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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810257/karyotypes-and-distribution-of-tandem-repeat-sequences-in-brassica-nigra-determined-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#1
Gui-Xiang Wang, Qun-Yan He, Jiri Macas, Petr Novák, Pavel Neumann, De-Xuan Meng, Hong Zhao, Ning Guo, Shuo Han, Mei Zong, Wei-Wei Jin, Fan Liu
Whole-genome shotgun reads were analyzed to determine the repeat sequence composition in the genome of black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. The analysis showed that satellite DNA sequences are very abundant in the black mustard genome. The distribution pattern of 7 new tandem repeats (BnSAT13, BnSAT28, BnSAT68, BnSAT76, BnSAT114, BnSAT180, and BnSAT200) on black mustard chromosomes was visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH signals of BnSAT13 and BnSAT76 provided useful cytogenetic markers; their position and fluorescence intensity allowed for unambiguous identification of all 8 somatic metaphase chromosomes...
August 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807021/serological-and-morphological-prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-interstitial-pneumonia-with-autoimmune-features
#2
Yuhei Ito, Machiko Arita, Shogo Kumagai, Reoto Takei, Maki Noyama, Fumiaki Tokioka, Keisuke Nishimura, Takashi Koyama, Kenji Notohara, Tadashi Ishida
BACKGROUND: To identify the prognostic factors for survival in patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) who meet the serological domain of the IPAF criteria. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 99 IPAF patients who met the serological domain and were hospitalised at the Respiratory Medicine Unit of Kurashiki Central Hospital from 1999 to 2015. The high-resolution computed tomography findings were usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; n = 1), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; n = 63), NSIP with organizing pneumonia (OP) overlap (n = 15), and OP (n = 20)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803373/th2a-is-phosphorylated-at-meiotic-centromere-by-haspin
#3
Masashi Hada, Jihye Kim, Erina Inoue, Yuko Fukuda, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Yoshinori Watanabe, Yuki Okada
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis...
August 12, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800596/fungal-genome-and-mating-system-transitions-facilitated-by-chromosomal-translocations-involving-intercentromeric-recombination
#4
Sheng Sun, Vikas Yadav, R Blake Billmyre, Christina A Cuomo, Minou Nowrousian, Liuyang Wang, Jean-Luc Souciet, Teun Boekhout, Betina Porcel, Patrick Wincker, Joshua A Granek, Kaustuv Sanyal, Joseph Heitman
Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million infections globally annually. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799059/her2-intratumoral-heterogeneity-is-independently-associated-with-incomplete-response-to-anti-her2-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-her2-positive-breast-carcinoma
#5
Yanjun Hou, Hiroaki Nitta, Lai Wei, Peter M Banks, Bryce Portier, Anil V Parwani, Zaibo Li
PURPOSE: Anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely used in HER2-positive breast cancer patients; however, pathologic complete response (pCR) is achieved in only 40-50% of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) with response to anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Assessment of HER2 ITH was performed on whole tissue sections of pre-treatment samples from a cohort of 64 invasive breast carcinoma cases originally considered positive for HER2 and treated with anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
August 10, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798759/genome-size-diversity-in-lilium-liliaceae-is-correlated-with-karyotype-and-environmental-traits
#6
Yun-Peng Du, Yu Bi, Ming-Fang Zhang, Feng-Ping Yang, Gui-Xia Jia, Xiu-Hai Zhang
Genome size (GS) diversity is of fundamental biological importance. The occurrence of giant genomes in angiosperms is restricted to just a few lineages in the analyzed genome size of plant species so far. It is still an open question whether GS diversity is shaped by neutral or natural selection. The genus Lilium, with giant genomes, is phylogenetically and horticulturally important and is distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. GS diversity in Lilium and the underlying evolutionary mechanisms are poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796421/novel-technologies-in-doubled-haploid-line-development
#7
REVIEW
Jiaojiao Ren, Penghao Wu, Benjamin Trampe, Xiaolong Tian, Shaojiang Chen, Thomas Lübberstedt
Doubled haploid (DH) technology can not only shorten the breeding process but also increase genetic gain. Haploid induction and subsequent genome doubling are the two main steps required for DH technology. Haploids have been generated through the culture of immature male and female gametophytes, and through inter- and intra- specific via chromosome elimination. Here, we focus on haploidization via chromosome elimination, especially the recent advances in centromere-mediated haploidization. Once haploids have been induced, genome doubling is needed to produce DH lines...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#8
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791511/centromere-inheritance-through-the-germline
#9
REVIEW
Arunika Das, Evan M Smoak, Ricardo Linares-Saldana, Michael A Lampson, Ben E Black
The centromere directs chromosome segregation and genetic inheritance but is not itself heritable in a canonical, DNA-based manner. In most species, centromeres are epigenetically defined by the presence of a histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A), independent of underlying DNA sequence. Therefore, centromere inheritance depends on maintaining the CENP-A nucleosome mark across generations. Experiments in cycling somatic cells have led to a model in which centromere identity is maintained by a cell cycle-coupled CENP-A chromatin assembly pathway...
