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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339487/nucleolar-asymmetry-and-the-importance-of-septin-integrity-upon-cell-cycle-arrest
#1
Urvashi Rai, Fadi Najm, Alan M Tartakoff
Cell cycle arrest can be imposed by inactivating the anaphase promoting complex (APC). In S. cerevisiae this arrest has been reported to stabilize a metaphase-like intermediate in which the nuclear envelope spans the bud neck, while chromatin repeatedly translocates between the mother and bud domains. The present investigation was undertaken to learn how other features of nuclear organization are affected upon depletion of the APC activator, Cdc20. We observe that the spindle pole bodies and the spindle repeatedly translocate across the narrow orifice at the level of the neck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337388/the-clinical-significance-of-anti-mitotic-spindle-apparatus-antibody-msa-and-anti-centromere-antibody-aca-detected-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc
#2
Liming Tan, Yuhong Zhang, Yongqing Jiang, Hua Li, Juanjuan Chen, Feng Ming, Waimei Wang, Jianlin Yu, Tingting Zeng, Yongjian Tian, Yang Wu
PURPOSE: The project is aimed to detect anti-mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) and anti-centromere antibody (ACA) and explore the clinical value for the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), providing clinical evidence for molecular studies of SCLC. METHODS: 93 SCLC patients, 208 patients with other cancers and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. MSA antibodies were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSA, ACA and anti nuclear antibodies (ANA) were examined by indirect immuno-fluorescence (IIF)...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334849/icf-specific-dnmt3b-dysfunction-interferes-with-intragenic-regulation-of-mrna-transcription-and-alternative-splicing
#3
Sole Gatto, Miriam Gagliardi, Monica Franzese, Sylwia Leppert, Mariarosaria Papa, Marco Cammisa, Giacomo Grillo, Guillame Velasco, Claire Francastel, Shir Toubiana, Maurizio D'Esposito, Claudia Angelini, Maria R Matarazzo
Hypomorphic mutations in DNA-methyltransferase DNMT3B cause majority of the rare disorder Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome cases (ICF1). By unspecified mechanisms, mutant-DNMT3B interferes with lymphoid-specific pathways resulting in immune response defects. Interestingly, recent findings report that DNMT3B shapes intragenic CpG-methylation of highly-transcribed genes. However, how the DNMT3B-dependent epigenetic network modulates transcription and whether ICF1-specific mutations impair this process remains unknown...
March 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334717/a-tandemly-arranged-pattern-of-two-5s-rdna-arrays-in-amolops-mantzorum-anura-ranidae
#4
Ting Liu, Menghuan Song, Yun Xia, Xiaomao Zeng
In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334706/repetitive-dna-a-versatile-tool-for-karyotyping-in-festuca-pratensis-huds
#5
Anna Křivánková, David Kopecký, Štěpán Stočes, Jaroslav Doležel, Eva Hřibová
FISH is a useful method to identify individual chromosomes in a karyotype and to discover their structural changes accompanying genome evolution and speciation. DNA probes for FISH should be chromosome specific and/or exhibit specific patterns of distribution along each chromosome. Such probes are not available in many plants including meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), an important forage grass species. In the present study, various DNA repeats identified in Illumina shotgun sequences specific to chromosome 4F of F...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333343/centromere-destiny-in-dicentric-chromosomes-new-insights-from-the-evolution-of-human-chromosome-2-ancestral-centromeric-region
#6
Giorgia Chiatante, Giuliana Giannuzzi, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Evan E Eichler, Mario Ventura
Dicentric chromosomes are products of genomic rearrangements that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Due to the presence of two primary constrictions, they are inherently unstable and overcome their instability by epigenetically inactivating and/or deleting one of the two centromeres, thus resulting in functionally monocentric chromosomes that segregate normally during cell division. Our understanding to date of dicentric chromosome formation, behavior and fate has been largely inferred from observational studies in plants and humans as well as artificially produced de novo dicentrics in yeast and in human cells...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333217/recurrent-gene-duplication-leads-to-diverse-repertoires-of-centromeric-histones-in-drosophila-species
