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Sylvie Jaillard, Linda Akloul, Marion Beaumont, Houda Hamdi-Roze, Christele Dubourg, Sylvie Odent, Solène Duros, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Célia Ravel
BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure (OF) is considered premature if it occurs before the age of 40. This study investigates the genetic aetiology underlying OF in women under the age of 40 years. METHODS: We conducted an experimental prospective study performing all genome microarrays in 60 patients younger than 40 years presenting an OF revealed by a decrease of circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) and leading to an oocyte donation program. RESULTS: We identified nine significant copy number variations (CNVs) including candidate genes potentially implicated in reproductive function...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Naoki Wada, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Kanako Kazuki, Toshiaki Inoue, Kiichi Fukui, Mitsuo Oshimura
Replication, segregation, gene expression and inheritance are essential features of all eukaryotic chromosomes. To delineate the extent of conservation of chromosome functions between humans and plants during evolutionary history, we have generated the first human cell line containing an Arabidopsis chromosome. The Arabidopsis chromosome was mitotically stable in hybrid cells following cell division, and initially existed as a translocated chromosome. During culture, the translocated chromosomes then converted to two types of independent plant chromosomes without human DNA sequences, with the reproducibility...
October 4, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Koog Chan Park, Minkyoung Lee, Yoon Jeon, Raok Jeon, Sung Hee Baek, Ho Lee, Keun Il Kim
The Mis18 proteins (Mis18α, Mis18β and M18BP1) are pivotal to the deposition of CENP-A at the centromere during cell cycle progression and are indispensable for embryonic development. Here, we show that Mis18α is critical for the proliferation of keratinocytes and stratification of the epidermis. Mice lacking Mis18α in the epidermis died shortly after birth, showing skin abnormalities like thin and translucent skin as well as defective skin barrier functions. The epidermis of newborn Mis18α-deficient mice lacked distinct stratification and mature hair follicles, with a reduction in the number of proliferating cells and increased cell death in the basal layer...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Qianhua Dong, Feng-Xiang Yin, Feng Gao, Yuan Shen, Faben Zhang, Yang Li, Haijin He, Marlyn Gonzalez, Jinpu Yang, Shu Zhang, Min Su, Yu-Hang Chen, Fei Li
CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone 3 variant essential for centromere specification. CENP-A partially replaces canonical histone H3 at the centromeres. How the particular CENP-A/H3 ratio at centromeres is precisely maintained is unknown. It also remains unclear how CENP-A is excluded from non-centromeric chromatin. Here, we identify Ccp1, an uncharacterized NAP family protein in fission yeast that antagonizes CENP-A loading at both centromeric and non-centromeric regions. Like the CENP-A loading factor HJURP, Ccp1 interacts with CENP-A and is recruited to centromeres at the end of mitosis in a Mis16-dependent manner...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cell
Yohei Niikura, Risa Kitagawa, Katsumi Kitagawa
CENP-A (Centromere protein A) is a histone H3 variant that epigenetically determines the centromere position, but the mechanism of its centromere inheritance is obscure. We propose that CENP-A ubiquitylation, which is inherited through dimerization between rounds of cell division, is a candidate for the epigenetic mark of centromere identity.
July 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Lori L Sullivan, Kristin A Maloney, Aaron J Towers, Simon G Gregory, Beth A Sullivan
Centromeres are defined by a specialized chromatin organization that includes nucleosomes that contain the centromeric histone variant centromere protein A (CENP-A) instead of canonical histone H3. Studies in various organisms have shown that centromeric chromatin (i.e., CENP-A chromatin or centrochromatin) exhibits plasticity, in that it can assemble on different types of DNA sequences. However, once established on a chromosome, the centromere is maintained at the same position. In humans, this location is the highly homogeneous repetitive DNA alpha satellite...
