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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728292/-detection-and-clinical-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-osteosarcoma-using-immunofluorescence-combined-with-in-situ-hybridization
#1
H Q Zhang, M H Li, Z Wang, P H Lan, Y J Lu, G J Chen, L Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood from patients with osteosarcoma (OS) using the iFISH (immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization) method. Methods: The live cells recovery rate of immune-magnetic beads was evaluated by live-cell fluorescent tracer technology. The expression of CD45 and CK18 on the cell surface of HOS and HepG2 cells was measured by flow cytometry. And the chromosome aneuploidy was detected by centromeric FISH probe CEP8...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727495/localization-of-pp2a-b56-to-centromeres-in-drosophila
#2
Emil Peter Thrane Hertz, Jakob Nilsson
Protection of chromosome cohesion through Shugoshin-dependent recruitment of the PP2A-B56 phosphatase to the pericentromeric region has become a cornerstone of the chromosome segregation model in eukaryotes. Shugoshin is essential for meiotic chromosome segregation in all tested eukaryotes but only found to be essential for mitotic chromosome segregation in vertebrates. Nishiyama and colleagues have now found that the protein Dalmatian, an ortholog of the vertebrate cohesion regulator Sororin, performs the function of Shugoshin in Drosophila melanogaster by recruiting PP2A-B56 to the pericentromeric region supporting an unified model of mitotic chromosome segregation in the animal kingdom...
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723235/localization-of-pp2a-b56-to-centromeres-in-drosophila
#3
Emil Hertz, Thrane Hertz, Jakob Nilsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723232/mechanism-for-g2-phase-specific-nuclear-export-of-the-kinetochore-protein-cenp-f
#4
Kyle M Loftus, Heying Cui, Elias Coutavas, David S King, Amanda Ceravolo, Dylan Pereiras, Sozanne R Solmaz
Centromere protein F (CENP-F) is a component of the kinetochore and a regulator of cell cycle progression. CENP-F recruits the dynein transport machinery and orchestrates several cell cycle-specific transport events, including transport of the nucleus, mitochondria and chromosomes. A key regulatory step for several of these functions is likely the G2 phase-specific export of CENP-F from the nucleus to the cytosol, where the cytoplasmic dynein transport machinery resides; however, the molecular mechanism of this process is elusive...
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719910/correlating-the-genetic-and-physical-map-of-barley-chromosome-3h-revealed-limitations-of-the-fish-based-mapping-of-nearby-single-copy-probes-caused-by-the-dynamic-structure-of-metaphase-chromosomes
#5
Fernanda O Bustamante, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Jörg Fuchs, Sebastian Beier, Andreas Houben
Genetic maps are based on the recombination frequency of molecular markers which often show different positions in comparison to the corresponding physical maps. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to terminal and interstitial regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on mitotic metaphase chromosomes was performed with 16 genomic single-copy probes derived from fingerprinted BAC contigs. Long genetic distances at subterminal regions translated into short physical distances, confirming that recombination events occur more often at distal regions of chromosome 3H...
July 19, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719894/karyotype-evolution-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-cricetulus-sokolovi-orlov-et-malygin-1988-cricetidae-rodentia-inferred-from-chromosomal-painting-and-molecular-data
#6
Natalia S Poplavskaya, Svetlana A Romanenko, Natalia A Serdyukova, Vladimir A Trifonov, Fengtang Yang, Wenhui Nie, Jinghuan Wang, Anna A Bannikova, Alexey V Surov, Vladimir S Lebedev
Sokolov's dwarf hamster (Cricetulus sokolovi) is the least studied representative of the striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis species group), the taxonomy of which remains controversial. The species was described based on chromosome morphology, but neither the details of the karyotype nor the phylogenetic relationships with other Cricetulus are known. In the present study, the karyotype of C. sokolovi was examined using cross-species chromosome painting. Molecular and cytogenetic data were employed to determine the phylogenetic position of Sokolov's hamster and to analyze the potential pathways of chromosome evolution in Cricetulus...
July 19, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717965/genomic-properties-of-chromosomal-bands-are-linked-to-evolutionary-rearrangements-and-new-centromere-formation-in-primates
#7
Concetta Federico, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Sabrina Tosi, Salvatore Saccone
Chromosomal rearrangements in humans are largely related to pathological conditions, and phenotypic effects are also linked to alterations in the expression profile following nuclear relocation of genes between functionally different compartments, generally occupying the periphery or the inner part of the cell nuclei. On the other hand, during evolution, chromosomal rearrangements may occur apparently without damaging phenotypic effects and are visible in currently phylogenetically related species. To increase our insight into chromosomal reorganisation in the cell nucleus, we analysed 18 chromosomal regions endowed with different genomic properties in cell lines derived from eight primate species covering the entire evolutionary tree...