#7
Lisa E Kursel, Harmit S Malik
Despite their essential role in the process of chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, centromeric histones show remarkable evolutionary lability. Not only have they been lost in multiple insect lineages, but they have also undergone gene duplication in multiple plant lineages. Based on detailed study of a handful of model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster, centromeric histone duplication is considered to be rare in animals. Using a detailed phylogenomic study, we find that Cid, the centromeric histone gene, has undergone at least four independent gene duplications during Drosophila evolution...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327671/candidate-loci-involved-in-domestication-and-improvement-detected-by-a-published-90k-wheat-snp-array
#8
Lifeng Gao, Guangyao Zhao, Dawei Huang, Jizeng Jia
Selection is one of the most important forces in crop evolution. Common wheat is a major world food crop and a typical allopolyploid with a huge and complex genome. We applied four approaches to detect loci selected in wheat during domestication and improvement. A total of 7,984 candidate loci were detected, accounting for 23.3% of all 34,317 SNPs analysed, a much higher proportion than estimated in previous reports. We constructed a first generation wheat selection map which revealed the following new insights on genome-wide selection: (1) diversifying selection acted by increasing, decreasing or not affecting gene frequencies; (2) the number of loci under selection during domestication was much higher than that during improvement; (3) the contribution to wheat improvement by the D sub-genome was relatively small due to the bottleneck of hexaploidisation and diversity can be expanded by using synthetic wheat and introgression lines; and (4) clustered selection regions occur throughout the wheat genome, including the centromere regions...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322435/genomic-changes-following-the-reversal-of-a-y-chromosome-to-an-autosome-in-drosophila-pseudoobscura
#9
Ching-Ho Chang, Amanda M Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10-15 Mya...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315870/the-hypermethylated-regions-in-avian-chromosomes
#10
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
Chromosomal locations and amounts of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 13 bird species by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 7 orders and 10 families of modern (Neognathae) and primitive (Palaeognathae) birds and are characterized by macro- and microchromosomes as well as ZW sex chromosomes. In all 13 species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The chromosomal locations of hypermethylated DNA regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#11
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314740/dual-recognition-of-chromatin-and-microtubules-by-incenp-is-important-for-mitotic-progression
#12
Michael S Wheelock, David J Wynne, Boo Shan Tseng, Hironori Funabiki
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), composed of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin, Borealin, and the kinase Aurora B, contributes to the activation of the mitotic checkpoint. The regulation of CPC function remains unclear. Here, we reveal that in addition to Survivin and Borealin, the single α-helix (SAH) domain of INCENP supports CPC localization to chromatin and the mitotic checkpoint. The INCENP SAH domain also mediates INCENP's microtubule binding, which is negatively regulated by Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of segments flanking the SAH domain...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314114/st-sub-2-sub-80-a-new-fish-marker-for-st-genome-and-genome-analysis-in-triticeae
#13
Long Wang, Qinghua Shi, Handong Su, Yi Wang, Sha Lina, Xing Fan, Kang Houyang, Zhang Haiqin, Yong-Hong Zhou
<b>St</b> genome is one of the most fundamental genomes in Triticeae. Repetitive sequences are widely used to distinguish different genomes or species. The primary objectives of this study are (1) to screen a new sequence that can easily distinguish the chromosome of <b>St</b> and other genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); (2) to investigate the genome constitutions of some species remains uncertain and controversial. We used degenerated oligonucleotide primer PCR (Dop-PCR), Dot-blot and FISH to screen new marker for <b>St</b> genome and tested efficiency of this marker in detection <b>St</b> chromosome at different ploidy level...