August 31, 2016: Chromosome Research
John R Weir, Alex C Faesen, Kerstin Klare, Arsen Petrovic, Federica Basilico, Josef Fischböck, Satyakrishna Pentakota, Jenny Keller, Marion E Pesenti, Dongqing Pan, Doro Vogt, Sabine Wohlgemuth, Franz Herzog, Andrea Musacchio
Chromosomes are carriers of genetic material and their accurate transfer from a mother cell to its two daughters during cell division is of paramount importance for life. Kinetochores are crucial for this process, as they connect chromosomes with microtubules in the mitotic spindle. Kinetochores are multi-subunit complexes that assemble on specialized chromatin domains, the centromeres, that are able to enrich nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant centromeric protein A (CENP-A). A group of several additional CENPs, collectively known as constitutive centromere associated network (CCAN), establish the inner kinetochore, whereas a ten-subunit assembly known as the KMN network creates a microtubule-binding site in the outer kinetochore...
August 31, 2016: Nature
Yuanyuan Kang, Jianbin Wang, Ashley Neff, Stella Kratzer, Hiroshi Kimura, Richard E Davis
The stability of the genome is paramount to organisms. However, diverse eukaryotes carry out programmed DNA elimination in which portions or entire chromsomes are lost in early development or during sex determination. During early development of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, 13% of the genome is eliminated. How different genomic segments are reproducibly retained or discarded is unknown. Here, we show that centromeric histone CENP-A localization plays a key role in this process. We show that Ascaris chromosomes are holocentric during germline mitoses, with CENP-A distributed along their length...
August 30, 2016: Cell Reports
Gülsah Pekgöz Altunkaya, Francesca Malvezzi, Zuzana Demianova, Tomasz Zimniak, Gabriele Litos, Florian Weissmann, Karl Mechtler, Franz Herzog, Stefan Westermann
Partitioning of the genome requires kinetochores, large protein complexes that mediate dynamic attachment of chromosomes to the spindle. Kinetochores contain two supramolecular protein assemblies. The ten-protein KMN network harbors key microtubule-binding sites in the Ndc80 complex and mediates assembly of checkpoint complexes via the KNL-1/Spc105 protein [1, 2]. As KMN does not contact DNA directly, it relies on different centromere-binding proteins for recruitment and cell-cycle-dependent assembly. These proteins are collectively referred to as the CCAN (constitutive centromere-associated network) [2-4]...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yohan Roulland, Khalid Ouararhni, Mladen Naidenov, Lorrie Ramos, Muhammad Shuaib, Sajad Hussain Syed, Imtiaz Nizar Lone, Ramachandran Boopathi, Emeline Fontaine, Gabor Papai, Hiroaki Tachiwana, Thierry Gautier, Dimitrios Skoufias, Kiran Padmanabhan, Jan Bednar, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Patrick Schultz, Dimitar Angelov, Ali Hamiche, Stefan Dimitrov
CENP-A is a histone variant, which replaces histone H3 at centromeres and confers unique properties to centromeric chromatin. The crystal structure of CENP-A nucleosome suggests flexible nucleosomal DNA ends, but their dynamics in solution remains elusive and their implication in centromere function is unknown. Using electron cryo-microscopy, we determined the dynamic solution properties of the CENP-A nucleosome. Our biochemical, proteomic, and genetic data reveal that higher flexibility of DNA ends impairs histone H1 binding to the CENP-A nucleosome...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Cell
Haiqing Zhao, David Winogradoff, Minh Bui, Yamini Dalal, Garegin A Papoian
Histone proteins are essential for the organization, expression, and inheritance of genetic material for eukaryotic cells. A centromere-specific H3 histone variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), shares about 50% amino acid sequence identity with H3. CENP-A is required for packaging the centromere and for the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis. Despite their distinct biological functions, previously reported crystal structures of the CENP-A/H4 and H3/H4 dimers reveal a high degree of similarity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chenshu Liu, Yinghui Mao
Accurate chromosome segregation in mammalian cells is guided by the centromere, a specialized chromosome region defined by the histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). It is not well understood how cells maintain CENP-A levels at centromeres while continuously going through genome replications and cell divisions. A MgcRacGAP-dependent small GTPase molecular switch has been shown as essential for centromeric CENP-A maintenance. By using quantitative imaging, pulse-chase and live cell analysis, a recent work has suggested that the diaphanous formin mDia2, a well-established small GTPase effector, functions downstream of this small GTPase pathway to maintain CENP-A levels at centromeres...
