keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Centromere

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938124/the-kinetochore-receptor-for-the-cohesin-loading-complex
#1
Stephen M Hinshaw, Vasso Makrantoni, Stephen C Harrison, Adèle L Marston
The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936651/in-vivo-ploidy-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-and-female-gametophytes
#2
Burcu Nur Keçeli, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Organ- or tissue-specific ploidy level determination is often used for answering biological, molecular, genetic, or evolutionary questions in plant sciences. However, current techniques for ploidy determination either cannot provide information on single cell level, require destructive sample preparation, or are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a new approach developed in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not only less labor intensive but also allows in vivo ploidy determination on single cell level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935715/identification-of-the-centromeres-of-leishmania-major-revealing-the-hidden-pieces
#3
Maria-Rosa Garcia-Silva, Lauriane Sollelis, Cameron Ross MacPherson, Slavica Stanojcic, Nada Kuk, Lucien Crobu, Frédéric Bringaud, Patrick Bastien, Michel Pagès, Artur Scherf, Yvon Sterkers
Leishmania affects millions of people worldwide. Its genome undergoes constitutive mosaic aneuploidy, a type of genomic plasticity that may serve as an adaptive strategy to survive distinct host environments. We previously found high rates of asymmetric chromosome allotments during mitosis that lead to the generation of such ploidy. However, the underlying molecular events remain elusive. Centromeres and kinetochores most likely play a key role in this process, yet their identification has failed using classical methods...
September 21, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934480/hydroxyl-radical-footprinting-combined-with-molecular-modeling-identifies-unique-features-of-dna-conformation-and-nucleosome-positioning
#4
Alexey K Shaytan, Hua Xiao, Grigoriy A Armeev, Carl Wu, David Landsman, Anna R Panchenko
Nucleosomes are the most abundant protein-DNA complexes in eukaryotes that provide compaction of genomic DNA and are implicated in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair. The details of DNA positioning on the nucleosome and the DNA conformation can provide key regulatory signals. Hydroxyl-radical footprinting (HRF) of protein-DNA complexes is a chemical technique that probes nucleosome organization in solution with a high precision unattainable by other methods. In this work we propose an integrative modeling method for constructing high-resolution atomistic models of nucleosomes based on HRF experiments...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930533/53bp1-a-guardian-for-centrosomal-integrity
#5
Haeyoung Kim, Hyungshin Yim
53BP1 is known as a mediator in DNA damage response and a regulator of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) repair. 53BP1 was recently reported to be a centrosomal protein and a binding partner of mitotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). The stability of 53BP1, in response to DSBs, is regulated by its phosphorylation, deubiquitination, and ubiquitination. During mitosis, 53BP1 is stabilized by phosphorylation at S380, a putative binding region with polo-box domain of Plk1, and deubiquitination by ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928274/the-ubiquitin-ligase-e3-psh1p-is-required-for-proper-segregation-of-both-centromeric-and-two-micron-plasmids-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Meredith B Metzger, Jessica L Scales, Mitchell F Dunklebarger, Allan M Weissman
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential to many processes. We sought to assess its involvement in the turnover of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We find that deletion of a specific ubiquitin ligase (E3), Psh1p, increases the abundance of a temperature-sensitive mitochondrial protein, mia40-4pHA, when it is expressed from a centromeric plasmid. Deletion of Psh1p unexpectedly elevates the levels of other proteins expressed from centromeric plasmids. Loss of Psh1p does not increase the rate of turn-over of mia40-4pHA, affect total protein synthesis, or increase the protein levels of chromosomal genes...