July 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713390/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-an-infant-with-immunodeficiency-centromeric-instability-and-facial-anomaly-syndrome
#8
Katharina L Gössling, Cyrill Schipp, Ute Fischer, Florian Babor, Gerhard Koch, Friedhelm R Schuster, Jutta Dietzel-Dahmen, Dagmar Wieczorek, Arndt Borkhardt, Roland Meisel, Michaela Kuhlen
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomaly (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic condition with severe immunodeficiency, which leads to lethal infections if not recognized and treated in early childhood. Up-to-date treatment regimens consist of prophylactic and supportive treatment of the recurrent infections. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy of Moroccan consanguineous parents, who was diagnosed at 4 months of age with ICF syndrome with a homozygous missense mutation in the DNMT3B gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711660/a-novel-deletion-involving-gnas-exon-1-causes-php1a-and-further-refines-the-region-required-for-normal-methylation-at-exon-a-b
#9
Monica Reyes, Anara Karaca, Murat Bastepe, Nese Ersoz Gulcelik, Harald Jüppner
GNAS exons 1-13 encode the biallelically expressed alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gαs). Additional transcripts derived from this locus use alternative first exons that undergo parent-specific methylation, thus allowing transcription only from the non-modified allele. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP1A) is characterized by Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and resistance to multiple hormones; this disorder is caused by maternal inactivating mutations involving Gαs exons. In contrast, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized mostly by resistance to PTH and often mild TSH resistance, usually without AHO features...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706522/expressed-centromere-specific-histone-3-cenh3-variants-in-cultivated-triploid-and-wild-diploid-bananas-musa-spp
#10
Kariuki S Muiruri, Anne Britt, Nelson O Amugune, Edward K Nguu, Simon Chan, Leena Tripathi
Centromeres are specified by a centromere specific histone 3 (CENH3) protein, which exists in a complex environment, interacting with conserved proteins and rapidly evolving satellite DNA sequences. The interactions may become more challenging if multiple CENH3 versions are introduced into the zygote as this can affect post-zygotic mitosis and ultimately sexual reproduction. Here, we characterize CENH3 variant transcripts expressed in cultivated triploid and wild diploid progenitor bananas. We describe both splice- and allelic-[Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)] variants and their effects on the predicted secondary structures of protein...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704374/spatial-organization-of-the-budding-yeast-genome-in-the-cell-nucleus-and-identification-of-specific-chromatin-interactions-from-multi-chromosome-constrained-chromatin-model
#11
Gamze Gürsoy, Yun Xu, Jie Liang
Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704058/elucidating-protein-dna-interactions-in-human-alphoid-chromatin-via-hybridization-capture-and-mass-spectrometry
#12
Katherine E Buxton, Julia Kennedy-Darling, Michael R Shortreed, Nur Zafirah Zaidan, Michael Olivier, Mark Scalf, Rupa Sridharan, Lloyd M Smith
The centromere is the chromosomal locus where the kinetochore forms, and is critical for ensuring proper segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. A substantial amount of effort has been devoted to understanding the characteristic features and roles of the centromere, yet some fundamental aspects of the centromere, such as the complete list of elements that define it, remain obscure. It is well known that human centromeres include a highly repetitive class of DNA known as alpha satellite, or alphoid, DNA...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703879/precarious-maintenance-of-simple-dna-repeats-in-eukaryotes
#13
REVIEW
Alexander J Neil, Jane C Kim, Sergei M Mirkin
In this review, we discuss how two evolutionarily conserved pathways at the interface of DNA replication and repair, template switching and break-induced replication, lead to the deleterious large-scale expansion of trinucleotide DNA repeats that cause numerous hereditary diseases. We highlight that these pathways, which originated in prokaryotes, may be subsequently hijacked to maintain long DNA microsatellites in eukaryotes. We suggest that the negative mutagenic outcomes of these pathways, exemplified by repeat expansion diseases, are likely outweighed by their positive role in maintaining functional repetitive regions of the genome such as telomeres and centromeres...
