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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223399/centromere-location-in-arabidopsis-is-unaltered-by-extreme-divergence-in-cenh3-protein-sequence
#1
Shamoni Maheshwari, Takayoshi Ishii, C Titus Brown, Andreas Houben, Luca Comai
During cell division, spindle fibers attach to chromosomes at centromeres. The DNA sequence at regional centromeres is fast evolving with no conserved genetic signature for centromere identity. Instead CENH3, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, is the epigenetic signature that specifies centromere location across both plant and animal kingdoms. Paradoxically, CENH3 is also adaptively evolving. An ongoing question is whether CENH3 evolution is driven by a functional relationship with the underlying DNA sequence...
February 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223312/natural-variation-and-dosage-of-the-hei10-meiotic-e3-ligase-control-arabidopsis-crossover-recombination
#2
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Charles J Underwood, Christophe Lambing, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Emma J Lawrence, Liliana Ziolkowska, Catherine Griffin, Kyuha Choi, F Chris H Franklin, Robert A Martienssen, Ian R Henderson
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220502/variations-on-a-nucleosome-theme-the-structural-basis-of-centromere-function
#3
Olga Moreno-Moreno, Mònica Torras-Llort, Fernando Azorín
The centromere is a specialized chromosomal structure that dictates kinetochore assembly and, thus, is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere identity is determined epigenetically by the presence of a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENP-A, that replaces canonical H3 in centromeric chromatin. Here, we discuss recent work by Roulland et al. that identifies structural elements of the nucleosome as essential determinants of centromere function. In particular, CENP-A nucleosomes have flexible DNA ends due to the short αN helix of CENP-A...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#4
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217959/anti-rnpc3-antibodies-as-a-marker-of-cancer-associated-scleroderma
#5
Ami A Shah, George Xu, Antony Rosen, Laura K Hummers, Fredrick M Wigley, Stephen J Elledge, Livia Casciola-Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies have demonstrated an increased risk of cancer-associated scleroderma in patients with RNA polymerase III (POL) autoantibodies and in patients negative for anti-centromere (CENP), anti-topoisomerase-1 (TOPO), and anti-POL antibodies (referred to as CENP/TOPO/POL (CTP)-Negative). In a recent study of 16 CTP-negative scleroderma patients with coincident cancer, we found that 25% had autoantibodies to RNPC3, a member of the minor spliceosome complex. In this investigation, we validated the relationship between anti-RNPC3 antibodies and cancer and examined the associated clinical phenotype in a large sample of scleroderma patients...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212808/next-generation-repeat-free-fish-probes-for-dna-amplification-in-glioblastoma-in-vivo-improving-patient-selection-to-mdm2-targeted-inhibitors
#6
Matteo Brunelli, Albino Eccher, Luca Cima, Tobia Trippini, Serena Pedron, Marco Chilosi, Mattia Barbareschi, Aldo Scarpa, Giampietro Pinna, Giulio Cabrini, Sara Pilotto, Luisa Carbognin, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora, Adele Fioravanzo, Nicola Schiavo, Mario Meglio, Teodoro Sava, Laura Belli, Guido Martignoni, Claudio Ghimenton
A next-generation FISH probe mapping to the MDM2 locus-specific region has recently been designed. The level of MDM2 gene amplification (high versus low) may allow selection of patients for cancer treatment with MDM2 inhibitors and may predict their responsiveness. We investigated the spectrum of MDM2 gene alterations using the new probes in vivo after visualizing single neoplastic cells in situ from a series of glioblastomas. Signals from next-generation repeat-free FISH interphase probes were identified in tissue microarrays that included 3 spots for each of the 48 cases...