September 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927537/interstitial-telomeric-sequences-in-vertebrate-chromosomes-origin-function-instability-and-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Alejandro D Bolzán
By definition, telomeric sequences are located at the very ends or terminal regions of chromosomes. However, several vertebrate species show blocks of (TTAGGG)n repeats present in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, the so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), interstitial telomeric repeats or interstitial telomeric bands, which include those intrachromosomal telomeric-like repeats located near (pericentromeric ITSs) or within the centromere (centromeric ITSs) and those telomeric repeats located between the centromere and the telomere (i...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924058/localization-of-cdc7-protein-kinase-during-dna-replication-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Daniel Rossbach, D Suzi Bryan, Jay R Hesselberth, Robert Sclafani
DDK, a conserved serine-threonine protein kinase composed of a regulatory subunit, Dbf4, and a catalytic subunit, Cdc7, is essential for DNA replication initiation during S phase of the cell cycle through MCM2-7 helicase phosphorylation. The biological significance of DDK is well characterized, but the full mechanism of how DDK associates with substrates remains unclear. Cdc7 is bound to chromatin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome throughout the cell cycle, but there is little empirical evidence as to specific Cdc7 binding locations...
September 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919966/chromosomal-stasis-in-distinct-families-of-marine-percomorpharia-from-south-atlantic
#9
Fabilene Gomes Paim, Leandro Aragão da Hora Almeida, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso, Patrícia Elda Sobrinho-Scudeler, Claudio Oliveira, Débora Diniz
The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919954/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-two-anole-lizards-squamata-dactyloidae
#10
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919953/cytogenetic-studies-in-the-redtail-catfish-phractocephalus-hemioliopterus-bloch-schneider-1801-siluriformes-pimelodidae-a-giant-fish-from-amazon-basin
#11
Ana Claudia Swarça, Ana Lucia Dias, Alberto Sergio Fenocchio
The objective of this study was to cytogenetically analyze Phractocephalus hemioliopterus comparing the findings with other data to infer relationships among Pimelodidae species. The results revealed a diploid number of 2n = 56 and the karyotype composed of 16 metacentric, 20 submetacentric, 6 subtelocentric and 14 acrocentric chromosomes (FN = 98). The Ag-NORs, 18S rDNA and CMA3 signals were coincident in location occupying the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome pair (23(th)), in a secondary constriction...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917576/-cancers-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis-involving-anti-rna-polymerase-iii-antibodies
#12
J-B Monfort, A Mathian, Z Amoura, C Francès, A Barbaud, P Senet
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cancer is increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Further, recent studies have also shown that the presence of anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies is associated with a higher incidence of cancer in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein we present the cases of two men aged 56 and 23 years presenting SSc without anti-Scl70 or anti-centromere antibodies but with anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies. Clinical symptoms led us to prescribe more laboratory exams and both patients were diagnosed with cancer of the nasopharyngeal area...
September 13, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#13
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
September 15, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916652/lsd1-mediated-epigenetic-reprogramming-drives-cenpe-expression-and-prostate-cancer-progression
#14
Yi Liang, Musaddeque Ahmed, Haiyang Guo, Fraser Soares, Junjie T Hua, Shuai Gao, Catherine Lu, Christine Poon, Wanting Han, Jens Langstein, Muhammad B Ekram, Brian Li, Elai Davicioni, Mandeep Takhar, Nicholas Erho, R Jeffrey Karnes, Dianne Chadwick, Theodorus van der Kwast, Paul C Boutros, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Felix Y Feng, Anthony Michael Joshua, Amina Zoubeidi, Changmeng Cai, Housheng H He
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a key driver of prostate cancer (PCa), and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic disease. However, patients receiving ADT eventually develop incurable castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Here we report that the chromatin modifier LSD1, an important regulator of AR transcriptional activity, undergoes epigenetic reprogramming in CRPC. LSD1 reprogramming in this setting activated a subset of cell cycle genes including CENPE, a centromere binding protein and mitotic kinesin...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913947/extreme-chromosome-17-copy-number-instability-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Jacqueline E Birkness, Neal G Spada, Caitlyn Miller, James D Luketich, Katie S Nason, Weijing Sun, Jon M Davison
Gastric and esophageal cancers frequently show genomic instability and aneuploidy. Chromosomal copy number instability (CIN) is a form of genomic instability that exerts pleiotropic effects on cellular biology and is a source of genetic heterogeneity in a population of cells. CIN results in cell-to-cell variation in chromosome copy number which can be detected and quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CIN is a biomarker associated with differential response to a number of chemotherapy compounds...