July 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700723/position-effects-influencing-intrachromosomal-repair-of-a-double-strand-break-in-budding-yeast
#14
Ruoxi W Wang, Cheng-Sheng Lee, James E Haber
Repair of a double-strand break (DSB) by an ectopic homologous donor sequence is subject to the three-dimensional arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus of haploid budding yeast. The data for interchromosomal recombination suggest that searching for homology is accomplished by a random collision process, strongly influenced by the contact probability of the donor and recipient sequences. Here we explore how recombination occurs on the same chromosome and whether there are additional constraints imposed on repair...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699632/wilms-tumour-in-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome-and-loss-of-methylation-at-imprinting-centre-2-revisiting-tumour-surveillance-guidelines
#15
Jack Brzezinski, Cheryl Shuman, Sanaa Choufani, Peter Ray, Dmitiri J Stavropoulos, Raveen Basran, Leslie Steele, Nicole Parkinson, Ronald Grant, Paul Thorner, Armando Lorenzo, Rosanna Weksberg
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome caused by a variety of molecular changes on chromosome 11p15.5. Children with BWS have a significant risk of developing Wilms tumours with the degree of risk being dependent on the underlying molecular mechanism. In particular, only a relatively small number of children with loss of methylation at the centromeric imprinting centre (IC2) were reported to have developed Wilms tumour. Discontinuation of tumour surveillance for children with BWS and loss of methylation at IC2 has been proposed in several recent publications...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696926/habitat-predicts-levels-of-genetic-admixture-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Viranga Tilakaratna, Douda Bensasson
Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus by locus phylogenetic approach...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696259/interplay-between-the-phosphatase-phlpp1-and-an-e3-ligase-rnf41-stimulates-proper-kinetochore-assembly-via-the-outer-kinetochore-protein-sgt1
#17
Narmadha Reddy Gangula, Subbareddy Maddika
Kinetochores link chromosomes to spindle microtubules and are essential for accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Kinetochores assemble at the centromeric region of chromosomes as a multi-protein complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of kinetochore assembly have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) as a regulatory phosphatase that facilitates proper kinetochore assembly. We found that PHLPP1 interacted with the essential outer-kinetochore protein SGT1 and stabilized its protein levels...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694242/chromatin-stiffening-underlies-enhanced-locus-mobility-after-dna-damage-in-budding-yeast
#18
Sébastien Herbert, Alice Brion, Jean-Michel Arbona, Mickaël Lelek, Adeline Veillet, Benoît Lelandais, Jyotsana Parmar, Fabiola García Fernández, Etienne Almayrac, Yasmine Khalil, Eleonore Birgy, Emmanuelle Fabre, Christophe Zimmer
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce a cellular response that involves histone modifications and chromatin remodeling at the damaged site and increases chromosome dynamics both locally at the damaged site and globally in the nucleus. In parallel, it has become clear that the spatial organization and dynamics of chromosomes can be largely explained by the statistical properties of tethered, but randomly moving, polymer chains, characterized mainly by their rigidity and compaction. How these properties of chromatin are affected during DNA damage remains, however, unclear...
July 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693226/screening-of-potentially-crucial-genes-and-regulatory-factors-involved-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-using-microarray-analysis
#19
Can Shi, Zhenyu Zhang
The present study aimed to screen potential genes implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to further understand the molecular pathogenesis of EOC. In order to do this, datasets GSE14407 (containing 12 human ovarian cancer epithelia samples and 12 normal epithelia samples) and GSE29220 (containing 11 salivary transcriptomes from ovarian cancer patients with serous papillary adenocarcinoma and 11 matched controls) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within these datasets were screened using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package, and potential gene functions were predicted by functional and pathway enrichment analyses...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690679/trichoderma-reesei-complete-genome-sequence-repeat-induced-point-mutation-and-partitioning-of-cazyme-gene-clusters
#20
Wan-Chen Li, Chien-Hao Huang, Chia-Ling Chen, Yu-Chien Chuang, Shu-Yun Tung, Ting-Fang Wang
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) QM6a is a model fungus for a broad spectrum of physiological phenomena, including plant cell wall degradation, industrial production of enzymes, light responses, conidiation, sexual development, polyketide biosynthesis, and plant-fungal interactions. The genomes of QM6a and its high enzyme-producing mutants have been sequenced by second-generation-sequencing methods and are publicly available from the Joint Genome Institute. While these genome sequences have offered useful information for genomic and transcriptomic studies, their limitations and especially their short read lengths make them poorly suited for some particular biological problems, including assembly, genome-wide determination of chromosome architecture, and genetic modification or engineering...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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