW
Luca Comai, Shamoni Maheshwari, Mohan P A Marimuthu
Plant centromeres, which are determined epigenetically by centromeric histone 3 (CENH3) have revealed surprising structural diversity, ranging from the canonical monocentric seen in vertebrates, to polycentric, and holocentric. Normally stable, centromeres can change position over evolutionary times or upon genomic stress, such as when chromosomes are broken. At the DNA level, centromeres can be based on single copy DNA or more commonly on repeats. Rapid evolution of centromeric sequences and of CENH3 protein remains a mystery, as evidence of co-adaptation is lacking...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407103/a-network-of-cis-and-trans-interactions-is-required-for-parb-spreading
#12
Dan Song, Kristen Rodrigues, Thomas G W Graham, Joseph J Loparo
Most bacteria utilize the highly conserved parABS partitioning system in plasmid and chromosome segregation. This system depends on a DNA-binding protein ParB, which binds specifically to the centromere DNA sequence parS and to adjacent non-specific DNA over multiple kilobases in a phenomenon called spreading. Previous single-molecule experiments in combination with genetic, biochemical and computational studies have argued that ParB spreading requires cooperative interactions between ParB dimers including DNA bridging and possible nearest-neighbor interactions...
April 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406740/alpha-satellite-dna-variation-and-function-of-the-human-centromere
#13
Lori L Sullivan, Kimberline Chew, Beth A Sullivan
Genomic variation is a source of functional diversity that is typically studied in genic and non-coding regulatory regions. However, the extent of variation within noncoding portions of the human genome, particularly highly repetitive regions, and the functional consequences are not well understood. Satellite DNA, including alpha satellite DNA found at human centromeres, comprises up to 10% of the genome, but is difficult to study because its repetitive nature hinders contiguous sequence assemblies. We recently described variation within alpha satellite DNA that affects centromere function...
April 13, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402969/cytogenetic-characterization-of-brown-howler-monkeys-alouatta-guariba-clamitans-atelidae-platyrrhini-meiotic-confirmation-of-an-x1x1x2x2x3x3-x1x2x3y1y2-sex-chromosome-system
#14
Eliana R Steinberg, Vanessa B Fortes, Luis F Rossi, Laurete Murer, Maristela Lovato, Maria S Merani, Marta D Mudry
For brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), diploid chromosome numbers varying from 2n = 45 to 2n = 52, with XX/XY, X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, and X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 sex chromosome systems have been described by mitotic studies but still await confirmation by meiotic analyses. We analyzed 3 male individuals sampled in the wild (in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil) as well as 1 male and 1 female individual in captivity at the São Braz breeding center. Peripheral blood samples and testicular biopsies were taken...
April 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402891/brownian-ratchet-mechanism-for-faithful-segregation-of-low-copy-number-plasmids
#15
Longhua Hu, Anthony G Vecchiarelli, Kiyoshi Mizuuchi, Keir C Neuman, Jian Liu
Bacterial plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA that provides selective advantages for bacterial survival. Plasmid partitioning can be remarkably robust. For high-copy-number plasmids, diffusion ensures that both daughter cells inherit plasmids after cell division. In contrast, most low-copy-number plasmids need to be actively partitioned by a conserved tripartite ParA-type system. ParA is an ATPase that binds to chromosomal DNA; ParB is the stimulator of the ParA ATPase and specifically binds to the plasmid at a centromere-like site, parS...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396698/internal-modifications-in-the-cenp-a-nucleosome-modulate-centromeric-dynamics
#16
Minh Bui, Mary Pitman, Arthur Nuccio, Serene Roque, Paul Gregory Donlin-Asp, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar, Garegin A Papoian, Yamini Dalal