January 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199302/untimely-expression-of-gametogenic-genes-in-vegetative-cells-causes-uniparental-disomy
#7
H Diego Folco, Venkata R Chalamcharla, Tomoyasu Sugiyama, Gobi Thillainadesan, Martin Zofall, Vanivilasini Balachandran, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Shiv I S Grewal
Uniparental disomy (UPD), in which an individual contains a pair of homologous chromosomes originating from only one parent, is a frequent phenomenon that is linked to congenital disorders and various cancers. UPD is thought to result mostly from pre- or post-zygotic chromosome missegregation. However, the factors that drive UPD remain unknown. Here we use the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to investigate UPD, and show that defects in the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery or in the YTH domain-containing RNA elimination factor Mmi1 cause high levels of UPD in vegetative diploid cells...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#8
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197913/wrestling-with-chromosomes-the-roles-of-sumo-during-meiosis
#9
Amanda C Nottke, Hyun-Min Kim, Monica P Colaiácovo
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#10
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192599/impact-of-an-alternative-chromosome-17-probe-and-the-2013-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-and-college-of-american-pathologists-guidelines-on-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-for-the-determination-of-her2-gene-amplification-in-breast-cancer
#11
Alana R Donaldson, Shashirekha Shetty, Zhen Wang, Christine L Rivera, Bryce P Portier, G Thomas Budd, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Christopher P Lanigan, Benjamin C Calhoun
BACKGROUND: The dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in breast cancer provides an HER2:CEP17 (centromere enumeration probe for chromosome 17) ratio. Copy number alteration (CNA) in CEP17 may skew this ratio. The authors analyzed the impact of the 2013 American Society of Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines and an alternative chromosome 17 probe on HER2 status in tumor specimens with CEP17 CNA...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186206/unbiased-k-mer-analysis-reveals-changes-in-copy-number-of-highly-repetitive-sequences-during-maize-domestication-and-improvement
#12
Sanzhen Liu, Jun Zheng, Pierre Migeon, Jie Ren, Ying Hu, Cheng He, Hongjun Liu, Junjie Fu, Frank F White, Christopher Toomajian, Guoying Wang
The major component of complex genomes is repetitive elements, which remain recalcitrant to characterization. Using maize as a model system, we analyzed whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences for the two maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 using k-mer analysis to quantify the differences between the two genomes. Significant differences were identified in highly repetitive sequences, including centromere, 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), knob, and telomere repeats. Genotype specific 45S rDNA sequences were discovered. The B73 and Mo17 polymorphic k-mers were used to examine allele-specific expression of 45S rDNA in the hybrids...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186195/cenp-a-chromatin-disassembly-in-stressed-and-senescent-murine-cells
#13
Sabrine Hédouin, Giacomo Grillo, Ivana Ivkovic, Guillaume Velasco, Claire Francastel
Centromeres are chromosomal domains essential for genomic stability. We report here the remarkable transcriptional and epigenetic perturbations at murine centromeres in genotoxic stress conditions. A strong and selective transcriptional activation of centromeric repeats is detected within hours. This is followed by disorganization of centromeres with striking delocalization of nucleosomal CENP-A, the key determinant of centromere identity and function, in a mechanism requiring active transcription of centromeric repeats, the DNA Damage Response (DDR) effector ATM and chromatin remodelers/histone chaperones...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179312/mds-aml-del-11-q14-share-common-morphological-features-despite-different-chromosomal-breakpoints
#14
Irene Dambruoso, Rosangela Invernizzi, Marina Boni, Rita Zappatore, Ilaria Giardini, Maria Paola Cavigliano, Barbara Rocca, Celeste Calvello, Raffaella Bastia, Marilena Caresana, Francesca Pasi, Rosanna Nano, Paolo Bernasconi
In myelodysplatic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) deletion of the 11q14 region is a rare chromosomal defect (incidence: 0.6-1.0%), included within the intermediate risk criteria by the International Prognostic Scoring System. No fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study has yet been performed to identify a common breakpoint region (CBR). In our study through FISH with bacterial artificial chromosomes and commercial probes, we analyzed seven patients with MDS/AML harboring 11q14 deletion on conventional cytogenetic analysis...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178520/identification-of-a-sgo2-dependent-but-mad2-independent-pathway-controlling-anaphase-onset-in-fission-yeast