August 8, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781233/phospho-h1-decorates-the-inter-chromatid-axis-and-is-evicted-along-with-shugoshin-by-set-during-mitosis
#10
Swathi Krishnan, Arne H Smits, Michiel Vermeulen, Danny Reinberg
Precise control of sister chromatid separation during mitosis is pivotal to maintaining genomic integrity. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. Remarkably, we discovered that linker histone H1 phosphorylated at S/T18 decorated the inter-chromatid axial DNA on mitotic chromosomes. Sister chromatid resolution during mitosis required the eviction of such H1S/T18ph by the chaperone SET, with this process being independent of and most likely downstream of arm-cohesin dissociation. SET also directed the disassembly of Shugoshins in a polo-like kinase 1-augmented manner, aiding centromere resolution...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780612/invisible-cities-segregated-domains-in-the-yeast-genome-with-distinct-structural-and-functional-attributes
#11
Christoforos Nikolaou
Recent advances in our understanding of the three-dimensional organization of the eukaryotic nucleus have rendered the spatial distribution of genes increasingly relevant. In a recent work (Tsochatzidou et al., Nucleic Acids Res 45:5818-5828, 2017), we proposed the existence of a functional compartmentalization of the yeast genome according to which, genes occupying the chromosomal regions at the nuclear periphery have distinct structural, functional and evolutionary characteristics compared to their centromeric-proximal counterparts...
August 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770704/undifferentiated-connective-tissue-disease-predictors-of-evolution-into-definite-disease
#12
María García-González, Beatriz Rodríguez-Lozano, Sagrario Bustabad, Ivan Ferraz-Amaro
OBJECTIVES: The natural evolution of undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD) has not yet been established. The aim of our study was to analyse the clinical outcomes of a cohort of UCTD patients followed in a routine outpatient setting and to establish which clinical, serological or capillaroscopy features are associated with an increased risk of evolution to definite connective tissue disease (CTD). METHODS: Data for this study were collected by a retrospective review of 758 patients referred to our hospital, between 1999 and 2008, with suspected CTD...
August 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766538/-prognostic-value-of-1q21-amplification-in-multiple-myeloma
#13
T V Abramova, T N Obukhova, L P Mendeleeva, O S Pokrovskaya, E O Gribanova, V V Ryzhko, L A Grebenyuk, M V Nareyko, M V Solovyev, O M Votyakova, S M Kulikov, M A Rusinov, V G Savchenko
AIM: To determine the prevalence of amp1q21 and its relationship to the clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma (MM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In December 2009 to March 2016, a total 134 patients aged 30 to 81 years (median 57 years) underwent a pretreatment FISH-study of bone marrow (BM) with centromeric and locus-specific DNA probes to identify amp1q21, t(11;14), t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), t(6;14), trisomies of chromosomes 5, 9, 15, del13q14, del17p13/TP53, and t(8q24)/cMYC...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765985/translational-genomics-of-grain-size-regulation-in-wheat
#14
REVIEW
Wanlong Li, Bing Yang
Identifying and mapping grain size candidate genes in the wheat genome greatly empowers reverse genetics approaches to improve grain yield potential of wheat. Grain size (GS) or grain weight is believed to be a major driving force for further improvement of wheat yield. Although the large, polyploid genome of wheat poses an obstacle to identifying GS determinants using map-based cloning, a translational genomics approach using GS regulators identified in the model plants rice and Arabidopsis as candidate genes appears to be effective and supports a hypothesis that a conserved genetic network regulates GS in rice and wheat...