September 14, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913932/hox-d-genes-and-the-fin-to-limb-transition-insights-from-fish-studies
#16
REVIEW
Ana Paço, Renata Freitas
Genes in the 5' extremity of the HoxD cluster encode DNA-binding transcription factors essential for development of the autopod and digits, regulating primarily gene expression and, consequently, morphogenesis and skeletal differentiation. Comparative studies focused on their expression and regulation have led to the idea that evolution of a bimodal regulation of the HoxD cluster, mainly due to the activation of cis-regulatory units in the centromeric side of the cluster, was a fundamental mechanism that potentiated the fin-to-limb transition in vertebrates...
September 14, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911002/intratumor-heterogeneity-predicts-metastasis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
Fang Yang, Yucai Wang, Quan Li, Lulu Cao, Zijia Sun, Juan Jin, Hehui Fang, Aiyu Zhu, Yan Li, Wenwen Zhang, Yanru Wang, Hui Xie, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Shui Wang, Xiaoxiang Guan
Even with the identical clinicopathological features, the ability for metastasis is vastly different among triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), which is common in breast cancer, may be a key mechanism leading to the tumor progression. In this study, we studied whether a quantitative genetic definition of ITH can predict clinical outcomes in patients with TNBC. We quantified ITH by calculating Shannon index, a measure of diversity in a population, based on Myc, epidermal growth factor receptor/centromeric probe 7 (EGFR/CEP7) and cyclin D1/centromeric probe 11 (CCND1/CEP11) copy number variations (CNVs) in 300 cells at three different locations of a tumor...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904333/the-ino80-complex-mediates-epigenetic-centromere-propagation-via-active-removal-of-histone-h3
#18
Eun Shik Choi, Youngseo Cheon, Keunsoo Kang, Daeyoup Lee
The centromere is the chromosomal locus at which the kinetochore is assembled to direct chromosome segregation. The histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), is known to epigenetically mark active centromeres, but the mechanism by which CENP-A propagates at the centromere, replacing histone H3, remains poorly understood. Using fission yeast, here we show that the Ino80 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, which removes histone H3-containing nucleosomes from associated chromatin, promotes CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin assembly at the centromere in a redundant manner with another chromatin-remodeling factor Chd1(Hrp1)...
September 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900618/comparative-genomic-in-situ-hybridization-and-the-possible-role-of-retroelements-in-the-karyotypic-evolution-of-three-akodontini-species
#19
Naiara Pereira Araújo, Gustavo Campos Silva Kuhn, Flávia Nunes Vieira, Thaís Queiroz Morcatty, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Marta Svartman
South American Akodontini rodents are characterized by a large number of chromosome rearrangements. Among them, the genus Akodon has been extensively analyzed with classical and molecular cytogenetics, which allowed the identification of a large number of intra- and interspecific chromosomal variation due to Robertsonian rearrangements, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions/deletions. In order to shed some light on the cause of these rearrangements, we comparatively analyzed the karyotypes of three Akodontini species, Akodon cursor (2n = 14, FN = 19), A...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899600/rebuilding-chromosomes-after-catastrophe-emerging-mechanisms-of-chromothripsis
#20
REVIEW
Peter Ly, Don W Cleveland
Cancer genome sequencing has identified chromothripsis, a complex class of structural genomic rearrangements involving the apparent shattering of an individual chromosome into tens to hundreds of fragments. An initial error during mitosis, producing either chromosome mis-segregation into a micronucleus or chromatin bridge interconnecting two daughter cells, can trigger the catastrophic pulverization of the spatially isolated chromosome. The resultant chromosomal fragments are religated in random order by DNA double-strand break repair during the subsequent interphase...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
keyword
keyword
20523
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"