July 22, 2016: Small GTPases
Andrew W Grenfell, Rebecca Heald, Magdalena Strzelecka
Transcription at the centromere of chromosomes plays an important role in kinetochore assembly in many eukaryotes, and noncoding RNAs contribute to activation of the mitotic kinase Aurora B. However, little is known about how mitotic RNA processing contributes to spindle assembly. We found that inhibition of transcription initiation or RNA splicing, but not translation, leads to spindle defects in Xenopus egg extracts. Spliceosome inhibition resulted in the accumulation of high molecular weight centromeric transcripts, concomitant with decreased recruitment of the centromere and kinetochore proteins CENP-A, CENP-C, and NDC80 to mitotic chromosomes...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Jitendra Thakur, Steven Henikoff
Nucleosomes containing the CenH3 (CENPA or CENP-A) histone variant replace H3 nucleosomes at centromeres to provide a foundation for kinetochore assembly. CENPA nucleosomes are part of the constitutive centromere associated network (CCAN) that forms the inner kinetochore on which outer kinetochore proteins assemble. Two components of the CCAN, CENPC and the histone-fold protein CENPT, provide independent connections from the ∼171-bp centromeric α-satellite repeat units to the outer kinetochore. However, the spatial relationship between CENPA nucleosomes and these two branches remains unclear...
September 2016: Genome Research
Chin-Chi Chen, Barbara G Mellone
All eukaryotic genomes are packaged into basic units of DNA wrapped around histone proteins called nucleosomes. The ability of histones to specify a variety of epigenetic states at defined chromatin domains is essential for cell survival. The most distinctive type of chromatin is found at centromeres, which are marked by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. Many of the factors that regulate CENP-A chromatin have been identified; however, our understanding of the mechanisms of centromeric nucleosome assembly, maintenance, and reorganization remains limited...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
N Sekulic, B E Black
Centromeres are present on each chromosome to direct proper segregation during cell division. The understanding of how the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, epigenetically marks the location of the centromere on the chromosome has been advanced, in part, through the study of histone complexes, nucleosomes, and nucleosomal complexes with nonhistone centromere proteins. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of recombinant versions of these complexes. The methodology is firmly rooted in classic nucleosome reconstitution methods, but we highlight the aspects of the preparations that diverge from those used for the methods established with canonical histones...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
Federico Perosa, Elvira Favoino, Isabella Eleonora Favia, Serena Vettori, Marcella Prete, Addolorata Corrado, Francesco Paolo Cantatore, Gabriele Valentini
Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) who express autoantibodies to centromeric proteins (CENPs) are at risk of developing pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension without fibrosis. Currently no biomarkers are available to predict these complications. We previously characterized the fine specificity of anti-CENP-A antibodies in SSc by screening a phage display library (expressing random 12-mer peptides), and identified phage clones whose peptides were differentially recognized by patients' autoantibodies...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Adrian Streit, Jianbin Wang, Yuanyuan Kang, Richard E Davis
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential. However, programmed DNA elimination removes specific DNA sequences from the genome during development. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and diverse metazoa ranging from nematodes to vertebrates. Two distinct groups of nematodes use DNA elimination to silence germline-expressed genes in the soma (ascarids) or for sex determination (Strongyloides spp.). Data suggest that DNA elimination likely evolved independently in these nematodes. Recent studies indicate that differential CENP-A deposition within chromosomes defines which sequences are retained and lost during Ascaris DNA elimination...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kazuto Kugou, Hirohisa Hirai, Hiroshi Masumoto, Akihiko Koga
Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jun-Ichirou Ohzeki, Nobuaki Shono, Koichiro Otake, Nuno M C Martins, Kazuto Kugou, Hiroshi Kimura, Takahiro Nagase, Vladimir Larionov, William C Earnshaw, Hiroshi Masumoto
Centromere chromatin containing histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for accurate chromosome segregation as a foundation for kinetochore assembly. Human centromere chromatin assembles on a part of the long α-satellite (alphoid) DNA array, where it is flanked by pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatin spreads into adjacent chromatin and represses gene expression, and it can antagonize centromere function or CENP-A assembly. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between CENP-A assembly factor M18BP1 and acetyltransferase KAT7/HBO1/MYST2...
June 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
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