#15
John C Meadows, Theresa C Lancaster, Graham J Buttrick, Alicja M Sochaj, Liam J Messin, Maria Del Mar Mora-Santos, Kevin G Hardwick, Jonathan B A Millar
The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). APC/C triggers ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclin B, which leads to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and inactivation of Cyclin B/Cdk1, respectively. This promotes relocalization of Aurora B kinase and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) from centromeres to the spindle midzone. In fission yeast, this is mediated by Clp1 phosphatase-dependent interaction of CPC with Klp9/MKLP2 (kinesin-6)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176832/epro-clearsee-a-simple-immunohistochemical-method-that-does-not-require-sectioning-of-plant-samples
#16
Kiyotaka Nagaki, Naoki Yamaji, Minoru Murata
Investigations into the epigenetic status of individual cells within tissues can produce both epigenetic data for different cell types and positional information of the cells. Thus, these investigations are important for understanding the intra- and inter-cellular control systems of developmental and environmental responses in plants. However, a simple method to detect epigenetic modifications of individual cells in plant tissues is not yet available because detection of the modifications requires immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173078/centromeric-satellite-dna-in-flatfish-order-pleuronectiformes-and-its-relation-to-speciation-processes
#17
Francisca Robles Rodríguez, Roberto de la Herrán, Rafael Navajas-Pérez, Belén Cano-Roldán, Pedro Juan Sola-Campoy, Jerson Alexander García-Zea, Carmelo Ruiz Rejón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167779/integrity-of-the-human-centromere-dna-repeats-is-protected-by-cenp-a-cenp-c-and-cenp-t
#18
Simona Giunta, Hironori Funabiki
Centromeres are highly specialized chromatin domains that enable chromosome segregation and orchestrate faithful cell division. Human centromeres are composed of tandem arrays of α-satellite DNA, which spans up to several megabases. Little is known about the mechanisms that maintain integrity of the long arrays of α-satellite DNA repeats. Here, we monitored centromeric repeat stability in human cells using chromosome-orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization (CO-FISH). This assay detected aberrant centromeric CO-FISH patterns consistent with sister chromatid exchange at the frequency of 5% in primary tissue culture cells, whereas higher levels were seen in several cancer cell lines and during replicative senescence...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167501/comprehensive-characterization-of-neutrophil-genome-topology
#19
Yina Zhu, Ke Gong, Matthew Denholtz, Vivek Chandra, Mark P Kamps, Frank Alber, Cornelis Murre
Neutrophils are responsible for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Their nuclei are uniquely structured as multiple lobes that establish a highly constrained nuclear environment. Here we found that neutrophil differentiation was not associated with large-scale changes in the number and sizes of topologically associating domains (TADs). However, neutrophil genomes were enriched for long-range genomic interactions that spanned multiple TADs. Population-based simulation of spherical and toroid genomes revealed declining radii of gyration for neutrophil chromosomes...
February 6, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166212/a-study-of-allelic-diversity-underlying-flowering-time-adaptation-in-maize-landraces
#20
J Alberto Romero Navarro, Martha Willcox, Juan Burgueño, Cinta Romay, Kelly Swarts, Samuel Trachsel, Ernesto Preciado, Arturo Terron, Humberto Vallejo Delgado, Victor Vidal, Alejandro Ortega, Armando Espinoza Banda, Noel Orlando Gómez Montiel, Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Félix San Vicente, Armando Guadarrama Espinoza, Gary Atlin, Peter Wenzl, Sarah Hearne, Edward S Buckler
Landraces (traditional varieties) of domesticated species preserve useful genetic variation, yet they remain untapped due to the genetic linkage between the few useful alleles and hundreds of undesirable alleles. We integrated two approaches to characterize the diversity of 4,471 maize landraces. First, we mapped genomic regions controlling latitudinal and altitudinal adaptation and identified 1,498 genes. Second, we used F-one association mapping (FOAM) to map the genes that control flowering time, across 22 environments, and identified 1,005 genes...
February 6, 2017: Nature Genetics
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