March 17, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296274/relevance-of-clinical-and-autoantibody-profiles-in-systemic-sclerosis-among-thais
#14
Chingching Foocharoen, Piyakarn Watcharenwong, Sittichai Netwijitpan, Ajanee Mahakkanukrauh, Siraphop Suwannaroj, Ratanavadee Nanagara
OBJECTIVE: Autoantibody profiles in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their relative clinical association vary between studies. The rate for being anti-topoisomerase-I (ATA) positive and the association with diffuse cutaneous the SSc subset (dcSSc) is higher among Thais than among Caucasians. The objective was to evaluate the relevance of clinical presentation, namely being positive for one or more autoantibodies among Thai SSc patients. METHOD: A retrospective, cohort study was performed among SSc patients over 18 years of age at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, during January 2006 to December 2013...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293300/silencing-markers-are-retained-on-pericentric-heterochromatin-during-murine-primordial-germ-cell-development
#15
Aristea Magaraki, Godfried van der Heijden, Esther Sleddens-Linkels, Leonidas Magarakis, Wiggert A van Cappellen, Antoine H F M Peters, Joost Gribnau, Willy M Baarends, Maureen Eijpe
BACKGROUND: In the nuclei of most mammalian cells, pericentric heterochromatin is characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications such as H3K9me3 and H4K20me3, and specific binding proteins like heterochromatin-binding protein 1 isoforms (HP1 isoforms). Maintenance of this specialized chromatin structure is of great importance for genome integrity and for the controlled repression of the repetitive elements within the pericentric DNA sequence. Here we have studied histone modifications at pericentric heterochromatin during primordial germ cell (PGC) development using different fixation conditions and fluorescent immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical protocols...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293296/isolation-and-characterization-of-chromosomal-markers-in-poa-pratensis
#16
Yanyan Zhao, Feng Yu, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou
BACKGROUND: Poa pratensis L. is a turf grass and forage crop used worldwide. Being a facultative apomictic species, P. pratensis has a highly variable chromosome number. Chromosomal markers constitute a powerful tool for chromosome identification and for various aspects of genomic research. However, currently, no chromosomal markers are available for P. pratensis. RESULTS: Four novel chromosome markers were isolated from a screen of Cot-1 DNA libraries, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Poa pratensis...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287092/loss-of-centromere-cohesion-in-aneuploid-human-oocytes-correlates-with-decreased-kinetochore-localization-of-the-sac-proteins-bub1-and-bubr1
#17
Julie Lagirand-Cantaloube, Cendrine Ciabrini, Sophie Charrasse, Alice Ferrieres, Anna Castro, Tal Anahory, Thierry Lorca
In human eggs, aneuploidy increases with age and can result in infertility and genetic diseases. Studies in mouse oocytes suggest that reduced centromere cohesion and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity could be at the origin of chromosome missegregation. Little is known about these two features in humans. Here, we show that in human eggs, inter-kinetochore distances of bivalent chromosomes strongly increase with age. This results in the formation of univalent chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) and of single chromatids in metaphase II (MII)...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286049/insulin-signaling-regulates-the-foxm1-plk1-cenp-a-pathway-to-promote-adaptive-pancreatic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cell-proliferation
#18
Jun Shirakawa, Megan Fernandez, Tomozumi Takatani, Abdelfattah El Ouaamari, Prapaporn Jungtrakoon, Erin R Okawa, Wei Zhang, Peng Yi, Alessandro Doria, Rohit N Kulkarni
Investigation of cell-cycle kinetics in mammalian pancreatic β cells has mostly focused on transition from the quiescent (G0) to G1 phase. Here, we report that centromere protein A (CENP-A), which is required for chromosome segregation during the M-phase, is necessary for adaptive β cell proliferation. Receptor-mediated insulin signaling promotes DNA-binding activity of FoxM1 to regulate expression of CENP-A and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase-1/2. CENP-A deposition at the centromere is augmented by PLK1 to promote mitosis, while knocking down CENP-A limits β cell proliferation and survival...
February 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278512/targeted-segment-transfer-from-rye-chromosome-2r-to-wheat-chromosomes-2a-2b-and-7b
#19
Tianheng Ren, Zhi Li, Benju Yan, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Manyu Yang, Zhenglong Ren
Increased chromosome instability was induced by a rye (Secale cereale L.) monosomic 2R chromosome into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Centromere breakage and telomere dysfunction result in high rates of chromosome aberrations, including breakages, fissions, fusions, deletions, and translocations. Plants with target traits were sequentially selected to produce a breeding population, from which 3 translocation lines with target traits have been selected. In these lines, wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B recombined with segments of the rye chromosome arm 2RL...
March 10, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278055/comparative-analyses-identify-molecular-signature-of-mri-classified-svz-associated-glioblastoma
#20
Chin-Hsing Annie Lin, Christopher T Rhodes, ChenWei Lin, Joanna J Phillips, Mitchel S Berger
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain cancer with limited therapeutic options. While efforts to identify genes responsible for GBM have revealed mutations and aberrant gene expression associated with distinct types of GBM, patients with GBM are often diagnosed and classified based on MRI features. Therefore, we seek to identify molecular representatives in parallel with MRI classification for group I and group II primary GBM associated with the subventricular zone (SVZ). As group I and II GBM contain stem-like signature, we compared gene expression profiles between these 2 groups of primary GBM and endogenous neural stem progenitor cells to reveal dysregulation of cell cycle, chromatin status, cellular morphogenesis, and signaling pathways in these 2 types of MRI-classified GBM...
February 22, 2017: Cell Cycle
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