August 1, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761166/anti-centromere-antibody-exhibits-specific-distribution-levels-among-anti-nuclear-antibodies-and-may-characterize-a-distinct-subset-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Nobuo Kuramoto, Koichiro Ohmura, Katsunori Ikari, Koichiro Yano, Moritoshi Furu, Noriyuki Yamakawa, Motomu Hashimoto, Hiromu Ito, Takao Fujii, Kosaku Murakami, Ran Nakashima, Yoshitaka Imura, Naoichiro Yukawa, Hajime Yoshifuji, Atsuo Taniguchi, Shigeki Momohara, Hisashi Yamanaka, Fumihiko Matsuda, Tsuneyo Mimori, Chikashi Terao
Anti-centromere antibody (ACA) is one of the classical anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) staining patterns. However, characteristics of ACA in comparison with the other ANA patterns and clinical features of ACA-positive subjects have not been elucidated. Here, we examined all ANA patterns by indirect immunofluorescence for 859 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Together with the ANA data of 9,575 healthy volunteers, we compared distributions of the ANA levels. ACA was the only ANA that demonstrated a definite bimodal distribution of levels...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760857/fbw7-loss-promotes-chromosomal-instability-and-tumorigenesis-via-cyclin-e1-cdk2-mediated-phosphorylation-of-cenp-a
#16
Mamoru Takada, Weiguo Zhang, Aussie Suzuki, Taruho Kuroda, Zhouliang Yu, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Daming Gao, Lixin Wan, Ming Zhuang, Lianxin Hu, Bo Zhai, Christopher Fry, Kerry Bloom, Guohong Li, Gary Karpen, Wenyi Wei, Qing Zhang
The centromere regulates proper chromosome segregation and its dysfunction is implicated in chromosomal instability (CIN). However, relatively little is known about how centromere dysfunction occurs in cancer. Here we define the consequences of phosphorylation by Cyclin E1/CDK2 on a conserved Ser18 residue of centromere-associated protein CENP-A, an essential histone H3 variant that specifies centromere identity. Ser18 hyperphosphorylation in cells occurred upon loss of FBW7, a tumor suppressor whose inactivation leads to chromosomal instability (CIN)...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756949/expanded-satellite-repeats-amplify-a-discrete-cenp-a-nucleosome-assembly-site-on-chromosomes-that-drive-in-female-meiosis
#17
Aiko Iwata-Otsubo, Jennine M Dawicki-McKenna, Takashi Akera, Samantha J Falk, Lukáš Chmátal, Karren Yang, Beth A Sullivan, Richard M Schultz, Michael A Lampson, Ben E Black
Female meiosis provides an opportunity for selfish genetic elements to violate Mendel's law of segregation by increasing the chance of segregating to the egg [1]. Centromeres and other repetitive sequences can drive in meiosis by cheating the segregation process [2], but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that centromeres with more satellite repeats house more nucleosomes that confer centromere identity, containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A, and bias their segregation to the egg relative to centromeres with fewer repeats...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755295/centromere-pairing-precedes-meiotic-chromosome-pairing-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Fangpu Han
Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division, in which diploid cells undergo a single round of DNA replication and two rounds of nuclear division to produce haploid gametes. In most eukaryotes, the core events of meiotic prophase I are chromosomal pairing, synapsis and recombination. To ensure accurate chromosomal segregation, homologs have to identify and align along each other at the onset of meiosis. Although much progress has been made in elucidating meiotic processes, information on the mechanisms underlying chromosome pairing is limited in contrast to the meiotic recombination and synapsis events...
July 26, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752839/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-clinical-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-assay-to-detect-jak2-and-pd-l1-amplification-a-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-assay-for-jak2-and-pd-l1-amplification
#19
Meixuan Chen, Mariacarla Andreozzi, Barbara Pockaj, Michael T Barrett, Idris Tolgay Ocal, Ann E McCullough, Maria E Linnaus, James M Chang, Jennifer H Yearley, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Karen S Anderson
The amplification of chromosome 9p24.1 encoding PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 has been reported in multiple types of cancer and is associated with poor outcome, upregulation of PD-L1, and activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. We have developed a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization assay which combines 3 probes mapping to 9p24.1 with a commercial chromosome 9 centromere (CEN9) probe for detection of the JAK2/9p24.1 amplification. JAK2 fluorescence in situ hybridization was compared with array-based comparative genomic hybridization in 34 samples of triple negative breast cancer tumor...
July 28, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752814/a-matter-of-scale-and-dimensions-chromatin-of-chromosome-landmarks-in-the-fungi
#20
Allyson A Erlendson, Steven Friedman, Michael Freitag
Chromatin and chromosomes of fungi are highly diverse and dynamic, even within species. Much of what we know about histone modification enzymes, RNA interference, DNA methylation, and cell cycle control was first addressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus nidulans, and Neurospora crassa. Here, we examine the three landmark regions that are required for maintenance of stable chromosomes and their faithful inheritance, namely, origins of DNA replication, telomeres and centromeres...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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