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational modifications of core histones are correlated with changes in transcriptional status, chromatin fiber folding, and nucleosome dynamics. However, within the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, few modifications have been reported, and their functions remain largely unexplored. In this multidisciplinary report, we utilize in silico computational and in vivo approaches to dissect lysine 124 of human CENP-A, which was previously reported to be acetylated in advance of replication...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396521/evaluation-of-grch38-and-de-novo-haploid-genome-assemblies-demonstrates-the-enduring-quality-of-the-reference-assembly
#17
Valerie A Schneider, Tina Graves-Lindsay, Kerstin Howe, Nathan Bouk, Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Paul A Kitts, Terence D Murphy, Kim D Pruitt, Françoise Thibaud-Nissen, Derek Albracht, Robert S Fulton, Milinn Kremitzki, Vincent Magrini, Chris Markovic, Sean McGrath, Karyn Meltz Steinberg, Kate Auger, William Chow, Joanna Collins, Glenn Harden, Timothy Hubbard, Sarah Pelan, Jared T Simpson, Glen Threadgold, James Torrance, Jonathan M Wood, Laura Clarke, Sergey Koren, Matthew Boitano, Paul Peluso, Heng Li, Chen-Shan Chin, Adam M Phillippy, Richard Durbin, Richard K Wilson, Paul Flicek, Evan E Eichler, Deanna M Church
The human reference genome assembly plays a central role in nearly all aspects of today's basic and clinical research. GRCh38 is the first coordinate-changing assembly update since 2009; it reflects the resolution of roughly 1000 issues and encompasses modifications ranging from thousands of single base changes to megabase-scale path reorganizations, gap closures, and localization of previously orphaned sequences. We developed a new approach to sequence generation for targeted base updates and used data from new genome mapping technologies and single haplotype resources to identify and resolve larger assembly issues...
April 10, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394248/highest-diploid-number-among-gymnotiformes-first-cytogenetic-insights-into-rhabdolichops-sternopygidae
#18
Pablo Suárez, Inaê Cristina Guerreiro Pinto Barroso, Danillo Dos Santos Silva, Susana S R Milhomem, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Cesar Martins, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi
We report the first comparative cytogenetic analysis of two species from electrogenic fish of genus Rhabdolichops (Sternopygidae, Gymnotiformes): Rhabdolichops troscheli and Rhabdolichops cf eastwardi. R. troscheli has 2n = 54 (fundamental number [FN] = 66), whereas R. cf. eastwardi has 2n = 74 (FN = 78). C-banding revealed centromeric constitutive heterochromatin in both species. Ag-NORs mapped on pair 6 in R. troscheli and pair 30 in R. cf eastwardi. Fluorescense in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probes confirmed the Ag-NOR staining results and revealed additional (presumably silent) ribosomal genes on pairs 12, 13, 21, 23, 26, and 27 in R...
April 10, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391682/centromeric-dna-facilitates-nonconventional-yeast-genetic-engineering
#19
Mingfeng Cao, Meirong Gao, Carmen Lorena Lopez-Garcia, Yutong Wu, Arun Somwarpet Seetharam, Andrew Josef Severin, Zengyi Shao
Many nonconventional yeast species have highly desirable features that are not possessed by model yeasts despite that significant technology hurdles to effectively manipulate them lay in front. Scheffersomyces stipitis is one of the most important exemplary nonconventional yeasts in biorenewables industry, which has the highest native xylose utilization capacity. Recent study suggested its much better potential than Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a well-suited microbial biomanufacturing platform for producing high-value compounds derived from shikimate pathway, many of which are associated with potent nutraceutical or pharmaceutical properties...
April 10, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386668/a-mathematical-framework-for-kinetochore-driven-activation-feedback-in-the-mitotic-checkpoint
#20
Bashar Ibrahim
Proliferating cells properly divide into their daughter cells through a process that is mediated by kinetochores, protein-complexes that assemble at the centromere of each sister chromatid. Each kinetochore has to establish a tight bipolar attachment to the spindle apparatus before sister chromatid separation is initiated. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) links the biophysical attachment status of the kinetochores to mitotic progression and ensures that even a single misaligned kinetochore keeps the checkpoint active...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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